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i53-i57> Fifth Avenue 







The writer feels that no English book does justice to the 
natives of the Philippines, and this conviction has impelled 
him to publish his own more favourable estimate of them. 
He arrived in Manila with a thorough command of the 
Spanish language, and soon acquired a knowledge of the 
Tagal dialect. His avocations brought him into contact 
with all classes of the community — officials, priests, land- 
owners, mechanics, and peasantry : giving him an unrivalled 
opportunity to learn their ideas and observe their manners 
and customs. He resided in Luzon for fourteen years, 
making trips either on business or for sport all over the 
Central and Southern Provinces, also visiting Cebu, Iloilo, 
and other ports in Visayas, as well as Calamianes, Cuyos, 
and Palawan. 

Old Spanish chroniclers praise the good breeding of 
the natives, and remark the quick intelligence of the 

Recent writers are less favourable ; Caiiamaque holds 
them up to ridicule, Monteverde denies them the possession 
of any good quality either of body or mind. 

Foreman declares that a voluntary concession of justice 
is regarded by them as a sign of weakness ; other writers 
judge them from a few days' experience of some of the 
cross-bred corrupted denizens of Manila. 

Mr. Whitelaw Reid denounces them as rebels, savages, 
and treacherous barbarians. 

Mr. McKinley is struck by their ingratitude for American 
kindness and mercy. 


Senator Beveridge declares that the inhabitants of Min- 
danao are incapable of civilisation. 

It seems to have been left to French and German 
contemporary writers, such as Dr. Montano and Professor 
Blumentritt to show a more appreciative, and the author 
thinks, a fairer spirit, than those who have requited the 
hospitality of the Filipinos by painting them in the darkest 
colours. It will be only fair to exempt from this censure 
two American naval officers, Paymaster Wilcox and Mr. 
L. S. Sargent, who travelled in North Luzon and drew up 
a report of what they saw. 

As regards the accusation of being savages, the Tagais 
can claim to have treated their prisoners of war, both 
Spaniards and Americans with humanity, and to be fairer 
fighters than the Boers. 

The writer has endeavoured to describe the people as 
he found them. If his estimate of them is more favourable 
than that of others, it may be that he exercised more care 
in declining to do business with, or to admit to his service 
natives of doubtful reputation ; for he found his clients 
punctual in their payments, and his employes, workmen 
and servants, skilful, industrious, and grateful for benefits 

If the natives fared badly at the hands of recent authors, 
the Spanish Administration fared worse, for it has been 
painted in the darkest tints, and unsparingly condemned. 

It was indeed corrupt and defective, and what govern- 
ment is not .'' More than anything, it was behind the age, 
yet it was not without its good points. 

Until an inept bureaucracy was substituted for the old 
paternal rule, and the revenue quadrupled by increased 
taxation, the Filipinos were as happy a community as 
could be found in any colony. The population greatly 
multiplied ; they lived in competence, if not in affluence ; 
cultivation was extended, and the exports steadily in- 

The natives were secured the perpetual usufruct of the 


land they tilled, they were protected against the usurer, 
that curse of East and West. 

In guaranteeing the land to the husbandman, the " Laws 
of the Indies " compare favourably with the law of the 
United States regarding Indian land tenure. The Supreme 
Court in 1823 decided that "discovery gives the dominion 
of the land discovered to the States of which the discoverers 
were the subjects." 

It has been almost an axiom with some writers that no 
advance was made or could be made under Spanish rule. 

There were difficulties indeed. The Colonial Minister, 
importuned on the one hand by doctrinaire liberals, whose 
crude schemes of reform would have set the Archipelago 
on fire, and confronted on the other by the serried phalanx 
of the Friars with their hired literary bravos, was very 
much in the position of being between the devil and the 
deep sea, or, as the Spaniards phrase it " entre la espada y 
la pared." 

Even thus the Administration could boast of some 
reforms and improvements. 

The hateful slavery of the Cagayanes had been abolished ; 
the forced cultivation of tobacco was a thing of the past, 
and in all the Archipelago the corvee had been reduced. 

A telegraph cable connecting Manila with Hong Kong 
and the world's telegraph system had been laid and sub- 
sidized. Telegraph wires were extended to all the prin- 
cipal towns of Luzon; lines of mail steamers to all the 
principal ports of the Archipelago were established and 
subsidized. A railway 120 miles long had been built from 
Manila to Dagupan under guarantee. A steam tramway 
had been laid to Malabon, and horse tramways through 
the suburbs of Manila. The Quay walls of the Pasig had 
been improved, and the river illuminated from its mouth 
to the bridge by powerful electric arc lights. 

Several lighthouses had been built, others were in 
progress. A capacious harbour was in construction, 
although unfortunately defective in design and execu- 


tion. The Manila waterworks had been completed and 
greatly reduced the mortality of the city. The schools 
were well attended, and a large proportion of the popula- 
tion could read and write. Technical schools had been 
established in Manila and Iloilo, and were eagerly attended. 
Credit appears to be due to the Administration for these 
measures, but it is rare to see any mention of them. 

As regards the Religious Orders that have played so 
important a part scarcely a word has been said in their 
favour. Worcester declares his conviction that their in- 
fluence is wholly bad. However they take a lot of killing 
and seem to have got round the Peace Commission and 
General Otis. 

They are not wholly bad, and they have had a glorious 
history. They held the islands from 1570 to 1828, without 
any permanent garrison of Spanish regular troops, and from 
1828 to 1883 with about 1500 artillerymen. They did no 
entirely rely upon brute force. They are certainly no 
longer suited to the circumstances of the Philippines having 
survived their utility. They are an anachronism. But they 
have brought the Philippines a long way on the path of 
civilisation. Let us be just ; what British, French, or Dutch 
colony, populated by natives, can compare with the Philip- 
pines as they were till 1895 .? 

And what about American rule } It has begun unfor- 
tunately, and has raised a feeling of hatred in the natives 
that will take a generation to efface. It will not be enough 
for the United States to beat down armed resistance. A 
huge army must be maintained to keep the natives down. 
As soon as the Americans are at war with one of the Great 
Powers, the natives will rise ; whenever a land-tax is 
imposed there will be an insurrection. 

The great difference between this war and former in- 
surrections is that now for the first time the natives have 
rifles and ammunition, and have learned to use them. Not 
all the United States Navy can stop them from bringing 
in fresh supplies. Unless some arrangement is come to 


with the natives, there can be no lasting peace. Such an 
arrangement I believe quite possible, and that it could be 
brought about in a manner satisfactory to both parties. 

This would not be, however, on the lines suggested in 
the National Review of September under the heading, 
" Will the United States withdraw from the Philippines ? " 

Three centuries of Spanish rule is not a fit preparation 
for undertaking the government of the Archipelago. But 
Central and Southern Luzon, with the adjacent islands, 
might be formed into a State whose inhabitants would be 
all Tagals and Vicols, and the northern part into another 
State whose most important peoples would be the Pam- 
pangos, the Pangasinanes, the Ilocanos, and the Cagayanes ; 
the Igorrotes and other heathen having a special Protector 
to look after their interests. 

Visayas might form a third State, all the inhabitants 
being of that race, whilst Mindanao and Southern Palawan 
should be entirely governed by Americans like a British 
Crown Colony. 

The Sulu Sultanate could be a Protectorate similar to 
North Borneo or the Malay States. Manila could be 
a sort of Federal District, and the Consuls would be 
accredited to the President's representative, the foreign 
relations being solely under his direction. There should 
be one tariff for all the islands, for revenue only, treating 
all nations alike, the custom houses, telegraphs, post offices, 
and lighthouse service being administered by United States 
officials, either native or American. With power thus 
limited, the Tagals, Pampangos, and Visayas might be 
entrusted with their own affairs, and no garrisons need be 
kept, except in certain selected healthy spots, always 
having transports at hand to convey them wherever they 
were wanted. If, as seems probable, Mr. McKinley should 
be re-elected, I hope he will attempt some such arrange- 
ment, and I heartily wish him success in pacifying this 
sorely troubled country, the scene of four years continuous 


The Archipelago is at present in absolute anarchy, the 
exports have diminished by half, and whereas we used to 
travel and camp out in absolute security, now no white man 
dare show his face more than a mile from a garrison. 

Notwithstanding this, some supporters of the Adminis- 
tration in the States are advising young men with capital 
that there is a great opening for them as planters in the 

There may be when the Islands are pacified, but not 

To all who contemplate proceeding to or doing any 
business, or taking stock in any company in the Philippines, 
I recommend a careful study of my book. They cannot 
fail to benefit by it. 

Red Hill, Oct. 15/"//, 1900. 


The author desires to express his hearty thanks to all those 
who have assisted him. 

To Father Joaquin Sancho, S.J., Procurator of Colonial 
Missions, Madrid, for the books, maps and photographs 
relating to Mindanao, with permission to use them. 

To Mr. H. W. B. Harrison of the British Embassy, 
Madrid, for his kindness in taking photographs and 
obtaining books. 

To Don Francisco de P. Vigil, Director of the Colonial 
Museum, Madrid, for affording special facilities for photo- 
graphing the Anitos and other curiosities of the Igorrotes, 

To Messrs. J. Laurent and Co., Madrid, for permission 
to reproduce interesting photographs of savage and civilised 

To Mr. George Gilchrist of Manila, for photographs, and 
for the use of his diary with particulars of the Tagal insur- 
rection, and for descriptions of some incidents of which he 
was an eye-witness. 

To Mr. C. E. de Bertodano, C.E., of Victoria Street, 
Westminster, for the use of books of reference and for in- 
formation afforded. 

To Mr. William Harrison of Billiter Square, E.C., for 
the use of photographs of Vicols cleaning hemp. 

To the late Mr. F. W. Campion of Trumpets Hill, 
Reigate, for the photograph of Salacot and Bolo taken 
from very fine specimens in his possession, and for the 
use of other photographs. 


To Messrs. Smith, Bell and Co. of Manila, for the very 
complete table of exports which they most kindly supplied. 

To Don Sixto Lopez of Balayan, for the loan of the 
Congressional Record, the Blue Book of the 55th Congress, 
3rd Session, and other books. 

To the Superintendent of the Reading Room and his 
Assistants for their courtesy and help when consulting the 
old Spanish histories in the noble library of the British 


Abella, Enrique — ' Informes ' (Reports). 

Anonymous — ' Catdlogo Oficial de la Exposicion de Filipinas ' ; 
' Filipinas : Problema Fundamental,' 1887 ; ' Relacion de las 
Yslas Filipinas,' 1595; 'Las Filipinas se pierden,' a scurrilous 
Spanish pamphlet, Manila, 1841 ; 'Aviso al publico,' account of 
an attempt by the French to cause Joseph Bonaparte to be 
acknowledged King of the Philippines. 

Barrantes Vice7ite — * Guerras piraticas de Filipinas contra Mindanaos 
y Joloanos,' Madrid, 1878, and other writings. 

Becke, Louis — ' Wild Life in Southern Seas.' 

Bent, Mrs. Theodore — ' Southern Arabia.' 

Blanco, Padre — * Flora Filipina.' 

Bluvientritt, Projessor Ferdinand — ' Versuch einer Ethnographie der 
Philippinen ' (Petermans). 

Brantome, Abbd de — (In Motley's ' Rise of the Dutch Republic.') 

Cavada, Agustin de la — 'Historia, Geografica, Geologica, y estadistica 
de Fihpinas,' Manila, 1876, 1877. 

Centeno, Jose — ' Informes' (Reports). 

Clifford, Hugh — ' Studies in Brown Humanity,' ' In Court and 

Coniyn, Tonias de. 

Crauford, John — ' History of the Indian Archipelago,' Edinburgh, 
1820 ; ' Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands,' London, 

Cuming, E. D. — 'With the Jungle Folk.' 

Dampier, William — (from Pinkerton). 

De GuigJies — ' Voyage to Pekin, Manila, and Isle of France.' 

VUrville, Du^nont. 

Foreman, John — ' The Philippine Islands,' first and second editions. 

Garcilasso, Inca de la Vega — ' Comentarios Reales.' 

Gironierc, Paul de la — ' Vingt ans aux Philippines.' 

Jagor, F. — ' Travels in the Philippines.' 

Jesuits, Society of — ' Cartas de los P.P. de la C'*de Jesus de la mision 
de Filipinas,' Cuad' ix y x (1891-95) ; ' Estados Generales,' Manila, 
1896, 1897; 'Mapa Politica Hidrografica ' ; 'Piano de los 
Distritos 2° y 5° de Mindanao' ; ' Mapa de Basilan.' 

Mas, Sinibaldo de — * Informe sobre el estado de las Yslas Filipinas 
en 1842.' 


Montana, Dr. J. — 'Voyage aux Philippines,' Paris, 1886. 

Monteverdc, Colonel Federico de — ' La Division Lachambre.' 

Morga, Antonio de — ' Sucesos de las Yslas Filipinas,' Mejico, 1609. 

Motley, John Lothrop — 'Rise of the Dutch Republic' 

Navarro, Fr. Eduardo — ' Filipinas. Estudio de Asuntos de 
momento,' 1897. 

Nieto Jose — ' Mindanao, su Historia y Geographia,' 1894. 

Pali^rave, W. G. — 'Ulysses, or Scenes in Many Lands'; 'Malay 
Life in the Philippines.' 

Pctermann — ' Petermanns Mitth.', Erganzungsheft N' 67, Gotha, 1882, 

Pigafetta — 'Voyage Round the World,' Pinkerton, vol. ii. 

Prescott — ' Conquest of Peru.' 

Posewitz, Dr. Theodor — ' Borneo, its Geology and Mineral Resources.' 

Rathbone — ' Camping and Tramping in Malaya.' 

Reyes, Ysabelo dc los — Pamphlet. 

Rizal — ' Noli me Tangere.' 

St. John, Spenser — ' Life in the Forests of the Far East.' 

Torquemada, Fray Juan — ' Monarquia Indiana.' 

Traill, H. D. — ' Lord Cromer.' 

Vila, Fraticisco — ' Filipinas,' 1880, 

Wallace, Alfred R. — 'The Malay Archipelago.' 

Wingfield, Hon. Lewis — ' Wanderings of a Globe-trotter.' 

Worcester, Dean C. — ' The Philippine Islands and their People.' 

Yoiinghusband, Major — ' The Philippines and Round About.' 

Magazine Articles. 

Scribner {George F. Becker) — 'Are the Philippines Worth Having?' 
Blackwood {Anonymous) — 'The Case of the Philippines.' 
Tennie, G. Clafiin {Lady Cook) — ' Virtue Defined ' {New York 


President McKinley : To the loth Pennsylvania Regiment, Pittsburgh. 
Mr. Whitelaw Reid: To the Miami University, Ohio. 
Senator Hoar, in the Senate. 

Blue Book — 55th Congress, 3rd Session, Doc. No. 62, Part I. 






Extent, beauty and fertility of the Archipelago — Variety of 
landscape — Vegetation — Mango trees— Bamboos . . i-6 



Slight sketch of organization — Distribution of population — 

Collection of taxes — The stick ...... 7-13 



Moriones — Primo de Rivera — Jovellar — Terreros — Weyler — 

Despujols ......... 14-23 



Alcaldes — The Audiencia — The Guardia Civil — Do not 

hesitate to shoot — Talas ....... 24-30 



The murder of a Spaniard — Promptitude of the Courts — The 
case of Juan de la Cruz — Twelve years in prison waiting 
trial — Piratical outrage in Luzon — Culprits never tried; 
several die in prison ....... 31-47 






Corrupt officials — "Laws of the Indies" — Philippines a 
dependency of Mexico, up to 1800 — The opening of the 
Suez Canal — Hordes of useless officials — The Asimilistas — 
Discontent, but no disturbance — Absence of crime — Natives 
petition for the expulsion of the Friars — Many signatories 
of the petition punished ....... 48-56 



The Augustinians — Their glorious founder — Austin Friars in 
England — Scotland — Mexico — They sail with Villalobos for 
the Islands of the Setting Sun — Their disastrous voyage — 
Fray Andres Urdaneta and his companions — Foundation 
of Cebii and Manila with two hundred and forty other towns 
— Missions to Japan and China — The Flora Filipina — The 
Franciscans — The Jesuits — -The Dominicans — The Recollets 
— Statistics of the religious orders in the islands — Turbulence 
of the friars — Always ready to fight for their country — Furnish 
a war ship and command it — Refuse to exhibit the titles 
of their estates in 1689 — The Augustinians take up arms 
against the British — Ten of them fall on the field of battle 
— Their rectories sacked and burnt — Bravery of the arch- 
bishop and friars in 1820 — -Father Ibanez raises a battalion 
— Leads it to the assault of a Moro Cotta — Execution of 
native priests in 1872 — Small garrison in the islands — 
Influence of the friars ^ — -Their behaviour — Herr Jagor — 
Foreman — Worcester — Younghusband — Opinion of Pope 
Clement X.— Tennie C. Claflin — Equality of opportunity — 
Statesque figures of the girls — The author's experience of 
the Friars — The Philippine clerg)' — Who shall cast the first 
stone ! — Constitution of the orders — Life of a friar — May 
become an Archbishop — The Chapter .... 57-70 



Malinta and Piedad — Mandaloyan — San Francisco de Mala- 
bon — Irrigation works — Imus — Calamba — Cabuyao — Santa 
Rosa Biiian- San Pedro Tunasan — Naic — Santa Cruz — 


Estates a bone of contention for centuries — Principal cause 
of revolt of Tagals — But the Peace Commission guarantee 
the Orders in possession — Pacification retarded — Summary 
— The Orders must go ! — And be replaced by natives . 71-78 



Masonic Lodges — Execution or exile of Masons in 1872 — The 
"Asociacion Hispano Filipina" — The " Liga Filipina" — 
The Katipunan — Its programme ..... 79-S3 



Combat at San Juan del Monte — Insurrection spreading — 
Arrival of reinforcements from Spain — Rebel entrench- 
ments — Rebel arms and artillery — Spaniards repulsed from 
Binacdyan — and from Noveleta — Mutiny of Carabineros — 
Prisoners at Cavite attempt to escape — Iniquities of the 
Spanish War Office — Lachambre's division— Rebel organiza- 
tion — Rank and badges — Lachambre advances — He cap- 
tures Silang— Perez Dasmarinas — Salitran — Anabo II. . 84-96 


THE INSURRECTION OF 1 896-97 — Continued. 

The Division encamps at San Nicolas — Work of the native 
Engineer soldiers — The division marches to Sahtran — 
Second action at Anabo II. — Crispulo Aguinaldo killed — 
Storming the entrenchments of Anabo I.— Burning of Imus 
by the rebels — Proclamation by General Polavieja — 
Occupation of Bacoor — Difficult march of the division — 
San Antonio taken by assault — Division in action with all 
its artillery — Capture of Noveleta — San Francisco taken by 
assault — Heavy loss of the Tagals — Losses of the division 
— The division broken up — Monteverde's book — Polaveija 
returns to Spain — Primo de Rivera arrives to take his 
place — General Monet's butcheries — -The pact of Biak-na- 
Bato — The 74th Regiment joins the insurgents — The 
massacre of the Calle Camba — Amnesty for torturers — 
Torture in other countries ...... 97-108 



Manila Bay — The naval battle of Cavite — General Aguinaldo 
— Progress of the Tagals — The Tagal Republic — Who were 
the aggressors ? — Requisites for a settlement — Scenes of 
drunkenness — The estates of the religious orders to be 



restored — Slow progress of the campaign- — Colonel Fun- 
ston's gallant exploits — Colonel Stotsenburg's heroic death 
— General Antonio Luna's gallant rally of his troops at 
Macabebe — Reports manipulated — Imaginary hills and 
jungles — Want of co-operation between Army and Navy — 
Advice of Sir Andrew Clarke — Naval officers as adminis- 
trators — Mr. Whitelaw Reid's denunciations — Senator 
Hoar's opinion — Mr. McKinley's speech at Pittsburgh — The 
false prophets of the Philippines — Tagal opinion of American 
Rule — Scfior Mabini's manifesto — Don Macario Adriatico's 
letter — Foreman's prophecy — The administration misled — 
Racial antipathy — The curse of the Redskins — The recall of 
General Otis — ^McArthur calls for reinforcements — Sixty- 
five thousand men and forty ships of war — State of the 
islands — Aguinaldo on the Taft Commission . . 109-123 



Their fears of a corrupt government — The islands might be 
an earthly paradise — Wanted, the man— Rajah Brooke — 
Sir Andrew Clarke — Hugh Chfford — John Nicholson — 
Charles Gordon — Evelyn Baring — Mistakes of the Peace 
Commission — Government should be a Protectorate — 
Fighting men should be made governors — What might 
have been — The Malay race — Senator Hoar's speech — 
Four years' slaughter of the Tagals .... 124.- 128 




At the Spanish conquest — Rice — the lowest use the land can 
be put to — How the Americans are misled — Substitutes for 
rice — Wheat formerly grown — Tobacco — Compania General 
de Tabacos — Abacd — Practically a monopoly of the Philip- 
pines — Sugar — Coffee — Cacao — I ndigo — Cocoa-nut oil — 
Rafts of nuts— Copra — True localities for cocoa palm groves 
Summary — More sanguine forecasts — Common-sense view 139-138 



Value exaggerated — Difficulties of labour and transport — 
Special sawing machiner}' required — Market for timber in 
the islands — Teak not found — Jungle produce— Warning to 
investors in companies — Gutta percha . . . 139-142 





Gold: Dampier — Pigafetta — De Comyn — Placers in Luzon — 
Gapan — River Agno — The Igorrotes — Auriferous quartz 
from Antaniac — Capunga— Pangutantan — Goldpits at Suyuc 
— Atimonan — Paracale — Mambulao — ^Mount Labo — Surigao 
River Siga — Gigaquil, Caninon-Binutong, and Cansostral 
Mountains — Misamis — Pighoulugan — Iponan — Pigtao — 
Dendritic gold from Misamis — Placer gold traded away 
surreptitiously — Cannot be taxed — Spanish mining laws — 
Pettifogging lawyers— Prospects for gold seekers. Copper: 
Native copper at Surigao and Torrijos (Mindoro)— Copper 
deposits at Mancayan worked by the Igorrotes — Spanish 
company — Insufficient data — Caution required. Iron: Rich 
ores found in the Cordillera of Luzon — Worked by natives — 
Some Europeans have attempted but failed — Red hematite 
in Cebii — Brown hematite in Paracale — Both red and brown 
in Capiz — Oxydised iron in Misamis — Magnetic iron in San 
Mig-uel de Mayumo — Possibilities. Coal (so called) : Beds 
of lignite upheaved — Vertical seams at Sugud — Reason of 
failure — Analysis of Masbate lignite. Various minerals: 
Galena — Red lead — Graphite — Quicksilver — Sulphur 
Asbestos — Yellow ochre — Kaolin, Marble — Plastic clays — 
Mineral waters ....... 143-157 



Cigars and cigarettes — Textiles — Cotton — Abacd — Jusi — 
Rengue — Nipis — Saguran — Sinamdy — Guingon — Silk hand- 
kerchiefs — Piha — Cordage — Bayones — - Esteras — Baskets- 
Lager beer — Alcohol — Wood oils and resins — Essence of 
Ylang-ilang — Salt — Bricks — Tiles — Cooking-pots — Pilones 
— Ollas — Embroidery — Goldsmiths' and silversmiths' work 
— Salacots — Cocoa-nut oil— Saddles and harness — Carro- 
matas — Carriages — Schooners — Launches — Lorchas — 
Cascos — Pontines — Bangcas — Engines and boilers — Furni- 
ture — Fireworks — Lanterns — Brass Castings — Fish breeding 
— Drying sugar — Baling hemp — Repacking wet sugar — 
Oppressive tax on industries — Great future for manufactures 
— Abundant labour — Exceptional intelligence . . 158-16 



Philippines not a poor man's countrj- — Oscar F. Williams' 
letter — No occupation for white mechanics — American 
merchants unsuccessful in the East — Difficulties of living 

b 2 


amongst Malays — Inevitable quarrels — Unsuitable climate 
— The Mali-niali or Sakit-latah— The Traspaso de hambrc 
— Chiflados — Wreck of the nervous system — Effects of abuse 
of alcohol — Capital the necessity — Banks — Advances to 
cultivators — To timber cutters — To gold miners — Central 
sugar factories — Paper-mills --Rice-mills — Cotton-mills — 
Saw-mills — Coasting steamers — Railway from Manila to 
Batangas — From Siniloan to the Pacific — Survey for ship 
canal — Bishop Gainzas' project — Tramways for Luzon and 
Panay — Small steamers for Mindanao — Chief prospect is 
agriculture ........ 164-172 




{A Chapter for the Ladies^ 

Climate — Seasons — Terrible Month of May — Hot winds — 
Longing for rain — Burst of the monsoon — The Alimdom — 
Never sleep on the ground floor — Dress — Manila houses — 
Furniture — Mosquitoes — Baths — Gogo — Servants — Wages 
in 1892 — The Maestro cook — The guild of cooks — The 
Mayordomo — Household budget, 1892 — Diet — Drinks — 
Ponies — Carriage a necessity for a lady — The garden — 
Flowers — Shops — Pedlars ■ — Amusements — Necessity of 
access to the hills — Good Friday in Manila . . 1 73-1 87 



{A Chapter for Men.) 

The Jockey Club — Training — The races — An Archbishop pre- 
siding — The Totalisator or Pari Mutuel — The Manila Club 
— Boating club — Rifle clubs — Shooting — Snipe — Wild duck 
— Plover — Quail — Pigeons — Tabon — Labuyao, or jungle 
cock — Pheasants — Deer — Wild pig — No sport in fishing 188-191 






Irregular shape — Harbours — Bays — Mountain ranges— Blank 
spaces on maps — North-east coast unexplored — -River and 
valley of Cagayan — Central valley from Bay of Lingayen to 
Bay of Manila — Rivers Agno, Chico, Grande — The Pinag of 
Candaba — Project for draining — River Pasig— Laguna de 
Bay — Lake of Taal — Scene of a cataclysm — Collapse of a 
volcanic cone 8000 feet high — Black and frowning island 
of Mindoro — Worcester's pluck and endurance — Placers of 
Camarines — River Vicol — The wondrous purple cone of 
Mayon — Luxuriant vegetation. .... 192-200 


Description of their appearance, dress, arms, religioti, manners 
and customs, and the localities they inhabit, their agrictdtiire, 
industries and pursuits, with suggestions as to how they can 
be utilised, commercially atid politically.^ . With many un- 
published photographs of natives, their arfns, ornatnents, 
sepulchres and idols. 





Including Balugas, Dumdgas, Mamanuas, and Manguidnes 201-207 






Tagals (i) 208-221 



Pampangos (2) 238-245 


Zambales (3) — Pangasinanes (4)— Ilocanos (5) — Ibanags or 

Cagayanes (6) 246-253 

Igorrotes (7) 254-267 


Isinays (11) — Abacas (12) — Italones (13) — Ibilaos (14) — Ilon- 
gotes (15) — Mayoyaos and Silipanes (16) — Ifugaos (17) — 
Gaddanes (18)— Itetapanes (19) — Guinanes (20) . 268-273 


Calduas or Itaves (21)— Camuangas and Bayabonanes (22) — 
Dadayags (23) — Nabayuganes (24) — Aripas (25) — Calingas 
(26) — Tinguianes (27)— Adangs (28) — Apayaos (29) — Cata- 
langanes and Irayas (30-31) 274-282 

Catubanganes (32)— Vicols (33) 283-287 



Mestizos or half-breeds ...... 288-294 







Area and population — Panay — Negros — Cebu — Bohol — Leyte 
— Samar ........ 295-299 



Appearance — Dress — Look upon Tagals as foreigners — Favour- 
able opinion of Tomas de Comyn — Old Christians — Constant 
wars with the Moro pirates and Sea Dayaks — Secret heathen 
rites — Accusation of indolence unfounded — Exports of 
hemp and sugar — Ilo-ilo sugar — Cebu sugar — Textiles — A 
promising race ....... 300-306 



The Tagbanuas — Tandulanos — M anguianes — Negritos — 

Moros of southern Palawan — Tagbanua alphabet . 307-320 





Configuration — Mountains — Rivers — Lakes — Division into 
districts — Administration — Productions— Basilan . 321-330 




Visayas (i) [Old Christians] — Mamanuas (2)— Manobos (3; — 
Mandayas (4) — Mangudngas (5) — Montdses or Buquid- 
ndnes (6)— At4s or Ata-as (7)— Guiangas (8)— Bagobos (9) 331, 35 ' 



Calaganes (10) — Tagacaolos (11) — Dulanganes (12) — Tiru- 
raves (13) — Tagabelies (14) — Samales (15) — Vilanes (16) — 
Subanos (17) 352-360 



Illanos (18) — Sanguiles (19) — Lutangas (20) — Calibuganes (21) 
Yacanes (22) — Samales (23) 361-373 

Tagabduas (24) 374-375 

The Chinese in Mindanao. 

N.B. — The territory occupied by each tribe is shown on 
the general map of Mindanao by the number on this list. 


the political condition of MINDANAO, 1899. 

Relapse into savagery — Moros the great danger — Visayas the 
mainstay — Confederation of Lake Lanao — Recall of the 
Missionaries — Murder and pillage in Davao — Eastern Min- 
danao- — Western Mindanao — The three courses — Orphanage 
of Tamontaca — Fugitive slaves — Polygamy an impediment 
to conversion — Labours of the Jesuits — American Roman 
Catholics should send them help .... 376-388 




Chronological Table 389 

Table of Exports for twelve^Years . . . . 411 

Estimate of Population 415 

Philippine Budget of 1897 compared with Revknuk 

of 1887 416, 417 

Value of Land in several Provinces of Luzon . . 418 

List of Spanish and Filipino Words used in 

THE Work 419 

Cardinal Numbers in Seven Malay Dialects . . 422 


Portrait of the Author Frontispiece 

View on the Pasig with Bamboos and Canoe To face p. 6 
Facsimile of C^dula Personal ... „ 53 
Some of the rising generation in the Philip- 
pines „ 75 

Map of the Philippine Islands ... „ 150 

Group of women making Cigars ... „ 158 

Salacots and Women's Hats .... „ 160 

Author's office, Muelle Del Rey, ss. Salva- 

dora, and Lighters called "Cascos" . „ 161 

River Pasig, showing Russell and Sturgis's 

former office „ 166 

Tower of Manila Cathedral after the] 

Earthquakes, 1880 .... 
Suburb of Malate after a typhoon, October, \Betweenpp. 168-9 

1882, when thirteen ships were driven 

ashore .... 

Author's house at Ermita 
Fernery at Ermita. 
A Negrito from Negros Island 
A Manila Man. 
A Manila Girl. 
Tagal Girl wearing Scapulary 
Carabao harnessed to native Plough 

Ploughman, Village, and Church , 
Paddy field recently planted . . j 
Paulino Morillo, a Tagal of Laguna, 

to the author To face p. 229 

A Farderia, or Sugar Drying and Packing 

place „ 240 

. To face p. 177 

\ Between pp. 208-9 

. To face p. 216 

\Betweenpp. 226-7 


IGORROTE Spearmen and Negrito Archer 
Anitos of Northern Tribes . . . | 
Anitos of the Igorrotes. . . . f 
Coffin of an Igorrote Noble, with his 

Coronets and other Ornaments 
Weapons of the Highlanders of Luzon 
Igorrote Dresses and Ornaments, Water- 
Jar, Dripstones, Pipes, and Baskets 
Anitos, Highlands of Luzon . 
Anito of the Igorrotes . 
Igorrote Drums 

Tinguianes, Aeta, and Igorrotes 
VicoLS preparing Hemp : — 

Cutting the Plant 

Separating the Petioles 

Adjusting under the Knife 

Drawing out the Fibre 
VisAYAS Women at a Loom 
Lieut. P. Garcia and Local Militia of Ba- 


Atas from the Back Slopes of the Apo 
Heathen Guiangas, from the Slopes of the 


Father Gisbert, S.J., exhorting a Bagobo\ 
Datto and his Followers to Abandon 
their Custom of Making Human Sacri- 

The Datto Manib, Principal Bagani of the 
Bagobos, with some Wives and Followers 
and Two Missionaries 
The Moro Sword and Spear . 
MOROS OF the Bay of Mayo . 
Moro Lantacas and Coat of Mail 
Seat of the Moro Power, Lake Lanao 
Double-barrelled Lantaca of Artistic De- 
sign and Moro Arms .... 

To face p. 254 



„ 266 

„ 276 




„ 349 

\Betweenpp. 350-1 

To face p. 







Extent, beauty, and fertility of the Archipelago — Variety of landscape 
— Vegetation — Mango trees — Bamboos. 


The Philippine Archipelago, in which I include the Sulu 
group, lies entirely within the northern tropic ; the southern- 
most island of the Tawi-tawi group called Sibutu reaches 
down to 4° 38' N., whilst Yami, the northernmost islet of 
the Batanes group, lies in 21° 7' N. This gives an extreme 
length of 1 100 miles, whilst the extreme breadth is about 
680 miles, measured a little below the 8th parallel from the 
Island of Balabac to the east coast of Mindanao. 

Various authorities give the number of islands and islets 
at 1200 and upwards ; many have probably never been 
visited by a white man. We need only concern ourselves 
with the principal islands and those adjacent to them. 

From the hydrographic survey carried out by officers 
of the Spanish Navy, the following areas have been calculated 
and are considered official, except those marked with an 
asterisk, which are only estimated. 

Sq. Miles. Sq. Miles. 


JIl . . . . 

Babuyanes Islands 


Batanes Islands . 












Ticao . 





Total Luzon and adjacent islands . 50,242 



Sq. Miles. 

Sq. Miles. 

Brought forward 



Visayas, etc. 





Cebii . . . . 




Leyte .... 





* Mindanao .... 


'" Palawan and Balabac . 



Calamianes Islands . 



Area of principal islands 


The Spanish official estimate of the area of the whole 
Archipelago is 114,214 square miles f equivalent to 
73,000,000 acres, so that the remaining islands ought to 
measure between them something over 2000 square miles. 

Beauty and Fertility. 

Lest I should be taxed with exaggeration when I 
record my impressions of the beauty and potential wealth 
of the Archipelago, so far as I have seen it ; I shall 
commence by citing the opinions of some who, at different 
times, have visited the islands. 

I think I cannot do better than give precedence to the 
impressions of two French gentlemen who seem to me to 
have done justice to the subject, then cite the calm judg- 
ment of a learned and sagacious Teuton, and lastly quote 
from the laboured paragraphs of a much-travelled cos- 
mopolite, at one time Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at 

Monsieur Dumont D'Urville says : " The Philippines, 
and above all Luzon, have nothing in this world to equal 
them in climate, beauty of landscape, and fertility of soil. 
Luzon is the finest diamond that the Spanish adventurers 
have ever found. 

" It has remained uncut in their hands ; but deliver over 
Luzon to British activity and tolerance, or else to the 
laborious tenacity of the Dutch Creoles, and you will see 
what will come out of this marvellous gem." 

t England has 51,000 square miles area; Wales, 7378 j Ireland, 
31,759 ; Scotland, nearly 30,000. Total, Great Britain and Ireland, 
etc., 121,000 square miles. 


Monsieur de Guignes says: "Of the numerous colonies 
belonging to the Spaniards, as one of the most important 
must indisputably be reckoned the Philippines. Their 
position, their great fertility, and the nature of their pro- 
ductions, render them admirably adapted for active com- 
merce, and if the Spaniards have not derived much benefit 
from them, to themselves and to their manner of training 
is the fault to be ascribed." 

Herr Jagor, speaking of the Province of Bulacan, says 
the roads were good and were continuously shaded by 
fruit trees, cocoa and areca palms, and the aspect of this 
fruitful province reminded him of the richest districts in 
Java, but he found the pueblos here exhibited more comfort 
than the desas there. 

Mr. Gififord Palgrave says : " Not the ^gean, not the 
West Indian, not the Samoan, not any other of the fair 
island clusters by which our terraqueous planet half atones 
for her dreary expanses of grey ocean and monotonous 
desert elsewhere, can rival in manifold beauties of earth, 
sea, sky, the Philippine Archipelago ; nor in all that Archi- 
pelago, lovely as it is through its entire extent, can any 
island vie with the glories of Luzon." 

Variety of Landscape. 

If I may without presumption add my testimony to 
that of these illustrious travellers, I would say that, having 
been over a great part of South America, from Olinda Point 
to the Straits of Magellan, from Tierra del Fuego to 
Panama, not only on the coasts but in the interior, from 
the Pampas of the Argentine and the swamps of the Gran 
Chaco to where 

" The roots of the Andes strike deep in the earth 
As their summits to heaven shoot soaringly forth ; " 

having traversed the fairest gems of the Antilles and seen 
some of the loveliest landscapes in Japan, I know of no land 
more beautiful than Luzon, certainly of none possessing 
more varied features or offering more striking contrasts. 

Limestone cliffs and pinnacles, cracked and hollowed 
into labyrinthine caves, sharp basalt peaks, great ranges of 
mountains, isolated volcanic cones, cool crystalline springs, 
jets of boiling water, cascades, rivers, lakes, swamps, narrow 

B 2 


valleys and broad plains, rocky promontories and coral 
reefs, every feature is present, except the snow-clad peak 
and the glacier. 


Vegetation here runs riot, hardly checked by the devas- 
tating typhoon, or the fall of volcanic ashes. From the 
cocoa-nut palm growing on the coral strand, from the 
mangrove, building its pyramid of roots upon the ooze, to 
the giant bamboo on the banks of the streams, and the 
noble mango tree adorning the plains, every tropical 
species flourishes in endless variety, and forests of coni- 
fers * clothe the summits of the Zambales and Ilocan 

As for the forest wealth, the trees yielding indestructible 
timber for ships, houses or furniture, those giving valuable 
drugs and healing oils, gums and pigments, varnishes, 
pitch and resin, dyes, sap for fermenting or distilling, oil 
for burning, water, vinegar, milk, fibre, charcoal, pitch, 
fecula, edible fungi, tubers, bark and fruits, it would take a 
larger book than this to enumerate them in their incredible 

Mango Trees. 

A notable feature of the Philippine landscape is the 
mango tree. This truly magnificent tree is often of perfect 
symmetry, and rears aloft on its massive trunk and wide- 
spreading branches a perfect dome of green and glistening 
leaves, adorned in season with countless strings of sweet- 
scented blossom and pendent clusters of green and golden 
fruit, incomparably luscious, unsurpassed, unequalled. 

Beneath that shapely vault of verdure the featheied 
tribes find shelter. The restless mango bird f displays his 
contrasted plumage of black and yellow as he flits from 
bough to bough, the crimson-breasted pigeon and the ring- 
dove rest secure. 

These glorious trees are pleasing objects for the eye to 
rest on. All through the fertile valleys of Luzon they stand 
singly or in groups, and give a character to the landscape 
whit;h would otherwise be lacking. Only the largest and 

* Worcester, p. 446, mentions Conifers at sea level in Sibuyan 
Island, province of Romblon. 

t Called in Spanish the oropdndola {Brodcripus achrorchus). 


finest English oaks can compare with the mango trees in 
appearance ; but whilst the former yield nothing of value, 
one or two mango trees will keep a native family in comfort 
and even affluence with their generous crop. 


On the banks of the Philippine streams and rivers that 
giant grass, the thorny bamboo, grows and thrives. It 
grows in clumps of twenty, forty, fifty stems. Starting from 
the ground, some four to six inches in diameter, it shoots 
aloft for perhaps seventy feet, tapering to the thickness of 
a match at its extremity, putting forth from each joint 
slender and thorny branches, carrying small, thin, and 
pointed leaves, so delicately poised as to rustle with the 
least breath of air. 

The canes naturally take a gradual curve which becomes 
more and more accentuated as their diameter diminishes, 
until they bend over at their tops and sway freely in the 

I can only compare a fine clump of bamboos to a giant 
plume of green ostrich feathers. Nothing in the vegetable 
kingdom is more graceful, nothing can be more useful. 
Under the blast of a typhoon the bamboo bends so low 
that it defies all but the most sudden and violent gusts. If, 
however, it succumbs, it is generally the earth under it that 
gives way, and the whole clump falls, raising its interlaced 
roots and a thick wall of earth adhering to and embraced 
by them. 

Piercing the hard earth, shoving aside the stones with 
irresistible force, comes the new bamboo, its head emerging 
like a giant artichoke. 

Each flinty-headed shoot soars aloft with a rapidity' 
astonishing to those who have only witnessed the tardy 
growth of vegetation in the temperate zone. I carefully 
measured a shoot of bamboo in my garden in Santa Ana 
and found that it grew two feet in three days, that is, eight 
inches a day, \ inch per hour. I could see it grow. When I 
commenced to measure the shoot it was eighteen inches 
high and was four inches in diameter. This rapid growth, 
which, considering the extraordinary usefulness of the 
bamboo ought to excite man's gratitude to Almighty Provi- 
dence, has, to the shame of human nature, led the Malay 
and the Chinaman to utilise the bamboo to inflict death by 


hideous torture on his fellow men. (See TGkang Burok's 
story in Hugh Clifford's ' Studies of Brown Humanity.') 

Each joint is carefully enveloped by nature in a wrapper 
as tough as parchment, covered, especially round the edges, 
with millions of small spines. The wrapper, when dry, is 
brown, edged with black, but when fresh the colours are 
remarkable, pale yellow, dark yellow, orange, brown, black, 
pale green, dark green, black ; all shaded or contrasted in a 
way to make a Parisian dress designer feel sick with envy. 

This wrapper does not fall off till the joint has hardened 
and acquired its flinty armour so as to be safe from damage 
by any animal. 

It would take a whole chapter to enumerate the many 
and varied uses of the bamboo. 

Suffice it to say that I cannot conceive how the 
Philippine native could do without it. 

Everlastingly renewing its youth, perpetually soaring 
to the sky, proudly overtopping all that grows, splendidly 
flourishing when meaner plants must fade from drought, 
this giant grass, which delights the eyes, takes rank as one 
of God's noblest gifts to tropical man. 

( 7 ) 



Slight sketch of organization — Distribution of population — Collection 
of taxes — The stick. 

The supreme head of the administration was a Governor- 
General or Captain-General of the Philippines. The British 
Colonial Office has preserved this Spanish title in Jamaica 
where the supreme authority is still styled Captain-General 
and Governor-in-Chief. 

In recent years no civilian has been Governor-General 
of the Philippines, the appointment being given or sold to a 
Lieutenant-General, though in 1883 a Field-Marshal was 
sent out. But in 1874 Rear-Admiral Malcampo obtained 
the post, and a very weak and foolish Governor-General he 
turned out to be. 

In former times military men did not have a monopoly 
of such posts, and civilians, judges, priests, and bishops 
have held this appointment. 

The Governor-General had great powers. Practically, 
if not legally, he had the power of life and death, for he 
could proclaim martial law and try offenders by court- 
martial. He was ex officio president of every corporation 
or commission, and he could expel from the Islands any 
person, whether Spaniard, native, or foreigner, by a decree 
declaring that his presence was inconvenient. 

Slight Sketch of Organization. 

He could suspend or remove any official, and in fact was 
almost despotic. On the other hand he had to remember 
two important limitations. Unless he supported the reli- 
gious orders against all comers he would have the Procu- 
rators of these wealthy corporations, who reside in Madrid, 
denouncing him to the Ministry as an anti-clerical, and a 


freemason, and perhaps offering a heavy bribe for his 
removal. If he made an attempt to put down corruption 
and embezzlement in the Administration, his endeavours 
would be thwarted in every possible way by the officials, 
and a formidable campaign of calumny and detraction 
would be inaugurated against him. The appointment 
was for a term of three years at a salary of $40,000 
per annum, and certain very liberal travelling allowances. 

Since the earthquake of (1863 the official residence of 
the Governors-General was at Malacafian, on the River 
Pasig in the ward of San Miguel. This is now the resi- 
dence of the American Governor. He had a troop of 
native Lancers to escort him when he drove out, and a 
small corps of Halberdiers for duty within the palace and 
grounds. These latter wore a white uniform with red 
facings, and were armed with a long rapier and a halberd. 
They were also furnished with rifles and bayonets for use 
in case of an emergency. 

When the Governor-General drove out, every man 
saluted him by raising his hat — and when he went to the 
Cathedral he was received by the clergy at the door, 
and, on account of being the Vice-Regal Patron, was 
conducted under a canopy along the nave to a seat of 

His position was in fact one of great power and dignity, 
and it was felt necessary to surround the representative of 
the king with much pomp and state in order to impress the 
natives with his importance and authority. 

There was a Governor-General of Visayas who resided 
at Cebu, and was naturally subordinate to the Governor- 
General of the Philippines. He was usually a Brigadier- 

In case of the death or absence of the Governor-General, 
the temporary command devolved upon the Segundo Cabo, 
a general officer in immediate command of the military 
forces. Failing him, the Acting Governor-Generalship 
passed to the Admiral commanding the station. 

The two principal departments of the administration 
were the Intendencia or Treasury, and the Direction of 
Civil Administration. 

The Archipelago is divided into fifty-one provinces 
or districts, according .to the accompanying table and 


Distribution of Population. 





Abra ..... 




Albay . 




Antique . 




Baldbac . 




Batain . 








Benguet (district) . 




Bohol , 




Bontoc . 




Bulacdn . 




Bun'as . 




Cagaydn . 








Camarines Norte 




Camarines Sur 
















Corregidor (island of 

) • 








Ddvao . 




I locos Norte . 




Ilocos Sur 




Ilo-IIo . 




Infanta (district) 




Isabela de Basilan 




Isabela de Luzon 



38, 616 

Islas Batanes . 




Isla de Negros 




Laguna . 



' 32, 504 

Lepanto . 








Manila . 




Masbate and Ticao 




Mindoro . 




Misamis . 




M6rong . 




Nueva Ecija . 




Nueva Vizcaya 












Principe (district) 




Puerto Princesa 








Samar . 




Surigao . 




Tarlac . 




Tayabas . 




















The above figures are taken from the official census 
of 1877. 

This is the latest I have been able to find. 

In the Appendix is given an estimate of the population 
in 1890, the author puts the number at 8,000,000, and at 
this date there may well be 9,000,000 inhabitants in the 
Philippines and Sulus, 

It will be seen that these provinces are of very different 
extent, and vary still more in population, for some have 
only a few hundred inhabitants, whilst others, for instance, 
Cebu and Ilo-Ilo have half-a-million. 

Each province was under a Governor, either civil or 
military. Those provinces which were entirely pacified 
had Civil Governors, whilst those more liable to disturbance 
or attack from independent tribes or from the Moors had 
Military Governors. Up to 1886 the pacified provinces 
were governed by Alcaldes-Mayores, who were both 
governors and judges. An appeal from their decisions 
could be made to the Audiencia or High Court at Manila. 

From the earliest times of their appointment, the 
Alcaldes were allowed to trade. Some appointments 
carried the right to trade, but most of the Alcaldes had 
to covenant to forego a large proportion of their very 
modest stipends in order to obtain this privilege. By 
trade and by the fees and squeezes of their law courts they 
usually managed to amass fortunes. In 1844 the Alcaldes 
were finally prohibited from trading. 

This was a rude system of government, but it was cheap, 
and a populous province might only have to maintain half- 
a-dozen Spaniards. 

Each town has its municipality consisting of twelve 
pnncipales, all natives, six are chosen from those who have 
already been Gobernadorcillos. They are called past- 
captains, and correspond to aldermen who have passed the 
chair. The other six are chosen from amongst the Baran- 
gay headmen. From these twelve are elected all the 
officials, the Gobernadorcillo or Capitan, the ist, 2nd and 
3rd lieutenants, the alguaciles (constables), the judges of 
the fields, of cattle, and of police. The Capitan appoints 
and pays the directorcillo or town clerk, who attends to the 
routine business. 

For the maintenance of order, and for protecting the 
town against attack, there is a body of local police called 
Cjiadrilleros. These are armed with bolos and lances in 


the smaller and poorer towns, but in more important places 
they have fire-arms usually of obsolete pattern. But in 
towns exposed to Moro attack the cuadrilleros are more 
numerous, and carry Remington rifles. 

The Gobernadorcillos of towns were directly responsible 
to the governor of the province, the governor in case of 
emergency reported direct to the Governor-General, but 
for routine business through the Director-General of Civil 
Administration, which embraced the departments of Public 
Works, Inspection of Mines and Forests, Public Instruction, 
Model Farms, etc. 

The collection of taxes was under the governors of 
provinces assisted by delegates of the Intendant-General. 
It was directly effected by the Barangay headman each of 
whom was supposed to answer for fifty families, the in- 
dividuals of which were spoken of as his sdcopes. His 
eldest son was recognised as his chief assistant, and he, like 
his father, was exempt from the tribute or capitation tax. 

The office was hereditary, and was not usually desired, 
but like the post of sheriff in an English county it had to 
be accepted nolens volens. 

No doubt a great deal of latitude was allowed to the 
Barangay Chiefs in order that they might collect the tax, 
and the stick was often in requisition. In fact the chiefs 
had to pay the tax somehow, and it is not surprising that 
they took steps to oblige their sdcopes to pay. 

I, however, in my fourteen years' experience, never came 
across such a case as that mentioned by Worcester, p. 295, 
where he states that in consequence of a deficiency of 
$7000, forty-four headmen of Siquijor were seized and 
exiled, their lands, houses and cattle confiscated, and those 
dependent on them left to shift for themselves. The 
amount owing by each headman was under $160 Mexican, 
equal to $80 gold, and it would not take much in the 
way of lands, houses, and cattle to pay off this sum. How- 
ever, it is true that Siquijor is a poor island. But on 
page 284 he maintains that the inhabitants of Siquijor had 
plenty of money to back their fighting-cocks, and paid but 
little attention to the rule limiting each man's bet on one 
fight to $50. From this we may infer that they could find 
money to bet with, but not to pay their taxes. 


Collection of Taxes. 

Natives of the gorgeous East very commonly require a 
little persuasion to make them pay their taxes, and I have 
read of American millionaires who, in the absence of this 
system, could not be got to pay at all. Not many years 
ago, there was an enquiry as to certain practices resorted to 
by native tax-collectors in British India to induce the poor 
Indian to pay up ; anybody who is curious to know the 
particulars can hunt them up in the Blue Books — they are 
unsuitable for publication. 

In Egypt, up to 1887, or thereabouts, the "courbash " * 
was in use for this purpose. I quote from a speech by 
Lord Cromer delivered about that time (' Lord Cromer,' by 
H. D. Traill) : " The courbash used to be very frequently 
employed for two main objects, viz. : the collection of 
taxes, and the extortion of evidence. I think I may 
say with confidence that the use of the courbash as a 
general practice in connection either with collection of taxes 
or the extortion of evidence has ceased." 

But we need not go so far East for examples of collect- 
ing taxes by means of the stick. The headmen of the 
village communities in Russia freely apply the lash to 
recalcitrant defaulters. 

It would seem, therefore, that the Spaniards erred in 
company with many other nations. It was by no means 
an invention of theirs, and it will be remembered that some 
of our early kings used to persuade the Jqws to pay up by 
drawing their teeth. 

Its Good Points. 

The Government and the laws partook of a patriarchal 
character, and notwithstanding certain exactions, the 
Spanish officials and the natives got on very well together. 
The Alcaldes remained for many years in one province, and 
knew all the principal people intimately. I doubt if there 
was any colony in the world where as much intercourse 
took place between the governors and the natives, certainly 
not in any British colony, nor in British India, where the 
gulf ever widens. In this case, governors and governed 
professed the same religion, and no caste distinctions 

* A whip made from hippopotamus hide. 



prevailed to raise a barrier between them. They could 
worship together, they could eat together, and marriages 
between Spaniards and the daughters of the native land- 
owners were not unfrequent. These must be considered 
good points, and although the general corruption and 
ineptitude of the administration was undeniable, yet, bad 
as it was, it must be admitted that it was immeasurably 
superior to any government that any Malay community had 
ever established. 




Moriones — Primo de Rivera — Jovellar — Terreros — Weyler — 


During my residence in the Islands — from 1877 to 1892 — 
there were six Governors-General, and they differed very 
widely in character and ideas. 

The first was Don Domingo Moriones y Murillo, 
Marquis of Oroquieto, an austere soldier, and a stern 
disciplinarian. He showed himself to be a man of un- 
daunted courage, and of absolutely incorruptible honesty. 

When he landed in Manila he found that, owing to the 
weakness of Admiral Malcampo, his predecessor, the 
Peninsular Regiment of Artillery had been in open mutiny, 
and that the matter had been hushed up. After taking 
the oath of office, and attending a Te Deum at the 
Cathedral, he mounted his horse, and, attended by his 
aides-de-camp, rode to the barracks, and ordered the 
regiment to parade under arms. He rode down the ranks, 
and recognised many soldiers who had served under him 
in the Carlist wars. 

He then stationed himself in front of the regiment, and 
delivered a remarkable and most stirring oration. He said 
that it grieved him to the heart to think that Spanish 
soldiers, sent to the Philippines to maintain the authority 
of their king and country, many of whom had with him 
faced the awful fusillade of Somorrostro, and had bravely 
done their duty, could fall so low as to become callous 
mutineers, deaf to the calls of duty, and by their bad 
conduct tarnish the glory of the Spanish Army in the eyes 
of all the world. Such as they deserved no mercy ; their 
lives were all forfeited. Still he was willing to believe that 


they were not entirely vicious, that repentance and reform 
were still possible to the great majority. He would, there- 
fore, spare the lives of most of them in the hope that they 
might once more become worthy soldiers of Spain. But 
he would decimate them ; every tenth man must die. 

He then directed the lieutenant-colonel in command to 
number off the regiment by tens from the right. 

Let the reader ponder upon the situation. Here was a 
mutinous veteran regiment that for months had been the 
terror of the city, and had frightened the Governor-General 
and all the authorities into condoning its crimes. 

In front of it sat upon his horse one withered old man. 
But that man's record was such that he seemed to those 
reckless mutineers to be transfigured into some awful 
avenging angel. His modest stature grew to a gigantic 
size in their eyes ; the whole regiment seemed hypnotized. 
They commenced numbering. It was an impressive scene 
— the word ten meant death. The men on the extreme 
right felt happy ; they were sure to escape. Confidently 
rang out their voices : one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, 
eight, nine — then a stop. The doomed wretch standing 
next would not say the fatal word. Moriones turned his 
glance upon the captain of the right company, and that 
officer perceived that the crisis of his life had arrived, and 
that the next few seconds would make or mar him ; one 
instant's hesitation would cost him his commission. Drawing 
and cocking his revolver, he held it in front of the forehead 
of the tenth man, and ordered him to call out ten. Placed 
thus between the alternative of instant death or obedience, 
the unhappy gunner complied, and the numbering of the 
whole line was accomplished. The number tens were 
ordered to step out of the ranks, were disarmed, placed 
under arrest, and notified that they would be shot next 
morning. As regards the others, all leave was stopped, 
and extra drills ordered. Great interest was exerted with 
Moriones to pardon the condemned men, and he did com- 
mute the death sentence on most of them, but the ring- 
leaders were shot the following morning, others imprisoned, 
and fifty were sent back to Spain in the same vessel as 
Admiral Malcampo, whose pampering of them had ruined 
their discipline. So much for the courage of Moriones. It 
was a wonderful example of the prestige of lawful authority, 
but of course the risk was great. 

To him was due the construction of the Manila Water- 


works. A sum of money had been left a century before 
by Don Francisco Carriedo, who had been general of a 
galleon, to accumulate until it was sufficient to pay for 
the waterworks, which ought to have been begun years 
before. However, the parties who held these funds, like 
certain Commissioners we know of at home, had little 
desire to part with the capital, and it was only the deter- 
mination of General Moriones that triumphed over their 

Manila ought to be ever grateful to Moriones for this. 
He also tried to get some work out of the Obras Publicas 
Department, and, in fact, he did frighten them into exerting 
themselves for a time, by threatening to ship the Inspector- 
General of Public Works back to Spain, unless the Ayala 
bridges were completed on a certain day. 

But the greatest thing that Moriones did for the Philip- 
pines was when he prevented the sale of the Government 
tobacco-culture monopoly to some Paris Jews. Whilst he 
was staying at the Convent of Guadalupe he received a 
letter from Canovas, at the time Prime Minister of Spain. 
It informed him that a project was entertained of selling 
the Crown monopoly of the cultivation and manufacture of 
tobacco in the Philippines to a Franco-Spanish syndicate, 
and added, " The palace is very interested," meaning that 
the King and the Infantas were in the affair. It announced 
that a Commission was about to be sent by the capitalists 
to enquire into the business, and wound up by requesting 
Moriones to report favourably on the affair, for which 
service he might ask any reward he liked. The carrying 
out of this project meant selling the inhabitants of Cagayan 
into slavery. 

I had this information from a gentleman of unblemished 
truth and honour, who was present at the receipt of the 
letter, and it was confirmed by two friars of the Augustinian 
Order under circumstances that left no doubt upon my 
mind as to their accuracy. 

Although Canovas was at the time in the height of his 
power, and although the King was interested in the matter 
going through, Moriones indignantly refused to back up the 
proposal. He wrote or cabled to Canovas not to send out 
the Commission, for if it came he would send it back by 
the same vessel. He reported dead against the concession, 
and told the Prime Minister that he was quite prepared to 
resign, and return to Spain, to explain his reasons from his 


seat in the Senate. What a contrast this brave soldier 
made to the general run of men ; how few in any country 
would have behaved as he did ! 

This was not the only benefit Moriones conferred upon 
the tobacco cultivators of Cagayan, for he did what he 
could to pay off the debt owing to them by the Treasury. 

Primo de Rivera. 

The next Governor-General was Don Fernando Primo 
de Rivera, Marquis of Estella, and he was the only one 
with whom I was not personally acquainted. During the 
cholera epidemic of 1882, when 30,000 persons died in the 
city and province of Manila, he showed ability and firmness 
in the arrangements he made, and he deserves great credit 
for this. But corruption and embezzlement was rampant 
during his time. Gambling was tolerated in Manila and 
it was currently reported that twenty-five gambling houses 
were licensed and that each paid $50 per day, which was 
supposed to go to the Governor-General. Emissaries from 
these houses were stationed near the banks and mercantile 
offices, and whenever a collector was seen entering or 
leaving carrying a bag of dollars, an endeavour was made 
to entice him to the gambling table, and owing to the 
curious inability of the native to resist temptation, these 
overtures were too frequently successful. 

The whole city became demoralised, servants and 
dependants stole from their employers and sold the articles 
to receivers for a tenth of their value in order to try their 
luck at the gaming table. A sum of $1250 per day was 
derived from the gambling-houses and was collected every 

Notwithstanding all these abuses, Primo de Rivera 
maintained good relations with the natives ; he was not un- 
popular, and no disturbances occurred during his first govern- 
ment. He owed his appointment to King Alfonso XII., 
being granted three years' pillage of the Philippine Islands 
as a reward for having made \\vq. pronunciamctito in favour 
of that monarch, which greatly contributed to putting 
him upon the throne. He and his friends must have 
amassed an enormous sum of money, for scarcely a cent 
was expended on roads or bridges during his government, 
the provincial governors simply pocketed every dollar. 





He was succeeded by Field-Marshal Don Joaquim 
Jovellar, during- whose time the tribute was abolished and 
the Cedulas Personales tax instituted. Jovellar appeared 
to me to be a strictly honourable man, he refused the 
customary presents from the Chinese, and bore himself 
with much dignity. His entourage was, however, deplor- 
able, and he placed too much confidence in Ruiz Martinez, 
the Director of Civil Administration. The result was that 
things soon became as bad as in the previous governor's 
time. Jovellar was well advanced in years, being nearly 
seventy. He had many family troubles, and the climate 
did not agree with him. 

I remember one stifling night, when I was present at 
Malacaiian at a ball and water fete, given to Prince Oscar, 
a son of the King of Sweden. The Governor-General had 
hardly recovered from an illness, and had that day received 
most distressing news about two of his sons, and his 
daughter Doiia Rosita, who was married to Colonel 
Arsenio Linares, was laid up and in danger of losing her 

Yet in that oppressive heat, and buttoned up in the 
full dress uniform of a field-marshal, Jovellar went round 
the rooms and found a kind word or compliment for every 
lady present. I ventured to remark how fatigued he must 
be, to which he replied, " Yes, but make no mistake, a 
public man is like a public woman, and must smile on 

During his time, owing to symptoms of unrest amongst 
the natives, the garrison of Manila and Cavite was rein- 
forced by two battalions of marines. 


He was succeeded by Don Emilio Terrero y Perinat, a 
thorough soldier and a great martinet. I found him a kind 
and courteous gentleman, and deeply regretted the un- 
fortunate and tragic end that befel him after his return to 
Spain. I saw a good deal of Field-Marshal Jovellar and 
of General Terrero, having been Acting British Consul at 
the end of Jovellar's and the beginning of Terrero's Govern- 
ment I kept up my acquaintance with General Terrero 


all the time he was in the islands, and was favoured with 
frequent invitations to his table, where I met all the principal 

Things went on quietly in his time and there was 
little to record except successful expeditions to J0I6 and 
Mindanao, causing an extension of Spanish influence in 
both places. 


Terrero was succeeded by Don Valeriano Weyler, 
Marquis of Tenerifc, the son of a German doctor, born in 
Majorca, who brought with him a reputation for cruelties 
practised on the Cuban insurgents during the first war. 

Weyler was said to have purchased the appointment 
from the wife of a great minister too honest to accept 
bribes himself, and the price was commonly reported to 
have been ,330,000 paid down and an undertaking to pay 
the lady an equal sum every year of his term of office. 

Weyler is a small man who does not look like a soldier. 
He is clever, but it is more the cleverness of a sharp 
attorney than of a general or statesman. 

Curiously enough the Segundo Cabo at this time was 
an absolute contrast. Don Manuel Giron y Aragon, 
Marquis of Ahumada, is descended from the Kings of 
Aragon, and to that illustrious lineage he unites a noble 
presence and a charm of manner that render him instantly 
popular with all who have the good fortune to meet him. 
No more dignified representative of his country could be 
found, and I send him my cordial salutation wherever he 
is serving. 

During Weyler's term another expedition to Mindanao 
was made and some advantages secured. Some dis- 
turbances occurred which will be mentioned in another 
chapter, and secret societies were instituted amongst the 
natives. Otherwise the usual bribery and corruption con- 
tinued unchecked. 

There was a great increase in the smuggling of Mexican 
dollars from Hong Kong into Manila, where they were 
worth 10 per cent. more. The freight and charges amounted 
to 2 per cent, leaving 8 per cent, profit, and according to 
rumour 4 per cent, was paid to the authorities to insure 
against seizure, as the importation was prohibited under 
heavy penalties. 

C 2 


At this time I was Government Surveyor of Shipping, 
and one day received an order from the captain of the 
port to proceed on board the steamer Espana with the 
colonel of carbineers and point out to him all hollow places 
in the ship's construction where anything could be con- 
cealed. This I did, but remembering Talleyrand's injunc- 
tion, and not liking the duty, showed no zeal, but contented 
myself with obeying orders. The carbineers having searched 
every part of the ship below, we came on deck where the 
captain's cabin was. A corporal entered the cabin and 
pulled open one of the large drawers. I only took one 
glimpse at it and looked away. It was chock full of small 
canvas bags, and no doubt the other drawers and lockers 
were also full. Yet it did not seem to occur to any of the 
searchers that there might be dollars in the bags, and it 
was no business of mine. Nothing contraband had been 
found in the ship, and a report to that effect was sent in. 
I sent the colonel an account for my fee, which was duly 
paid from the funds of the corps. 

Weyler returned to Spain with a large sum of money, 
a far larger sum than the whole of his emoluments. He 
had remitted large sums in bills, and having fallen out with 
one of his confederates who had handled some of the 
money, this man exhibited the seconds of exchange to 
certain parties inimical to Weyler, with the result that the 
latter was openly denounced as a thief in capital letters in 
a leading article of the Correspo7idencia Militar of Madrid. 
Weyler's attorneys threatened to prosecute for libel, but 
the editor defied them and declared that ho held the 
documents and was prepared to prove his statement. The 
matter was allowed to drop. Weyler was thought to have 
received large sums of money from the Augustinians and 
Dominicans for his armed support against their tenants. 
It was said that the Chinese furnished him with a first- 
rate cook, and provided food for his whole household gratis, 
besides making presents of diamonds to his wife. And for 
holding back certain laws which would have pressed very 
hardly upon them, it was asserted that the Celestials paid 
him no less than $80,000. This is the man who afterwards 
carried out the rcconcentrado policy in Cuba at the cost of 
thousands of lives, and subsequently returning with a 
colossal fortune to Spain, posed as a patriot and as chief 
of the military party. 



To Weyler succeeded a man very dift'erent in appear- 
ance and character, Don Emilio Despujols, Coude de 

Belonging to an ancient and noble family of Catalonia, 
holding his honour dear, endowed with a noble presence 
and possessed of an ample fortune, he came out to uplift 
and uphold the great charge committed to him, and rather 
to give lustre to his office by expending his own means 
than to economise from his pay, as so many colonial 
governors are accustomed to do. He established his house- 
hold upon a splendid scale, and seconded by his distinguished 
countess, whose goodness and munificent charities will ever 
be remembered, he entertained on a scale worthy of a 
viceroy and in a manner never before seen in Manila. 

Despujols rendered justice to all. Several Spaniards 
whose lives were an open scandal, were by his order put 
on board ship and sent back to Spain. Amongst these 
was one who bore the title of count, but who lived by 

Another was a doctor who openly plundered the 
natives. Like a Mahometan Sultan of the old times, 
Despujols was accessible to the poorest who had a tale of 
injustice and oppression to relate. 

The news that a native could obtain justice from a 
governor-general flew with incredible rapidity. At last a 
new era seemed to be opening. A trifling event aroused 
the enthusiasm of the people. Despujols and his countess 
drove to the Manila races with their postillions dressed in 
shirts of Jusi and wearing silver-mounted salacots instead 
of their usual livery. I was present on this occasion and 
was struck with the unwonted warmth of the governor- 
general's reception from the usually phlegmatic natives. 
Despujols became popular to an extent never before 
reached. He could do anything with the natives. When- 
ever his splendid equipages appeared in public he received 
an ovation. Quite a different spirit now seemed to possess 
the natives. But not all the Spaniards viewed this with 
satisfaction ; many whose career of corruption had been 
checked, who found their illicit gains decreased, and the 
victims of their extortion beginning to resist them, bitterly 
criticised the new governor-general. 


The religious orders finding Despujols incorruptible and 
indisposed to place military forces at the disposal of the 
Augustinians and Dominicans to coerce or evict refractory 
tenants, then took action. Their procurators in Madrid 
made a combined attack on Despujols, both in the reptile 
press and by representations to the ministry. They 
succeeded, and Despujols was dismissed from office by 
cable. Rumour has it that the Orders paid $100,000 for 
Despujols's recall. For my own part I think this very 
likely, and few who know Madrid will suppose that this 
decree could be obtained by any other means. 

He laboured under a disadvantage, for he did not pay 
for his appointment as some others did. If he had been 
paying |l30,ooo a year to the wife of a powerful minister, 
he would not have been easily recalled. Or if, like another 
governor-general, he had been in debt up to the eyes to 
influential creditors, these would have kept him in power 
till he had amassed enough to pay them off. 

I am of opinion that had Despujols been retained in 
Manila, and had he been given time to reform and purify 
the administration, the chain of events which has now torn 
the Philippines for ever from the grasp of Spain would 
never have been welded. Whoever received the priests' 
money, whoever they were who divided that Judas-bribe, 
they deserve to be held in perpetual execration by their 
fellow-countrymen, and to have their names handed down 
to everlasting infamy. 

Despujols left Manila under a manifestation of respect 
and devotion from the foreign residents, from the best 
Spaniards and from every class of the natives of the 
Philippines, that might well go far to console him for his 
unmerited dismissal. He must have bitterly felt the in- 
justice with which he was treated, but still he left carrying 
with him a clear conscience and a harvest of love and 
admiration that no previous governor-general had ever 

For if Moriones manifested courage, energy and in- 
corruptible honesty under what would have been an 
irresistible temptation to many another man, that rude 
soldier was far from possessing those personal gifts, the 
fine presence and the sympathetic address of Despujols, 
and inspired fear rather than affection. 

Yet both were worthy representatives of their country ; 
both were men any land might be proud to send forth. 


Those two noble names are sufficient to redeem the Spanish 
Government of the Philippines from the accusation of being 
entirely corrupt, too frequently made against it. They 
deserve an abler pen than mine to extol their merits and 
to exalt them as they deserve above the swarm of pilferers, 
and sham patriots, who preceded and succeeded them. To 
use an Eastern image, they may be compared to two noble 
trees towering above the rank vegetation of .some poisonous 
swamp. For the honour of Spain and of human nature 
in general, I have always felt grateful that I could say that 
amongst the governors-general of the Philippines whom I 
had known there were at least two entitled to the respect 
of every honest man. 




Alcaldes — The Audiencia — The Guardia Civil — Do not hesitate to 
shoot — Talas. 

The foulest blot upon the Spanish Administration in all her 
former colonies was undoubtedly the thorough venality of 
her infamous Courts of Justice. Unfortunately, amongst the 
heterogeneous population of the Philippines, a low standard 
of morality prevails and has prevailed from the earliest 
times. The natives at the time of the conquest were partly 
civilised, so far as building houses and cultivating their 
lands by slave labour is concerned. But notwithstanding the 
assertions of the Filipinos, the late Dr. Rizal and others, 
a study of the ancient authors demonstrates that they were 
sunk in ignorance and superstition, and that their customs 
were those of semi-savages. When they came under the rule 
of the Spaniards, they might have made great advances if 
the administration of the laws had been confided to persons 
of honour capable of interpreting that wise code, the " Laws 
of the Indies," in the noble and Christian spirit which had 
inspired their makers 

But what class of man was it that the Spaniards 
appointed to this office .'' 

Thomas de Comyn, p. 134, says: "It is quite common 
to see a barber or footman of a governor, a sailor or a 
deserter, transformed into an Alcalde-Mayor, Sub-delegate, 
and War Captain of a populous province, without other 
counsel than his own rude intelligence (understanding) nor 
other guide than his passions." 

W^hat could be expected from such men as these, living 
in such an atmosphere .-' And if some solitary alcalde 
might cherish in his heart some spark of honour, some 
lingering love of justice, there were two elements in 


the country to extinguish that spark, to smother that 

Woe betide the alcalde who would decide a case, what- 
ever its merits, adversely to any one of the religious orders. 
I personally knew an alcalde who (at a great price) had 
obtained the government of the province of Batangas, from 
whence his immediate predecessor, also well-known to me, 
had retired with a large fortune, but leaving everybody 
contented so far as could be seen. He had kept on good 
terms with the priests. His successor unfortunately forgot 
this cardinal rule and allowed himself to be identified with 
some anti-clerical Spaniards. 

Every kind of trouble fell upon that man, and finally he 
was recalled to Manila and received a severe reprimand 
from General Primo de Rivera, who was said to have 
received $12,000 for turning him out. 

He was removed from wealthy Batangas and sent to the 
fever-stricken capital of Tayabas, a wretchedly poor Govern- 
ment, affording few opportunities for peculation. He escaped 
with his life, but his wife, a very charming Spanish lady, 
succumbed to the malaria. Similar instances of the results 
of being, or being thought to be, an anti-clerical, will occur 
to old residents in the Philippines. The arm of the Church 
was long and its hand was a heavy one. 

The second influence I referred to is the presence of the 
heathen Chinee in the islands. To a Chinaman the idea 
that a judge should take bribes seems as natural a thing as 
that a duck should take to the water. And yet the China- 
man will not, unless he knows he is on the right track, 
brutally push his bribe under the judge's nose. Either he 
or one of his countrymen will from the judge's arrival have 
rendered him good service. Does the judge want a gardener 
or cook ? Ah- sin soon provides an excellent one who never 
asks for his wages. Have some visitors arrived at the 
Alcadia } Ah-sin sends in a dozen chickens, a turkey, and 
the best fruits. Is it the judge's name-day ^ The wily 
Celestial presents a few cases of wine and boxes of fine 
cigars. Is the roof of the Alcaldia leaking — a couple of 
Chinese carpenters will set it right without sending a bill 
for it. Then, having prepared the way, should Ah-sin be 
summoned before the alcalde, he may confidently hope that 
his patron will not hurriedly give judgment against him, 
and that he will probably get a full opportunity to present 
substantial reasons why the suit should be decided in his 


favour. In fact, the practice of the alcalde's courts was 
only a shade better than that of the Chinese Yamens, 
where the different cases are put up to auction amongst 
the magistrates and knocked down to the highest bidders, 
who then proceed on a course of extortion, by arrest and 
by the torture of witnesses, to make ail they can out of 

In an alcalde's court, there would be several mestizo 
or native writers or auxiliaries. Some of them were what 
is called uieritorios, that is, unpaid volunteers. Of course, 
they expect to receive gratuities from the suitors and would 
take care to mislay their documents if they were neglected. 
Sometimes the alcalde was so lazy that he left the whole 
matter in the hands of his subordinates and signed what- 
ever they laid before him. I have been a witness of this, 
and have even remonstrated with a judge for so doing. 
He, however, said he had the greatest confidence in his 
subordinates and that they dare not deceive him. 

Bad as the alcalde's courts were, I think that the cul- 
minating point of corruption was the Audiencia of Manila. 
Escribano, abogado, jiiez, auditor, fiscal, vied with each 
other in showing that to them, honour and dignity were 
mere empty words. They set the vilest examples to the 
mestizos and natives, and, unfortunately, these have been 
only too apt pupils, and having little to lose, were often 
ready to go one better than the Spaniards, who after all 
had to keep up appearances. I cannot adequately express 
the loathing I feel for all this tribe. I look upon a high- 
wayman as a gentleman compared to them, for he does risk 
his life, and you may get a shot at him, but these wretches 
ruin you in perfect safety. 

They dress their wives, they nourish their children, 
upon the reward of roguery, the price of perjury, the fruits 
of forgery, the wages of some wicked judgment. 

What can be expected of the spawn of these reptiles, 
what but by the process of evolution to be more envenomed 
than their progenitors } Is there not amongst all the 
multitudinous Philippines some desert island where the 
people trained in the Spanish courts and all their breed 
could be deported, where they might set up a court, and 
bring actions against each other and cheat and lie and forge 
till they die t 

What a Godsend for the Philippines were this possible, 
if besides getting rid of the Spanish judges, they could now 


get rid of tlieir aiders and abettors, their apt pupils and 
would-be successors. 

Bribery is a fine art, and there were those in Manila 
who were well versed in its intricacies. We heard one day 
of a decree by a judge against the Hong Kong and Shanghai 
Banking Corporation. Club gossip asserted that the judge 
who issued the decree had lost some hundreds of dollars at 
the gambling table of the Casino the night before, and that 
the artistic corrupter had called on him in the morning with 
the means to pay the debt of honour and to try his luck 
again. The judge was known not to have the means of 
paying, yet he paid and simultaneously issued his decree. 
Old Manila hands drew their inference. 

The record of these courts from the earliest times is one 
long-continued infamy. Thank God that is over and a new 
chapter has begun. I rejoice exceedingly that their sins 
have at last overtaken them, and I recognise that, though 

" The mills of God grind slowly, 
Yet they grind exceeding small." 

Owing to the demoralisation of the mestizo and native 
lawyers by these vile examples, it will be very difficult to 
break the traditions of venality and to find men worthy to 
occupy the bench. 

These courts were not only corrupt, but they were 
inept. At a time when brigandage prevailed and many 
notorious criminals were apprehended almost red-handed, 
convictions could not be got, and the bandits were liberated 
on various pretexts. 

So great was the scandal that Morioncs issued a decree 
that all persons accused of gang-robbery should be tried by 
a military tribunal. And he appointed a permanent court- 
martial for this purpose, to the great disgust of all the 
lawyer element. These courts were abolished some years 
later after his return to Spain ; then the Guardia Civil made 
their own arrangements, and the mortality amongst bandits 
was excessive. When some well-known robber was by any 
chance taken alive, he always, so they said, tried to escape 
by running away from his captors, and this obliged them to 
fire upon him. They never missed on these occasions, and 
it was thought that the range never exceeded ten paces 
and was often less. 

However necessary this military action may be, it is, 


undoubtedly liable to abuse, and the power of life and 
death is a great one to put in the hands of a junior officer 
or non-commissioned officer of police. The Guardia Civil, 
an armed force with Spanish officers and native soldiers, 
was organised in 1867, and I must say that I looked upon 
it as an excellent institution, the terror of evil-doers and a 
protection to all law-abiding people. My native friends, 
however, are of a different opinion. They accuse the 
Guardia Civil, both Spaniards and natives, of behaving in 
an arbitrary and cruel manner, and with practising extortion 
upon defenceless natives. They are accused of torturing 
witnesses to extort evidence, and this charge was no doubt 
true in many cases, 

On the other hand, the bandits or tulisanes were exter- 
minated by this corps of picked men, and security to life 
and property was assured. At the formation of this corps 
the officers and men were very carefully selected. The 
Governor-General himself examined the records of every 
officer, and only Spanish gentlemen of the highest character 
were appointed. Similarly the soldiers were natives who 
had served their time in the army without having a crime 
noted against them. But in later years this precaution w^as 
relaxed, and colonels of regiments were allowed to dump 
their rubbish into this corps. 

I knew of a case where a Filipino with Irish blood in 
him was posted as a lieutenant to this corps and behaved 
most abominably. I am glad to say, however, that he was 
sent out of the islands. This was only another instance of 
the fact that whatever the natives have to complain of the 
Spaniards, the mestizos, and their own rich people, treat 
them and have always treated them far worse. 

Both officers and men were well paid and were dressed 
in a very smart and neat uniform, well suited to the climate, 
which they kept spick and span whatever sei^vice they were 
on. They were armed with Remington rifles and bayonets, 
and in addition carried a heavy chopping knife. They were 
posted at all the chief towns of Luzon and in some of the 
Visayas Islands. The greatest crime a native could com- 
mit was to kill a Guardia Civil, and such a matter never 
came before a Civil Court. If the slayer by any chance 
was not killed on the spot, he would probably be shot at 
sight. If apprehended, he would be tried by a court- 
martial composed of officers of the Guardia Civil, and, 
needless to say, there would be no monkeying with the 


verdict nor with the sentence, which would be promptly 
carried out. 

Even to resist the Guardia Civil was so great a crime 
that the sentence of a court-martial in such a case was 
penal servitude for life (Cadena Perpetua). 

How surprised a London rough would be at this 
severity after being accustomed to expiate the most brutal 
assaults upon the police by a fine of a few shillings. 

To sum up the Guardia Civil, I may say that their 
practice was comprised in five memorable words, addressed to 
a similar corps by Mr. A. J. Balfour in his energetic days, a 
most sensible order, that he may well be proud of : "Do 
not hesitate to shoot." 

Amongst other duties of the Guardia Civil in bygone 
years was the making of periodical expeditions against the 
7'einontados and the hill tribes, officially designated Talas, 
or cuttings down. 

At certain favourable seasons of the year, especially 
before harvest time, the Guardias, accompanied by some 
Cuadrilleros, and on important occasions by a company of 
native infantry, marched up into the more accessible hills. 

The hill-men obstructed the tracks in the most difficult 
places by cutting down trees and making abattis. 

They also placed sharp bamboo spikes carefully con- 
cealed in the earth or mud of the footpaths, and these, if 
trodden on, inflicted most dangerous wounds that were apt 
to gangrene. Sometimes if they had much at stake, the 
hill-men or outlaws would venture an ambuscade, and hurl 
their javelins or send a flight of arrows amongst their 

But even the boldest races rarely came to close quarters, 
for their weapons were no match against rifles and bayonets. 
So, led by their spies, the Spanish forces laboured upwards, 
and on arriving at the hamlets of the mountaineers or 
outlaws they burnt down the rude huts, reaped the crops, 
taking away what they could and burning the remainder. 

They cut down every fruit tree and took special care to 
destroy every tobacco plant. They then retired, leaving a 
scene of devastation behind them. 

If any of the hill-men fell into their hands their fate 
depended upon whether there were any murders to avenge 
or upon the humanity of the officer in command. This 
wanton destruction was committed chiefly in the interests of 
the tobacco monopoly, but also in order to force the hill- 


men to come down and reside in the towns. It had, 
however, an entirely contrary effect, for the savages either 
retired into more inaccessible regions, or })erhaps abandoned 
cultivation and lived a roving, marauding life like the 
Itetapanes and Catubanganes. 

Since the abolition of the tobacco monopoly the Talas 
have been less frequent, and there was a feeling amongst 
the authorities that these cruel and demoralising expe- 
ditions should be discontinued, unless in cases where the 
hill-men had given great provocation. 

The Spaniards are, of course, not the only nation to 
make these forays. In the last campaign against the 
Afridis the British troops were employed, under orders, to 
blow up the houses, break the mill-stones, and cut down 
the trees of the enemy, not even sparing the shade trees 
round a mosque. It was probably the only way to inflict 
punishment on the Afridis. 

The worst feature is that in all such cases a crop of 
bitter hatred is sown in the hearts of the sufferers, which 
matures later on, and which is handed down from one 
generation to another. 

( 31 ) 



The murder of a Spaniard — Promptitude of the Courts — The case of 
Juan de la Cruz — Twelve years in prison waiting trial — Piratical 
outrage in Luzon — Culprits never tried ; several die in prison. 

The penal code of the Philippines, which came into force in 
1884, declares it impossible to consider as an aggravation 
of an offence the circumstance of colour or race in the 
offender, for the criminal is to be punished for his crime 
and not for the condition of inferiority to which nature has 
condemned him. 

It goes on to say that on the other hand his condition 
should not be allowed to attenuate the sentence, for that 
would constitute an odious privilege, an unbearable in- 

It therefore proudly proclaims the equality of all races 
before the law. These are noble words ; we shall see how 
they work out in practice. 

The case of Juan de la Cruz shows us that a criminal 
investigation can drag on for twelve years without coming 
on for trial when the victims are natives and of lowly 
station. I could cite cases where the victims were British 
subjects, and the murderers were never punished, and 
another case where a Frenchman was the victim. The 
murderer in this case was to have been pardoned by the 
Governor-General, but the French consul threatened to 
haul down his flag and leave the islands unless the assassin 
was executed ; and he was executed, the consul attending 
to see the sentence carried out. 

The British Foreign Office does not encourage its 
agents to such energetic acts. To obtain the good graces 
of the Foreign Office a consul should be devoid of talent or 
originality. Mediocrity is the condition sought for. It is 
never advisable for one of Her Britannic Majesty's consuls 


to be active in protecting Her Britannic Majesty's subjects. 
What he must aim at if he wishes for consideration and 
promotion is to give the Foreign Office no trouble. The 
ideal consul would be he who is only heard of once a 
quarter, when he certifies that he is alive, and asks that 
his salary may be paid. 

I will relate a murder that made an impression on me 
at the time, where the victim was a Spaniard. In June of 
1 88 1, I was at Santa Cruz in the Laguna Province for 
several days, making experiments with some patent 
centrifugals, steaming and diying the fine Laguna sugar. 
Quite close to the camarin, where the machines were at 
work, lived an elderly Spaniard who was a government 
employe in some subordinate position. I think he was 
the Subdelegado de Hacienda, or sub-provincial treasurer. 
I had once or twice called upon the old gentleman, whose 
appearance and manners were above his official rank, and 
had been politely received by him. On completing my 
experiments, I called to take leave of him, and was sorry 
to find him suffering from fever, and veiy weak. 

I returned to Manila, and next day was horrified to 
read in a newspaper that he had been murdered in the 
night by his two servants. This atrocious crime, committed 
on a helpless and infirm old man, with every circumstance 
of premeditation and barbarity, and with the object of 
robbery, roused the indignation of every European. The 
culprits were soon apprehended, and such expedition was 
used by the Promoter Fiscal and the court, that within a 
week from the perpetration of the murder the two servants 
were garrotted on a scaffold erected near the scene of their 
barbarous crime. 

Such is the rapidity with which the Philippine courts 
could act when a Spaniard was the victim and when public 
opinion was deeply stirred by some shocking tragedy. 

The case of Juati de la Crii". 

The following narrative of events, which occurred in 
1886, will give the reader a good idea of the furious 
passions that may lurk under the inscrutable features of 
the Philippine Malay, and will also ser\'e to illustrate the 
procedure of the Spanish criminal courts when the victims 
are natives and when nothing can be made out of the case. 


Four of the five actors or victims in the tragedy were well 
known to me, and I learned all the particulars at first hand 
and at the time, from those who took steps to deliver over 
the culprit to justice. 

The decked steam launch Lagnimanoc belonged to 
Gustav Brown, a ship carpenter, and was hired by the 
Varadero, or Slipway Company of Caiiacao, near Cavite, to 
keep up communication with Manila, whilst the slip was 
being constructed. 

I was consulting engineer to the company, and Mr. 
J. L. Houston was the resident engineer in charge of the 
work. Both of us made frequent voyages in this launch 
between Caiiacao and Manila. The crew consisted of a 
patron (coxswain) named Juan de la Cruz, an engine-driver, 
a stoker, and a boy, all Tagals. 

Juan de la Cruz was an elderly man with grey hair, and 
in figure thin and wiry. He was a good man at his duty, 
one of the silent Indians whom I have always found to be 
the best. A thorough sailor, he had served under many 
a flag, and sailed o'er many a sea, both in tropic and in 
northern climes. 

The engine-driver and the stoker were brothers, strong 
and well-built young fellows, and smart at their work. The 
boy was an active lad, quite pleased to be employed on a 

One day, the stoker, going through the blacksmith's 
shop, saw a piece of square steel, which had been cut off a 
long bar, lying on the floor, and it struck him that it would 
be better than a hammer for breaking coal. So he annexed 
it without leave, and got one end drawn out and rounded 
so that he could easily hold it. This made a very efficient 
coal-breaker, the sharp edges divided the lumps with great 
ease. It was about eighteen inches long, and one and three- 
quarter inches square. The patron was married, and his 
wife lived in Manila, but, sailor-like, he had provided 
himself with a sweetheart, at the other end of his run, 
where he spent more time than in the Pasig, and had 
become intimate with a damsel of San Roque, a village 
between the Varadero and Cavite. Things went on 
apparently all right for some time ; the launch making 
almost daily trips between Caiiacao and Manila, and the 
elderly patron alternating between the conjugal domicile 
and the dwelling of his mistress. She was young, and, as 
native girls go, a pretty woman. Come of a strange and 



unknown mixture of races, and bred up amongst a com- 
munity noted for its profligacy, she knew how to make the 
best use of her charms and was well fitted to captivate the 
weather-beaten seaman. 

He, if not desirable in himself, held a well paid post, 
and was able to place her above want. 

Already fifty years old, he was as susceptible as a youth 
and far more in earnest. Day by day, as he basked in her 
smiles, his infatuation increased till he became violently 
enamoured of his charmer. 

What could be more natural than that the crew of 
the launch should become acquainted with the patron's 
mistress .'' Soon the engine-driver and the stoker were her 
constant visitors. The damsel had a kind word and a 
smile for both, and doubtless contrasted their vigorous 
youth and shapely forms with the shrunken figure of her 
elderly protector, and their lively conversation with his 
glum silence. 

In the end, no doubt, the damsel refused them nothing. 
Trouble was now brewing. The grim sailor was not 
the to let himself be wronged with impunity. All the 
elements of a tragedy were present. Things no longer 
went smoothly on board the Lagiiimanoc, and her voyages 
lost their regularity. Something was perpetually going 
wrong with the engines, pieces or fittings disappeared 
unaccountably, usually pieces of copper or brass. The 
engine-driver was blamed, but he succeeded in averting his 
impending discharge, Could he have foreseen the con- 
sequences of remaining, he would have promptly discharged 

On board the launch mutual distrust prevailed. The 
engine-driver must have known that it was the patron who 
had thrown overboard the fittings in his absence, hoping to 
get him discharged, but he held his peace. 

The silent figure at the tiller made no sign ; no trace 
of emotion could be seen on the Sphinx-like face, no 
reproaches passed his lips, not the slightest manifestation 
of resentment. But underneath that imperturbable calm 
there existed the steadfast determination to have a full 
and bloody revenge on all who had offended him. The 
Laguimanoc made a voyage to Manila one Saturday to 
take up the resident engineer who often spent his Sundays 
there, the launch remaining in the river. On Monday 
morning when he came down to the launch he found that 


the safety valve was missing from its seat, and was delayed 
till another could be procured. 

No explanations of the loss of this piece could be got, 
and the Lag7iii)ianoc proceeded with the resident engineer 
to Cafiacao and made fast to the jetty. 

A crisis was now reached. The abstraction of the 
safety-valve could not be overlooked, and some one would 
have to go. An inquiry was to be made, but on Tuesday 
morning the patron walked up the jetty, and reported to 
Mr. Gustav Brown, who was the foreman of the works, that 
the engine-driver and stoker were absent. He stated that 
they had gone ashore in the night, and had not returned. 
Nothing could be learned about them ; nobody had seen 
them ; their kits were still on board. As the day wore on 
they did not come nor send any message ; so a report of their 
disappearance was sent to the judge at Cavite. 

An engine-fitter from the works was sent on board to 
take charge of the engine, and another stoker was engaged ; 
the launch resuming her running. The work of the Vara- 
dero proceeded as usual ; divers were preparing the 
foundations to receive the immense gridiron which was 
shortly to be launched and sunk in place. It was a busy 
scene of organised labour under a skilful resident engineer ; 
every difficulty foreseen and provided for, materials de- 
livered in good time, notwithstanding obstructions ; not an 
unnecessary auger-hole bored, not a stroke of an adze 
thrown away. 

From the Sleepy Hollow of the naval arsenal opposite 
jealous eyes watched the work proceed. Every art of 
vexation and obstruction that bitter envy could devise had 
for years been employed to prevent the building of this 
slip, and onerous and unfair conditions had been inserted 
in the concession. But Anglo-American persistence and 
industry had succeeded so far, and in the hands of Messrs. 
Peel, Hubbell & Co. and their advisers, the work was now 
well advanced. 

The obsolete corvette Dona Maria Molina was moored 
off the coaling-wharf adjoining the Varadero, and when one 
of her boats was going on shore the sailors noticed two 
dead bodies floating in the water, and reported this to the 
officer of the watch, who ordered them to tow the bodies 
to the shore towards Punta Sangley, and drag them up on 
the sand above high-water mark. The bodies were lashed 
together with a piece of new rope having a blue strand in 

D 2 


the centre, and had a ^ood-sized piece of white granite 
attached as a sinker. On looking at the lashings no one 
could doubt that the work had been done by an able 
seaman. The bodies presented ghastly wounds, both had 
fractures of the skull, and gaping cuts on the throat and 
abdomen ; they had also been gnawed by fishes. The 
swelling of the bodies had sufficed to bring them to the 
surface, stone and all. 

The news of the finding of the corpses did not imme- 
diately reach the Varadero, and they were conveyed to 
Cavite, and buried just as they were found, tied together 
with the ropes and stone, without being identified. It 
seemed nobody's business to trouble about them, notwith- 
standing the evident fact that they had been murdered. 
The Manila newspapers did not mention the circumstance. 

But at this time other events happened. The patron of 
the launch disappeared without taking his kit with him. 
Then the boy disappeared, and I may as well at once say 
that, from that time to this, that boy has never been heard 
of by the Varadero Company, who were his employers. 
Next, that gay and lascivious damsel of San Roque, whose 
unbridled sensuality had wrought the trouble, also dis- 
appeared as mysteriously as the others. 

Dr. Juan Perez, of Cavite, was the medical attendant to 
the staff of the Varadero, and used to call there every 
afternoon. On hearing from him about the discovery of 
the bodies, the resident engineer at once thought of his 
missing men, and the flight of the patron confirmed his 
suspicions. A minute examination of the launch was 
made, and revealed some stains of blood which had not 
been entirely removed by the usual washing down. Several 
small cuts such as might be made with the point of a bolo 
were found in the flat skylight of the cabin, and a deeper 
cut on the bulwark rail, starboard side forward, opposite 
the skylight. A working rope was missing from the 
launch. It had only recently been supplied to it, and had 
been cut off a whole coil purchased a few weeks before 
from a sailing-vessel, for the use of the Varadero. That 
ro[)e had a blue strand in the centre. Gustav Brown put 
on a diving-dress, and went down at the head of the 
northern jetty, where the launch used to lie, and carefully 
examined the bottom. Presently his eye rested on an 
object that he recognised. It was the square steel coal- 
breaker used by the stoker, and he brought it up. 


Meanwhile, a new coxswain had been found for the 
launch, and as the old patron had left his vessel illegally, 
there was ground for his arrest on that score, so orders 
were given to the new patron and to the engine-driver to 
give him into custody if he came to claim his kit. Next 
time the launch arrived in Manila, sure enough the old 
patron appeared to fetch his belongings, and was taken to 
the calaboose of the captain of the port. The resident 
engineer called on that official, and, as a result of their 
conversation, the prisoner was put on board the launch to 
be conveyed to Cavite. 

With all the stoicism of the Malay, he sat quite still and 
silent ; his impassive features betrayed no sign of anxiety 
or remorse. 

But if the principal actor in this bloody tragedy could 
thus compose his mind, it was not so with others who knew 
more or less what had happened, but whose dread and 
hatred of the law and its myrmidons had kept their tongues 

When the launch approached the Varadero near enough 
for the prisoner to be recognised, an unusual commotion 
occurred amongst the swarm of native workmen. A 
mysterious magnetism, an inexplicable vibration, pervaded 
the crowd. Unfelt by the senses, it acted on the mind. 
and seemed simultaneously to convey to each individual 
an identical idea. 

The patron was a prisoner, therefore his crime was 
known ; no good could be done by keeping silent. Before 
this nobody knew anything about the disappearance of the 
two men. Now it leaked out, but only in confidence to 
Gustav Brown, whom they trusted. The native divers had 
seen the bodies when at their vvork on the foundations, and 
had moved them farther off out of their way. Men working 
at the jetties had seen them when they floated, but had 
looked in another direction. In fact, the corpses had been 
recognised, and the crime was known to scores of native 
and Chinese workmen, but no word or hint ever reached 
the foreman or the engineer till the culprit was arrested. 

Now there were sufficient details to reconstitute the 
tragic scene. 

The amour of the brothers with the San Roque girl was 
known, and also the well-founded jealousy of the patron, 
who at first endeavoured to obtain the engine-driver's 
discharge by the means already mentioned. This not 


succeeding, he determined to kill both of them, and without 
showing a sign of the deadly hatred that possessed him, 
calmly awaited his opportunity. 

On the Monday night, 7th June, after the incident of 
the safety-valve, the launch was moored alongside the 
Varadero jetty, and the two brothers lay fast asleep on the 
flat top of the cabin skylight, each wrapped in his blanket. 

A native sleeps hard, and is not easily awakened, nor 
when aroused docs he quickly regain his faculties. It is an 
important point in the Malay code of manners never to 
awaken any person suddenly, for it is believed that, during 
sleep, the soul is absent from the body, wandering around, 
and must be given time to return, otherwise serious, even 
fatal consequences, may ensue. The awakened person may 
become an idiot, or some great harm may happen to the 
unmannerly one who awakened him. Many natives have 
as great a fear of the wandering soul of a sleeping person 
as of an evil spirit or ghost. The soul is said to return to 
the body in the form of a small black ball, which enters the 

Moreover, one of the greatest, in fact, the most terrible, 
curse that can be uttered by many tribes, is, " May you die 
sleeping," for it means death to body and soul. That, 
however, was the fate reserved for the brothers. Towards 
midnight, when the cooking- fires in the coolie quarters had 
burnt down, and the chatter of the Chinese had subsided, 
when the last lights in the Europeans' houses had been 
extinguished, and not a sound broke the stillness of the 
night, the patron addressed himself to the performance of 
his bloody task. Slipping his sharpened bolo through his 
belt, he descended into the engine-room, and, seizing the 
coal-breaker, crept forward to where the doomed men 
slumbered, perhaps dreaming of the charms of that dark 
damsel, the enjoyment of whose embraces was to cost them 
so dear. Meanwhile, their fate approached ; their time was 

The patron was past his prime ; privations at sea and 
dissipation on shore had sapped his strength. But bitter 
hatred nerving his arm, with lightning rapidity and terrific 
force he discharged a blow on each sleeper's unprotected 
head. The sharp edge of the steel bar crashed deep into 
their skulls, driving in the splintered bone upon the brain. 
One agonised shudder from each, then all was still. A 
European murderer might have been satisfied with this. 


Not so a Tagal. A ceremony still remained to be accom- 
plished. Their blood must flow ; they must sufifer mutila- 
tion. Seizing his bolo, the assassin now vented his rage in 
cutting and thrusting at the bodies. The heavy and keen- 
edged blade fell repeatedly, cutting great gashes on the 
throats and bellies of the victims, whilst streams of gore 
ran down the waterways, and trickled out at the scuppers, 
staining the white sides of the launch with crimson streaks. 

His blood-thirst assuaged, his vengeance partly accom- 
plished, and his spirit comforted by his desperate deed, the 
murderer probably paused for a time, and began to con- 
sider how he could conceal his crime. No sign of move- 
ment anywhere. Apparently the dull sounds of the blows 
had fallen on no mortal ear. Presently, taking up one of 
his working ropes, he mounted the jetty, and walked to the 
shore, where there lay a pile of stone ballast. It was white 
granite, discharged from a sailing-ship that had come from 
Hong Kong in ballast, and it had been purchased for the 
Varadero. Selecting a suitable piece, he carried it to the 
end of the jetty, and lowered it by the rope into the launch. 
Then, descending, he firmly lashed the two bodies together, 
and fastened the stone to them. Then he drew the bodies 
to the side, preparatory to launching them overboard. 
Now an incident occurred. It is thought that one of the 
two men was not quite dead, notwithstanding his dreadful 
wounds, and that recovering consciousness, and perceiving 
what awaited him, seized the rail in his death-grasp, and 
resisted the attempt to throw him over. 

The patron must once again have had recourse to his 
murderous bolo, bringing it down on the clenched hand, for 
a deep cut was found on the rail with blood driven into the 
pores of the wood by that savage blow. The tendons 
severed, the hand unclasped, and next moment the bodies 
slid over the rail and down underneath the keel of the 
launch in some four fathoms of water. Throwing the steel 
coal-breaker after them, the patron's next task was to wash 
away the traces of his crime, and this he did fairly well so 
that nothing was noticed, till, suspicion being aroused, a 
careful scrutiny was made, with the result already men- 
tioned. It is not known whether the boy knew anything 
of the tragedy performed so near him, for he was never 
questioned, having apparently disappeared off the face of 
the earth as soon as the bodies were found. What the 
patron did afterwards can only be conjectured. Guilty of 


two atrocious murders, and of savage mutilation of the 
slain, could he ha\e composed himself to a quiet and 
dreamless slumber ? Or was his imagination fired to 
further revenge by dream-pictures of his once-loved 
mistress in the arms of her youthful lovers ? All that is 
known is that he presented himself to the foreman early on 
the Tuesday morning, and reported the absence of the two 
men without showing on his dark visage the slightest sign 
of trouble or emotion. 

We left the patron a prisoner on the launch. Now it 
became necessary to give him in charge to the judicial 
authorities, for it was getting late in the afternoon. They 
did not show any undue eagerness to receive him. The 
judge first applied to explained that he was only acting 
temporarily, that the judge had departed, having been 
transferred to another place, and that the new judge had 
not yet arrived, therefore he much regretted he could not 
take up the case. An appeal was then made to the 
Gobernador-Politico-Militar, who most courteously ex- 
plained that a civil court was established in the province 
with full jurisdiction, both criminal and civil, so that he 
could not interfere. It was now nearly sunset, and the 
prisoner had been on the launch all day. The resident 
engineer then called on the Commandante of Canacao — a 
naval officer who had a few marines at his disposal — and 
obtained as a personal favour that the prisoner should be 
temporarily secured in the guard-room. The next day the 
resident engineer proceeded to Cavite, and, accompanied 
by Dr. Juan Perez, visited the principal authorities, and 
eventually succeeded in getting the prisoner lodged in jail, 
and a charge of murder entered against him. The bodies 
of the victims were never exhumed for examination. The 
resident engineer made a declaration, which was taken 
down in writing, and on one of his busiest days he was 
peremptorily summoned to appear before the judge, and 
solemnly ratify his teftimony. 

About three days after Juan de la Cruz was lodged in 
Cavite jail, the dead body of the San Roque damsel, 
gashed by savage blows of the fatal bolo, was left by the 
ebb on the sands of Paraiiaque, a village just across the 
little Bay of Bacoor opposite to San Roque. She had paid 
with her life for her frailty as many another woman has 
done in every clime. P>om the appearance of the body it 
was thought it had been several days in the water. 


No legal evidence was forthcoming to fix the crime on 
any one, although few of those who knew the story 
harboured a doubt that the assassin of the two brothers was 
the murderer of the girl also. 

Juan de la Cruz remained in prison, and from time to 
time, but with increasing intervals, the resident engineer, 
the foreman and others were cited by the judge, interro- 
gated, then cited again to ratify their declarations. 

The espediente, a pile of stamped paper, grew thicker 
and thicker, but the trial seemed no nearer. Month after 
month rolled on, the Varadero was finished, ships were 
drawn up, repaired and launched, Juan continued in 

The resident engineer departed to other climes, and 
was soon expending his energy in building the great 
harbour at La Guayra. I was the means of obtaining an 
order for six gun-boats for the Varadero Company. They 
were built, launched, tried and delivered, and steamed away 
to overawe the piratical Moros. Still Juan continued in 
prison. Judges came and judges went, but the trial came 
no nearer. Year after year a judge of the Audiencia came 
in state to inspect the prisoners, and year after year Juan 
was set down as awaiting his trial. 

In December, 1892, I left the Philippines for Cuba and 
Juan de la Cruz was still in Cavite jail. 

Dr. Juan Perez, the surgeon who had examined the 
corpses, died, having wrongly diagnosed his own case, 
and Dr. Hugo Perez, a half caste, was appointed in his 
stead. Gustav Brown, the foreman, wearied of the monotony 
of ship repairing, became possessed by a longing to resume 
his nomadic life amongst the palm-clad islands of the Pacific. 
He purchased a schooner and embarked with his wife and 
family. First running down to Singapore to take in trade- 
goods for bartering with the natives, he sailed away for the 
Carolines where his wife's home lay. He never reached 
them ; for, soon after leaving Singapore, he came to a bloody 
end at the hands of his Chinese crew, who killed and 
decapitated him. 

The insurrection broke out in Cavite Province, Colonel 
Mattone's column was defeated by the insurgents with great 
slaughter. Dr. Hugo Perez, the successor of Dr. Juan 
Perez, was suspected of sympathising with the rebels, and, 
needless to say, he soon came to a bloody end. He did not 
have to wait long for his trial. 


In 1896, Mr, George Gilchrist, the engineer at the 
Varadero, who was not in the Philippines when the murders 
were committed, was cited by the judge, and asked if he 
could identify the prisono' i 01 years after Jus arrest ! Two 
years more passed, and in April, 1898, Mr. Gilchrist 
returned to Scotland for a well-earned holiday. When he 
left Caiiacao, Juan de la Cruz was still in prison awaiting 
his trial. 

He may have escaped when the rebels occupied Cavite 
after Admiral Dewey's victory over the Spanish Squadron 
in the Bay of Bacoor. 

For the murderer no pity need be felt, he certainly had 
nothing to gain and all to lose by a trial. A double 
murder, premeditated, accompanied by acts of great bar- 
barity, and committed at night, constitutes by the Penal 
Code a capital offence with three aggravating circumstances 
which would forbid all hope of clemency. 

But what can be thought of courts so remiss in their 
duty .-* How many innocent prisoners have waited years for 
their trial .'* How many have died in prison ? 

Piratical Outrage in Ltizoit. 

At Laguimanoc, a port and village in the Province of 
Tayabas, there resided an Englishman, Mr. H. G. Brown, who 
had been many years in the Philippines. By the exercise of 
untiring industry, by braving the malaria of the primeval 
forests, and by his never-failing tact in dealing with the 
officials of the Woods and Forests on the one hand, and with 
the semi-barbarous and entirely lawless wood-cutters on the 
other, he had built up an extensive business in cutting timber 
in the state forests of Southern Luzon and the adjacent 
islands. He was owner of several sailing vessels, had a 
well-appointed saw-mill, and a comfortable residence at 
Languiman6c. He employed large numbers of wood- 
cutters ; all under advances of pay, who were scattered 
about the Provinces of Tayabas, and Camarines Norte 
over a considerable area. 

His business was so considerable that he paid the 
Government fully $30,000 per year as royalty on timber 
which was mostly shipped to Hong Kong and Shanghai. 

In order to facilitate a business so profitable to them the 
Government placed a Custom House official at Atimonan, 
in the Bay of Lamon on the Pacific coast, to clear and 


despatch his timber vessels loaded at Atim6nan, Gumacas, 
Lopez, Alabat Island, or other places. To show how little 
Mr. Brown spared himself, I may mention that not even the 
dreaded jungle- fever of Mindoro prevented him from 
personally superintending the loading of several vessels at 
different ports of that pestilential island. In persistence 
and pluck he was a worthy predecessor of Professor D. C. 
Worcester, who years afterwards showed his Anglo-Saxon 
determination in the same fearsome spot. 

One day in December of 1S84. Mr. Brown being absent 
in Hong Kong, and his manager, Mr. Anderson, busy on 
the Pacific coast, looking after the loading of a vessel, the 
out-door superintendent, a Swede named Alfred Olsen, was 
in charge of the house, office, and saw-mill at Laguimanoc, 
and was attending to the loading of the Tartar, one of 
Mr. Brown's ships which was anchored in the bay taking in 
timber for China. She had a native crew who occasionally 
of an evening, when ashore to enjoy themselves, got up a 
disturbance with the villagers. On board this vessel there 
were, as is usual, two Carabineros or Custom House guards 
to prevent smuggling. 

Although no one in the village suspected it, two large 
canoes full of armed men were lying concealed behind a 
point in Capuluan Cove on the opposite side of the Bay. At 
eight o'clock in the evening, it being quite dark, they came 
across, and in perfect order, according to a pre-arranged plan 
advanced in silence on the village. The assailants numbered 
twenty-eight men, and were variously armed with lances, 
bolos and daggers. Only the leader bore a revolver. A 
guard was left on the canoes, four of the gang were stationed 
at the door of Mr. Brown's house, and others at strategic 
points, whilst the main body attacked the Tribunal close by 
which was also the estanco where there was some Govern- 
ment money, postage stamps and stamped paper. At all 
Tribunalcs there are a couple of cuadrilleros, or village 
constables on guard, armed usually with lance and bolo. 
These men did their duty and manfully resisted the pirates. 
In the combat which ensued, the sergeant of the Cuad- 
rilleros was killed and some on both sides were wounded, 
but the pirates got the best of the fight, and plundered the 

In the meantime, Olsen, having heard the uproar, may 
have thought that the crew of the Tartar were again making 
a disturbance. At all events he left the house unarmed 


and unsuspicious, thus walking into the trap laid for him. 
The Tagals have a great respect for fire-arms, more especi- 
ally for the revolvers and repeating rifles of the foreigner, 
thus they did not venture to enter the house, but the 
moment Olsen stepped out into the darkness and before he 
could see round about him, he was attacked by two men on 
each side, who plunged their daggers into his body, piercing 
his lungs. Bleeding profusely and vomiting blood he 
rushed back into the house towards his bedroom to get his 
revolver which was under the bed. His assailants, however, 
followed him into the room and butchered him before he 
could grasp it. At least the revolver was afterwards found 
in its case with the perfect impress of his blood-stained hand 
upon the oaken lid. A native boy named Pablo, about 
eight years old, was in the house at the time, and in his 
terror squeezed himself into a narrow space behind the door 
and escaped discovery, although he was an eye-witness of 
the crime. 

By this time the alarm had spread all over the little 
village, and the noise was heard on board the Tartar. The 
two Carabineros, taking their Remingtons and cartridge 
boxes, had themselves paddled on shore, and marching up the 
stairs which led to the rocky eminence on which the village 
stands, bravely advanced against the pirates although out- 
numbered by more than ten to one. They fired their rifles, 
but the gang rushed upon them and in a moment they were 
cut down, and according to Tagal custom, their bellies were 
ripped open. The pirates having now overcome all opposi- 
tion and having plundered the cstanco, and the inevitable 
Chinaman's shop, transferred their attention to Mr. Brown's 
house, which they ransacked, taking the contents of the safe, 
a collection of gold and silver coins, seven Martini-Henry 
rifles with ammunition, and two revolvers, as well as any 
other things they deemed of value. They burst open the 
desks, drawers, and wardrobes, cutting and hacking the 
furniture with their bolos in wanton mischief Then 
embarking their spoil, they sailed away with the land 

Information had been sent ofl" to the nearest post of the 
Guardia Civil, and on its receipt, an oflficer with a force of 
that corps instantly set off and captured one party of the 
pirates red-handed as they beached their canoe. Within a 
week twenty-six had been captured and one shot dead 
whilst escaping. There only remained the leader. He, as 


it was afterwards discovered, was concealed in a secluded 
wood a few miles from Sariaya, and one night he was 
speared by the Captain of Cuadrilleros of that town, who is 
said to have had valid reasons for getting him out of the 

This band of pirates were a mixed lot ; some of them 
were principales or members of the town council of Sariaya, 
a picturesque little place on the southern slope of Mount 
Banajao, and some from San Juan de Boc-boc ; others were 
ordinary inhabitants, a few were outlaws from the San Juan 
mountains, and four or five were fishermen whom the gang 
had met on their passage by sea and had invited to 
accompany them. This custom of Convites is explained in 
Chapter XXV. Of course the fishermen, when interro- 
gated, declared they had been pressed into the service, but 
in fact very few natives have the moral courage to decline 
so pleasing an entertainment, as it appeals to a feeling 
deeply seated in their hearts, the love of rapine, only to be 
restrained by the heavy hand of a military police "who do 
not hesitate to shoot." The provincial doctor arrived next 
morning with the judge who was to take the depositions of 
the villagers and draw up the snmario. Olsen was dead, 
the sergeant of Cuadrilleros also and one of the Carabineros, 
but strange to say, in spite of a dozen ghastly wounds, the 
other one was still alive, though his bowels were protruding, 
having fallen out through the gash which it is the Tagal 
custom to finish off with. 

When the provincial doctor saw him, he said, ** Nothing 
can possibly be done for him," and departed. So, aban- 
doned to his own resources, he replaced the bowels himself, 
and getting one of the villagers to bind him up, he eventu- 
ally recovered. He was seen by Mr. Brown a year or two 
later, and is probably alive now. This seems extraordinary, 
but a similar case occurred to a man who had worked under 
me. An English bricklayer named John Heath had been 
employed building furnaces and kilns in Manila, and having 
completed his work, took to farming and rented some grass 
meadows (sacate lands) at Mandaloyan. One night he and 
another Englishman staying with him were attacked in his 
house by a party of Tagals with drawn bolos. The visitor, 
although wounded, leaped from the window and escaped, 
but Heath was cut down, then lifted on to the window sill, 
hacked about, and finally, according to Tagal custom, 
ripped open and left for dead. Yet this man also entirely 


recovered, and after a year seemed as strong as ever, 
although he was advised not to exert his strength. This 
outrage was clearly agrarian, and was, I feel sure, com- 
mitted by those who had previously rented these lands 
and had been turned out. No one was ever punished 
for it. 

To return to the gang of pirates ; two had been killed, 
the rest were in prison. Year after year passed, still they 
remained in prison ; judges came, stayed their term, were 
promoted and went, but still these men were never 

In 1889, 1 visited Laguimanoc to make a plan and valua- 
tion of the property, as the business was about to be taken 
over by a Limited Liability Company, established in Hong 
Kong. This wfs.5 five years after the date of the murders, 
some of the prisoners had died in prison, the others were 
awaiting their sentence. But I found that the Government 
had established a sergeant's post of the Guardia Civil in 
the village, which effectually prevented a repetition of the 

A year later I again visited Laguiman6c, but the trial 
of the prisoners was no further advanced. No less than 
nine of them died in prison, still no sentence was pro- 
nounced. Even for a Philippine Court this was extra- 
ordinary, for the gang had committed the unpardonable 
crime " Resistencia a fuerza armada " (Resistance to an 
armed force), and could have been tried by Court-martial 
and summarily shot. They had also dared to lay their 
profane hands on the sacred money-box containing a 
portion of the "Real Haber" (Government money), so that 
it was not only a question of murder and robbery of private 
people. But the Civil Court, negligent, slothful, and 
corrupt, could not be got to convict, and a few years ago, 
Mr. Brown having left the islands, the surviving prisoners 
vfQVQ pardotied by the Queen Regent on the occasion of the 
young King's birthday. 

The contrast between the military' and civil elements in 
this case is very strong. 

The military element performed its duties thoroughly 
well, under great difficulties, and promptly arrested the 
malefactors. In my experience this has been always the 
case, and I draw from it the conclusion that military 
Government is essential to the pacification of the Philip- 
pines and that authority must be backed up by a native 


force of constabulary under American officers who must be 
young and active. 

Such offences as piracy or gang-robber>' should never 
come before a Civil Court, but should be promptly settled 
by court-martial before which no technicalities or legal 
subtleties need be taken into account. 

A firm, nay, a heavy hand over the Philippines is the 
most merciful in the long run. 

I am sorry to have to relate that the Company which 
took over Mr. Brown's business did not long prosper. 
Whilst he remained at the head of it, all went well, but as 
soon as he left to take a much-needed rest, it began to fail. 
The personality of the individual is everything in most 
Spanish countries and especially in the Philippines. No 
manager could be found who could keep on terms with the 
officials, control the wild wood-cutters or risk jungle-fever 
by entering the forests to personally inspect the work. 

The organization decayed and the business went to 
pieces. Let intending investors take note. 




Corrupt officials — "Laws of the Indies" — Philippines a dependency 
of Mexico up to iSoo — The opening of the Suez Canal— Hordes 
of useless officials — The Asimilistas — Discontent, but no dis- 
turbance — Absence of crime — Natives petition for the expulsion 
of the Friars — Many signatories of the petition punished. 

The Spanish Colonial system was based upon the simple 
and well-recognised principle of rewarding political ser- 
vices to the Government in power, by the pillage of a 

Sometimes special circumstances rendered it necessary 
for the Government to send out the man best fitted to cope 
with a critical situation, but in normal times the good old 
corrupt plan was followed. 

The appointment of a Governor-General would be 
arranged by the Prime Minister and submitted for the 
approval of the monarch. The Colonial Minister, like the 
other subordinate ministers, counted for little in a Cabinet 
presided over by such commanding personalities as 
Canovas, or Sagasta. They were, in fact, mere heads of 

In another chapter I have remarked that it was gene- 
rally believed that General Weyler purchased his appoint- 
ment as Governor-General of the Philippines, by a cash 
payment and an annual subsidy. 

There were, however, certain officials whom it would be 
unjust to class with those who practically had to rob for 
their living, because they were subject to dismissal at any 
moment. These unfortunates knew perfectly well that 
integrity an J ability would not ensure them a single day's 
grace. Whenever the man in power wanted that place for 
his cousin or his uncle, out they would go. Similarly, if 


they had any interest, misbehaviour would not lose the ap- 
pointment. Considering the system, the wonder was that 
some of them were honest, not that most of them were 

Amongst those who had fixed appointments were the 
Inspector-General of Forests and his assistants. Every 
British and American resident in, or visitor to Manila, will 
remember a Catalan gentleman, Don Sebastian Vidal y 
Soler and his charming wife Dona Ella Paoli de Vidal, a 
lady from Philadelphia. Vidal was a man of great learning 
and equal modesty, a man of the strictest honour, kind- 
hearted and charitable in the extreme. He was well-known 
in America, in London, Paris, and Amsterdam, and wher- 
ever botanists congregate. His death in 1890 was univer- 
sally regretted. 

In the same branch of the service there was another 
gentleman whom I must name. Don Jose Sainz de Baranda, 
at one time acting Colonial Secretary, is a most courteous 
gentleman, whose high character and marked ability were 
well worthy of the confidence reposed in him by General 
Terrero. Any country might be proud to own Seiior Sainz 
de Baranda. For my part I preserve the most agreeable 
remembrances of these two friends. 

In the Department of Public Works there were men 
of considerable attainments as engineers — Don Eduardo 
Lopez Navarro, author of the project for the new harbour ; 
Don Genaro Palacios, who designed and carried out the 
waterworks and designed the Church of Saint Sebastian, in 
both of which works I took part ; and Seiior Brockman, who 
constructed several lighthouses in different parts of the 
Archipelago. I feel bound to say that so far as my know- 
ledge went, there was no corruption or underhand work in 
either the Inspection of Forests or the Public Works. 

As to the patronage of other civil offices I have had the 
procedure explained to me by a Spaniard well up in the 
subject, and I give an imaginary instance to illustrate the 

When a political party came into power and the ques- 
tion of forming the Cabinet was being debated, Seiior 

M , a leader of a group of deputies, might say, " I 

renounce the honour of entering the Cabinet, and instead 
will take the Presidency of the Chamber and the right to 
appoint the Collector of Customs at Havana, the Intendant 
General of Hacienda at Manila, and the Governor of 



Batangas, with a dozen second and third class governor- 
ships or judgeships." 

If this was agreed to, perhaps, after some haggling, 

Seiior M distributed the nominations to the lower 

appointments amongst his supporters, who disposed of 
them for their own advantage. 

The nominations to the higher offices remained the 
absolute private property of Seiior M , and he pro- 
ceeded to pick out men up to the job, to undertake the 
appointments. Some of them paid him large sums in 
cash, and others entered into contracts binding themselves 
to remit him monthly a large proportion of their emolu- 
ments and pickings. In some cases it was stipulated that 
if a single payment was in default, the unfortunate employe 
would be instantly dismissed. I have personally known of 
this condition. Those he nominated referred to him as 
thtir padn'no or godfather. 

The actual holders of the offices referred to would then 
be summarily dismissed, however well they might have 
behaved whilst serving, and the new horde would be in- 
stalled in their places and would use every means to fill 
their pockets and to pay their padrino. 

Complaints against them were not likely to lead to 
their removal, for they were protected in Madrid by the 
powerful political interest of their padrino. If they kept 
within the criminal law, they had little to fear, however 
greedy they might be. 

Some of the governors and other officials had the talent 
of filling their pockets without making enemies. I have 
already referred to a Governor of Batangas, as eminent in 
this line. It must not be supposed that the illicit gains of 
the officials were extorted from the individual native. They 
were principally drawn from the f alios, or local tax in 
redemption oi polos or personal service. This money ought 
to have been employed in repairing roads, bridges, and 
public buildings. But as nearly the whole was diverted 
into the pockets of the officials and their padrinos, the 
roads became impassable in the wet season, the bridges, if 
of wood, rotted, if of stone, were thrown down by the 
earthquakes or carried away by floods, whilst the tribunales 
(town halls), fell into decay. I have known cases where a 
planter has been unable for months to send his sugar down 
to the port for shipment, as it was absolutely impossible 
for carts to pass along the road in the wet season. In a 


wealthy and populous province like Batangas, the f alios 
were sufficient to have paved all the main roads in the 
province with granite and to have bridged every stream. 

I may mention here a characteristic trait of Spanish 
administration. When a river-bridge fell down, they not 
only did not repair or renew it, but they put up to auction 
the monopoly of ferrying vehicles and passengers across 
the stream. The purchaser of the right fastened a rattan 
across the river and provided a couple of canoes with a 
platform of cane laid over them, which served to ferry 
vehicles across by means of the rope ; one or two at a 
time at a rather heavy charge. This truly Spanish method 
provided a revenue for the Administration, or pickings 
for an official, instead of requiring an outlay for a ne\v 

Still, the natives, never having known anything better, 
supported these drawbacks with remarkable equanimity. 
They were left very much to themselves, and were not 
interfered with nor worried. The army was small and the 
conscription did not press heavily upon them. 

They lived under the " Leyes de Indias " (may their 
makers have found favour with God), a code of laws 
deserving of the greatest praise for wisdom and humanity. 
They protected the native against extortion, constituting 
him a perpetual minor as against the usurer. He could not 
be sued for more than five dollars. Compare this wise dis- 
position with what has been going on in India ever since 
the British Government has administered it, where the 
principal occupation of the lower courts is to decree the 
foreclosure of mortgages on the ryot's patches of land at 
the suit of the village usurer. The result has been that in 
some provinces the small landowner class who furnished 
fighting men for the Indian Army has almost disappeared. 
It is only now in 1900 that something is proposed to be 
done to remedy this evil, and knowing my countrymen, 
I quite expect some weak-kneed compromise will be 
arrived at. 

The " Leyes de Indias " conferred upon the native 
the perpetual usufruct of any land that he kept under 
cultivation ; and this right descended from father to son. 

As a result of these laws, most of the arable land in 
Luzon, Cebu, and some other islands belongs to the natives 
to this day, although many of them have no other title than 
possession. The natives also had the privilege of cutting 

E 2 


timber in the forests for house-building or repairing, or for 
making a canoe free of dues. They could also cut bamboos 
for their fences or roofs and collect firewood. 

These privileges were restricted to natives, and were 
not extended to Spaniards or Chinese. The taxes paid 
by the natives were light and they could live and thrive. 

Had these wise and admirable laws been carried out in 
the spirit in which they were made, the Philippines might 
have been Spanish to this day and the natives would have 
had little to complain of 

The Philippines were for nearly three centuries after 
their discovery by the Spaniards a mere dependency of 
Mexico, communication being kept up by an annual galleon 
or sometimes two sailing between Acapulco and Manila 
through the Strait of San Bernardino. The long and 
tedious voyage deterred all but priests and officials from 
proceeding to the Philippines. 

When this route was given up, which happened some 
ten years before the Independence of Mexico, which was 
proclaimed in 1820, communication with the Peninsula was 
by sailing vessels via the Cape of Good Hope. That 
was a voyage that would not be lightly undertaken either 
going or returning. Spaniards who then came to the 
Archipelago often stayed there for the rest of their lives. 

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the estab- 
lishment of a line of steamers bringing Manila within thirty 
days of Barcelona was the most important event in the 
history of the Philippines since the conquest, and it had 
the gravest consequences. It greatly stimulated the trade 
of the Philippines, but it enormously increased the number 
of Spaniards in the Islands. Hordes of hungry-looking 
Iberians arrived by every steamer with nominations to 
posts for which most of them possessed no qualification. 
It seemed as if all the loafers of the Puerta del Sol and the 
Calle de Alcala were to be dumped in the Philippines and 
fed by the Treasury. 

Places had to be found for them, and a bureaucratic 
administration partly copied from French practice, was 
rapidly substituted for the old paternal regime. New 
departments were organised or the old ones greatly ex- 
tended. Far more money was spent on the salaries of 
engineers and assistant-engineers than on public works. 
The salaries of the officials of the Woods and Forests ex- 
ceeded the revenue derived from dues on timber cut in 

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POUL-TAX, S22.5a 


the Crown forests, and their regulations seriously interfered 
with the privileges of the natives previously mentioned, 
and caused great discontent. The salaries of the Inspectors 
of Mines were almost a useless expense, for there was no 
revenue derived from mines, in fact there were no mines, 
only placers and washings. A medical service was organised 
at great cost and to little advantage. Doctors were ap- 
pointed to reside at the hot springs, and one could not 
take a bath there without paying a fee. Model farms 
and Schools of Agriculture were started, to find places 
for more Spaniards, for the officials received their salaries, 
but no funds were forthcoming for material or establish- 

In 1886 there took place the separation of the executive 
and the judicial functions, and eighteen civil governors 
were appointed to the principal provinces. Later on, 
eighteen judges of first instance were nominated to these 
same provinces. After centuries of rule, the Alcaldes 
Mayores were abolished. 

Then came a period when certain bureaucrats in Madrid 
conceived what they thought a vast and patriotic idea. 
They founded a school of politicians who called themselves 
Asimilistas. Their grand idea was to assimilate the 
administration of the Philippines to that of the Mother 
Country. They thought it wise to assimilate the institu- 
tions of a tropical dependency with eight millions of native 
inhabitants, of whom one-sixth part were independent 
heathen or Mahometans, to the gradually evolved institu- 
tions of Old Spain. 

By way of a commencement they began to speak and 
write of the Philippines as "that beautiful province of 
Spain." The Philippine army had always been distinct 
from the Peninsular army, but now by a paper reform 
it was embodied in it, and the regiments were re-numbered, 
the 1st Visayas Regiment becoming the 74th, etc. This 
was considered to be a strong link to bind together the 
Mother Country and the Colony. 

The extra expense of these crowds of employes and of 
some expeditions to Mindanao and J0I6 was very heavy, 
accordingly every year saw some new and oppressive tax. 
In 1883 the " Tributo," or tribute that had been paid by 
the natives since the conquest, was replaced by a tax on 
the Cedula Personal, or document of identity, and this was 
paid by all adults of both sexes, whether Spaniards, 


foreigners, or half-castes. In the Appendix will be found 
a facsimile of my cedula. 

The Customs duties were several times raised, some- 
times without much notice. A tax on all trades and pro- 
fessions, on horses and carriages, a heavy port tax, a 
vexatious tax on all animals slaughtered, even down to a 
sucking pig, taxes on the hand-looms used by the women 
in their spare time, taxes on sugar-mills, rice-mills, on boats 
and lighters, and on houses ; all these and many more were 

There were also serious agrarian disputes between the 
Dominicans, the Augustinians, and the tenants on their 
estates, owing to excessive rents demanded by the friars. 
All these circumstances brought about a great change 
in the relations between the Spaniards and the natives. 
Whereas formerly the wealthy native kept open house 
on feast days, and received with pleasure the visits of 
Spaniards, generally elderly men used to the country and 
speaking the language of the people, he now found his 
house invaded by a crowd of young officials new to the 
country and its ways, who fell on the eatables like a swarm 
of famishing locusts, and soon devoured the turkeys and 
hams and other good things he had provided to entertain 
his friends. Besides, his women-folk would probably not 
be treated by the new-comers with the courtesy and con- 
sideration they had been used to. 

An estrangement gradually made itself felt, and in- 
creaseO year by year, in direct proportion to the influx of 
Spaniards. Not one in a hundred of these did any useful 
-work or added in any way to the wealth of the community. 
They were the drones of the hive, and were in fact directly 
harmful, for they had to be supported from the Treasury, 
and they irritated the natives by their illegal exactions 
and overbearing conduct whenever they came in contact 
with them. 

Still year after year passed without disturbances. From 
1877 to 1892, whilst I was in the country, I can testify that 
almost perfect order reigned. The fighting in Mindanao 
and J0I6 went on as a matter of course like the Acheen 
war in Sumatra, and an expedition was sent against the 
Igorrotes. But in the civilised districts of Luzon and 
Visayas good order was kept. The only outbreak I re- 
member was the religious excitement in Samar, which closed 
when the false gods were shot down. 


Crime was infrequent, and in those fourteen years I do 
not think half-a-dozen executions took place. There was 
less risk of burglary in Manila than in a London suburb. 
Whatever their faults I must give the Spanish Administra- 
tion credit for the perfect order they kept. Manila, in this 
respect, compared favourably with Hong Kong, and still 
better with Singapore, where the authorities, perhaps re- 
membering the fate of Governor Eyre of Jamaica, and in 
terror of Exeter Hall, tolerated the incredible insolence of 
the Chinese secret societies. These villainous organisa- 
tions, which in Singapore successfully defied the law, never 
raised their heads in Manila, and Rajah Brooke showed how 
to treat them in Sarawak. 

In pursuance of the Asimilista policy, in July 1887, the 
Penal Code was put in force in the Philippines by peremp- 
tory order from the Government at Madrid, and much 
against the opinion of experienced officials. In December 
of the same year the Civil Code was promulgated. 

It cannot be said that these reforms, however well- 
intended, produced any beneficial effect on the natives. 
Combined with the great increase in taxation, they inten- 
sified the discontent that was always smouldering, more 
especially in the hearts of the native priests. Their 
grievances against the religious orders, and more particu- 
larly against the RecoUets, who had been compensated 
for the handing over of their benefices in Mindanao to the 
Jesuits, at the expense of the secular clergy, were the 
cause of their bitter hatred of the Spanish friars. 

In 1883 Field-Marshal Jovellar had thought it necessary 
to strengthen the small garrison by bringing out two 
battalions of Marine Infantry. However it was not till 
March ist, 1888, that some natives and mestizos, em- 
boldened by the fact that an anti-clerical, D. Jose Centeno, 
a mining engineer, was Acting Civil Governor of Manila, 
walked in procession to his official residence and presented 
a petition addressed to the Governor-General, demanding 
the immediate expulsion of the friars of the religious orders, 
and of the Archbishop, whom they declared unworthy 
to occupy the Primacy of the Islands. They further 
demanded the secularisation of the benefices and the 
confiscation of the estates of the Augustinians and the 

To this petition there were 810 signatures, but when 
the signatories were summoned and examined, most of 


them (as is their custom) declared they did not know what 
they had signed, and denied that they wished the friars to 
be expelled. 

The petition was said to have been written by Doroteo 
Cortes, a mestizo lawyer, but I am told he did not sign it. 

This manifestation, sixteen years after the mutiny at 
Cavite, seems to have had some relation to that event, for 
the petition accused the friars of compassing the death of 
Father Burgos, by subornation of justice. 

The result of this appeal of the natives was that the 
principal persons who took part in it were banished, 
or sent to reside at undesirable spots within the Archi- 

There were some agrarian disturbances at Calamba and 
Santa Rosa, one of the estates of the Dominicans, in 1890. 

I may say that only the Augustinians, the Dominicans, 
and the Recollets possess landed estates, and that I have 
had the opportunity of examining several of them. They 
are all situated in Tagal territory, and as they are the pick 
of the lands, their possession by the friars has caused great 
heart-burnings amongst the Tagals — there has been a 
smouldering agrarian discontent for years. 

( 57 ) 



The Augustinians — Their glorious founder — Austin Friars in England 
— Scotland — Mexico — They sail with Villalobos for the Islands of 
the Setting Sun — Their disastrous voyage- — Fray Andres Urdaneta 
and his companions — Foundation of Cebu and Manila with two 
hundred and forty other towns — Missions to Japan and China — 
The Flora Filipina — The Franciscans — The Jesuits — The Do- 
minicans—The Recollets — Statistics of the religious orders in 
the islands — Turbulence of the friars — Always ready to fight for 
their countiy — Furnish a war ship and command it — Refuse to 
exhibit the titles of their estates in 1689 — The Augustinians take up 
arms against the British — Ten of them fall on the field of battle 
— Their rectories sacked and burnt — Bravery of the archbishop 
and friars in 1820 — Father Ibahez raises a battalion — Leads it to 
the assault of a Moro Cotta — Execution of native priests in 1872 
— Small garrison in the islands — Influence of the friars— Their 
behaviour — Herr Jagor — Foreman — Worcester — Younghusband 
— Opinion of Pope Clement X. — Tennie C. Claflin — Equality of 
opportunity — Statuesque rigures of the girls — The author's ex- 
perience of the Friars — The Philippine clergy — Who shall cast 
the first stone ? — Constitution of the orders — Life of a friar — 
May become an archbishop — The chapter — -The estates— The 
Peace Commission — Pacification retarded — Who will collect the 
rents ? 

Before referring further to these estates it may be as well 
to give a brief sketch of the religious orders, whose existence 
is bound up with the history of the Philippines, to the con- 
version and civilisation of which they have so largely 
contributed. They won the islands for Spain, they held 
them for centuries, and now, having served their purpose, 
they have lost them, doubtless for ever. 

The Augustinians were the pioneers in converting the 
inhabitants of the Philippines, and they have maintained 
their predominance ever since. 

I therefore begin my description with this venerable 
order, and it will be proper to say something about its 
glorious founder. 


The follovviriiT data are taken from the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica' and other sources. 

Augustine (Aurclius Aiigustinus) one of the four great 
fathers of the Latin Church, and admittedly the greatest of 
the four, was born at Tagaste (Tajelt), a town of Numidia, 
North Africa, A.D. 354. His father, Patricius, was a burgess 
of this town, and was still a pagan at the time of his son's 

His mother, M6nica, was not only a Christian, but a 
woman of the most elevated, tender, and devoted piety, 
whose affectionate and beautiful enthusiasm have passed 
into a touching type of womanly saintliness for all ages, 

Augustine studied rhetoric at Madaura and Carthage, 
and visited Rome and Milan. 

He passed many years in unrest of mind and doubt, 
but ultimately a passage from Romans xii. 13, 14 seemed 
to pour the light of peace into his heart. He became 
a Christian and was baptised in his thirty-third year. 
Patricius was also converted and baptised, and Monica 
found the desire of her life fulfilled and her dear ones 
united to her in faith. 

After some years of retirement, Augustine made a 
journey to Hippo Regius, a Roman colony on the River 
Rubricatus in North Africa, and became a presbyter. 

His principal writings are 'The City of God,' 'Con- 
fessions,' and ' The Trinity.' 

He died during the siege of Hippo by the Vandals at 
the age of 75. 

The theological position and influence of Augustine 
may be said to be unrivalled. No single name has ever 
exercised such power over the Christian Church, and no 
one mind has ever made such an impression upon Christian 

The Augustinians look upon this great Christian moralist 
as their founder, and reverence his memory and that of his 
saintly mother. 

Whether he personally drew up the rules they observe 
or not, they were his disciples, following in his foot- 
steps, and finding their inspiration in his writings and 

Great indeed must have been the magnetic force of that 
vehement nature that it could give an impetus to his 
followers that carried them all over Europe, that made 
them the companions of the discoverers and conquerors of 


the New World, and that filled their hearts with zeal and 
courage to face the dangers of the great lone ocean in 
company with Villalobos and Legaspi. 

The Order traces its inception to the town of Hippo, 
and fixes the date at A.D. 395. Many, doubtless, were its 
vicissitudes, but in the year 1061, and again in 12 14, we 
find the Order remodelled and extended. The Augustinians 
were very numerous in England and Scotland. In 1105 
they had settled at Colchester and at Nostell, near Ponte- 
fract. Later they had abbeys at Bristol, Llantony, Christ- 
church, Twynham, Bolton and London, where part of their 
church (Austin Friars) is still standing. Altogether they 
had 170 houses in England. Their first house in Scotland 
was at Scone in 1114, and they soon had 25 houses, in- 
cluding churches or abbeys at Inchcolm in the Firth of 
Forth, St. Andrew's, Holyrood, Cambuskenneth and 

The Austin Friars or Black Canons were then described 
as an order of regular clergy holding a middle position 
between monks and secular canons, almost resembling 
a community of parish priests living under rule, and they 
have retained these characteristics to the present day. 

They were numerous in Spain, and some of the other 
Orders, such as the Dominicans or Preaching Friars, the 
Franciscans, and the Recollets, may almost be looked upon 
as offshoots of this venerable order, for they conformed to 
its general rule, with certain additions. Thus the Domini- 
cans, founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman, were incorpo- 
rated in 1216 by a Bull of Pope Honorius IIL and adopted 
a rule of absolute poverty or mendicancy in addition to the 
usual vows of chastity and obedience. 

This Order held its first chapter in 1220 at Bologna, 
under the presidency of its founder. 

The vows of poverty of this powerful Order have not 
prevented it from holding large estates in the Philippines, 
from owning blocks of buildings in Manila and Hong Kong, 
and from having a huge sum invested in British and 
American securities. These however belong to the Cor- 
poration and not to the individual members. 

From Spain the Augustinians spread to Mexico and 
assisted the Franciscans, who were the pioneers there under 
Father Bartolome de Olmedo and Father Martin de Valencia, 
to gather in the abundant harvest. Father Toribio de 
Benavente was one of twelve Franciscans sent out in 1523, 


and he has left records of the success of these missionaries. 
They opened schools and founded colleges, and in twenty- 
years nine millions of converts had been admitted into the 
Christian fold. 

By this time Magellan had passed the narrow straits, 
and sailing across the vast solitudes of the Pacific had 
reached the Visayas Islands to meet his fate, and Sebastian 
de Elcano had completed the circumnavigation of the globe 
and had arrived in Spain with accounts of the new lands 
which the expedition had discovered. 

When, in 1 542, Captain Ruy Lopez de Villalobos sailed 
from Natividad (Mexico) for the Islands of the Setting Sun, 
only to die of grief at Amboyna, there accompanied him a 
group of Augustinian Friars. After the loss of his vessels 
the survivors took ship for Goa and from thence returned 
to Europe, arriving at Lisbon in August 1 549, seveji years 
after leaving the port of Natividad. 

The Order has carefully preserved the names of these 
early missionaries ; they are, Frs. Jeronimo de San 
Esteban, Sebastian de Trasierra, Nicolas de Perea, Alonso 

In the expedition under General Don Miguel Lopez 
de Legaspi, which sailed in 1564, Fray Andres Urdaneta, 
an Augustinian, went as chief navigator and cartographer, 
and the following friars accompanied him : Frs. Andres 
de Aiguirre, Martin de Rada, Diego Herrero, Pedro 

Since founding the city of Cebii in 1570, and the city 
of Manila the following year, the Augustinians have con- 
tinued to found town after town, and down to 1892 
had founded no less than two hundred and forty-two, 
administered by two hundred and forty-seven priests of 
the Order as by the following table : — 

Year 1892. 

Summary of Towns founded by the Augustinians. 

Handed over to other Orders .... 28 
Amalgamated with other towns . . . . 11 

Administered by Augustinians .... 203 

Total . . .242 

Population of the above 203 towns, 2,082,181. 


The Augustiniatis in the Philippine Islands. 

I Parish Priests i88 

Stewards 37 

Coadjutors 7 

Vicars (learning dialects). ... 3 

Missionaries 12 


■r, • J- • .1, /Superiors or Office bearers ... 19 

'1"^ '? M T Conventual Priests 7 

vents of Manila, r-* a ^ ,. 

^ V ^ J /- 1 '{Students 14 

Cebu,andGuada-K ^^li^^ % 

vLay Brethren 17 

— _63 

Total 310 


In former years this Order had established missions in 
Japan, and they were very successful in making converts, 
but during the persecution many members of the Order lost 
their lives, or, as they phrase it, "attained the palm of 

At the present time they maintain seven missionaries 
in the province of Hun-nan in China. In Spain they 
support three colleges, Valladolid, La Vid, and La Escorial. 
They are also in charge of the magnificent church of that 
extraordinary palace, and of the priceless library of which 
they are editing a catalogue. 

The Augustinians have published a great many works, 
such as grammars and vocabularies of the native dialects, 
and many books of devotion. 

One of their leading men, Father Manuel Blanco, was a 
most learned and laborious botanist. He collected and 
classified so many of the Philippine plants that the Order 
decided to complete his work and publish it. Fray Andres 
Naves and Fray Celestino Fernandez Villar, both well- 
known to me, worked for years at this, and were assisted 
by my illustrious friend H. E. Don Sebastian Vidal Solcr 
and others. 

The result is a most sumptuous and magnificent work — 
published in Manila — there being four folio volumes enriched 
by many hundreds of coloured plates of the different trees, 
shrubs, orchids and lianas, most beautifully executed from 
water-colour paintings by D. Regino Garcia and others. 
This monumental book is called the ' Flora Filipina.' It 
received a diploma of honour at the International Colonial 
Exhibition of Amsterdam in 1883. The British Museum 


possesses a copy, but unfortunately most of the work was 
destroyed by fire in the bombardment of the Convent of 
Guadalupe during the war. 

However, the widow of Seiior Vidal, now Mrs. Amilon 
of Philadelphia, still has some copies to dispose of 

I hope that what I have said about the Augustinians will 
show that they are not the lazy and unprofitable persons 
they are sometimes represented. The same may be said 
of the Dominicans. 

The Augustinians were followed, after an interval of 
seven years, by the Franciscans, four years after that by the 
Jesuits, six years after the Jesuits came the Dominicans. 

Last of all came the Recollets, or bare-footed Augus- 

The following Table gives the numbers of friars of the 
five religious orders in the Philippines, at the dates men 
tioned, taken from their own returns. The first column 
gives the dates of the first foundation of the Order, the 
second the date of its arrival in the Archipelago. The 
other columns give the statistics of baptisms, marriages and 
deaths, taken from the parish registers. 

Statement of the Population Administered by the Re- 
ligious Corporations and Secular Clergy in the Philip- 
pines, 1896. 


I. > 














M j S 








31098,731 120,35583,051 


1532 1606 



20 i92'56,259 '11, 43940, 0081, 175, 156 

1208 1577 

Franciscans . 


15 45538,858 !ii, 92735, 737|i>oio, 753 

1216 1587 

Dominicans . 


10 20027,576 I 7.307:32,33^ 699,851 



Jesuits* . 


6 i67|is,302t 2,oi7; 4,937 


Secular \ 

Total . 






* Expelled in 1768. Readmitted, 1S52, for charge of schools and missions. 
•J- Of these 4102 were baptisms of heathen in i8ij6. 

N.B. — The population of the Islands according to the census 

of 1877 5,995,160 

Probable Christian population, 1899. , . , 8,000,000 


These holy men have, since very early times, shown 
themselves rather turbulent, and then and always en- 
deavoured to carry matters with a high hand. Thus in 
1582 we find them refusing to admit the diocesan visit of 
the Bishop of Manila, and that old dispute has cropped up 
on and off' many times since then. At the same time 
we find them taking the part of the natives against the 
Encomenderos. They have always been ready to fight 
for their country and to subscribe money for its defence. 
When Acting Governor Guido de Lavezares headed the 
column which attacked the pirate Li-ma-Hon, he was 
accompanied by the Provincial of the Augustinians. In 
1603 all the friars in Manila took up arms against the 
revolted Chinese, and three years later the Augustinians 
not only furnished a war ship to fight the Portuguese, but 
provided a captain for it in the person of one of their Order, 
Fray Antonio Flores. It appears that the estates of the 
Augustinians and the Dominicans were very early a bone of 
contention, for in 1689 a judge arrived in Manila, and, in 
virtue of a special commission he had brought from Madrid, 
he required them to present their titles. This they refused 
to do, and the judge was sent back to Mexico, and a friend 
of the friars was appointed as Commissioner in his place. 
Then the friars condescended to unofficially exhibit their 
titles. Now more than two centuries after the first abortive 
attempt, the question of the ownership of these lands is 
still under discussion. 

During the British occupation of Manila in 1763 the 
friars took up arms in defence of their flag, and gave their 
church bells to be cast into cannon. No less than ten 
Augustinians fell on the field of battle. The British treated 
them with great severity, sacking and destroying their 
rectories and estate houses, and selling everything of theirs 
they could lay hands on. I have visited the ruins of 
the old estate house of Malinta which was burnt by the 

In 1820, when the massacre of foreigners by the Manila 
mob took place, owing the cowardice of General Folgueras, 
the archbishop and friars marched out in procession to the 
scene of the disturbance and succeeded in saving many 
lives. In 185 1 a Recollet, Father Ibafiez, raised a battalion 
from his congregation, trained and commanded it. He took 
the field at Mindanao and with the most undaunted bravery 
led his men to the assault of a Moro Cotta, or fort, dying 


like our General Wolfe at the moment of victory. Not one 
man of this battalion ever deserted or hunj^ back from the 
combats, for the worthy priest had all their wives under 
a solemn vow never to receive them again unless they 
returned victorious from the campaign. 

The religious orders have frequently interfered to 
protect the natives against the civil authorities, and were 
often on very good terms with the mass of their parish- 
ioners. The greatest jealousy of them was felt by the 
native clergy. 

The military revolt which broke out in Cavite in 1872, 
was doubtless inspired by this class, who saw that a policy 
had been adopted of filling vacancies in all benefices 
except the poorest, with Spanish friars instead of natives. 
The condemnation of Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora, three 
native priests who were executed at Manila soon after the 
suppression of the revolt, is ascribed by the natives 
and mestizos to the subornation of justice to the friars, 
who are said to have paid a large sum for their con- 

However this may be, there is no doubt that since that 
date the feeling against the friars has become intensified. 

The friars were the chief outposts and even bulwarks of 
the government against rebellions. Almost every rising 
has been detected by them, many plots being revealed 
by women under the seal of confession. It was only by 
the assistance of the friars that the islands were held by 
Spain for so many centuries almost without any military 

The islands were not conquered by force of arms — the 
people were converted almost without firing a shot. 

The greater part of the fighting was to protect the 
natives against Chinese pirates, Japanese corsairs, Dutch 
rovers, or the predatory heathen. 

The defensive forces consisted of local troops and com- 
panies of Mexican and Peruvian Infantry. It is only since 
1828 that Manila has been garrisoned by regular troops 
from the Peninsula. 

During my residence in the islands I do not think there 
were more than 1500 Spanish troops in garrison in the 
whole islands, except when some marines were sent out. 
These troops belonged to the Peninsular Regiment of 
Artillery, and were a veiy fine looking set of men. 

That this small force could be sufficient is evidently 


due to the influence of the friars in keeping the people 

Yet the feeling of a great majority of Spanish civilians 
was against the friars, and I think many of those who sup- 
ported them, only did so from interested motives. 

The consequence was that as the number of Spaniards 
increased, the influence of the friars diminished, for the 
Spanish anti-clericals had no scruples in criticising the 
priests and in speaking plainly to the natives to their 

The friars have fared badly at the hands of several 
writers on the Philippines ; but it will be noticed that those 
who know the least about them speak the worst of them. 

Herr Jagor, who was much amongst them, bears witness 
to the strict decorum of their households, whilst he very 
justly says that the behaviour of the native clergy leaves 
something to be desired. 

Foreman hints at horrors, and with questionable taste 
relates how he found amongst a priest's baggage some very 
obscene pictures. 

Worcester thinks the priests' influence wholly bad. 
From what he states in his book, he must have come across 
some very bad specimens amongst the smaller islands 
where he wandered. 

Younghusband, who perhaps got his information at the 
bar of the Manila Club, describes them as " monsters of 

There is a tradition that when the conclusions of a 
tribunal favourable to the canonisation of Santa Rosa de 
Lima, Patroness of the Indies, were laid before Pope 
Clement X., that Pontiff manifested his incredulity that 
a tropical climate could produce a saint. He is even 
credited with the saying that bananas and saints are not 
grown together. 

The tradition may be erroneous, but there is something 
in the opinion that deserves to be remembered. 

Temperature does have something to do with sexual 
morality, and in comparing one country with another an 
allowance must be made for the height of the thermometer. 

The friars in the Philippines are but men, and men 
exposed to great temptations. We should remember the 
tedium of life in a provincial town, where, perhaps, the 
parish priest is the only European, and is surfeited with 
the conversation of his native curates, of the half-caste 



apothecary and the Chinese store-keeper. He has neither 
society nor amusement. 

I have previously remarked upon the position of women 
in the Philippines. I may repeat that their position, both 
by law and custom, is at least as good as in the most 
advanced countries. 

I remember reading with great interest, and, perhaps, 
some sympathy, a remarkable article in the New York 
Herald, of January' loth, 1894, headed "Virtue Defined," 
signed by Tennie C. Claflin (Lady Cook), and it seemed to 
me a plea for " equality of opportunity " between the sexes, 
if I may borrow the phrase from diplomacy. Well, that 
equality exists in the Philippines. Whilst unmarried, the 
girls enjoy great freedom. In that tolerant land a little 
ante-nuptial incontinence is not an unpardonable crime in a 
girl any more than in a youth, nor does it bar the way to 

The girls whilst young possess exceedingly statuesque 
iigures, and what charms they have are nature's own, for 
they owe nothing to art. Their dress is modest, yet as 
they do not wear a superfluity of garments, at times, as 
when bathing, their figures are revealed to view. 

Bearing in mind the above condition of things and that the 
priest is the principal man in the town and able to do many 
favours to his friends, it is not surprising if some of the 
young women, impelled by the desire of obtaining his good 
graces, make a dead set at him, such as we sometimes see 
made at a bachelor curate in our own so-very-much-more 
frigid and, therefore, moral country. The priest, should he 
forget his vows of celibacy, is a sinner, and deserving of 
blame for failing to keep the high standard of virtue which 
his Church demands, 13ut I do not see in that a justifica- 
tion for calling him a monster. Have we never heard of a 
backslider in Brooklyn, or of a clerical co-respondent at 
home, that we should expect perfection in the Philippines ? 
As for the statements that the priests take married women 
by force, that is an absurdity. The Tagals are not men to 
sufi"er such an outrage. 

The toleration enjoyed by the girls, above referred to. 
is a heritage from heathen times, which three centuries of 
Christianity have failed to extirpate. In fact, this is a 
characteristic of the Malay race. 

During the many years I was in the islands I had 
frequent occasion to avail myself of the hospitality of the 


priests on my journeys. This was usually amongst the 
Augustinians, the Dominicans and the Recollets. I declare 
that on none of those many occasions did I ever witness 
anything scandalous, or indecorous in their convents, and I 
arrived at all hours and without notice. 

As to Younghusband's denouncement of them as " mon- 
sters of lechery," I would say that they were notoriously 
the most healthy and the longest-lived people in the islands, 
and if that most unjust accusation was true, this could hardly 
be the case. It should be remembered that the priest of 
any large town would be a man advanced in years and 
therefore less likely to misconduct himself. 

There was also the certainty that any open scandal 
would be followed by punishment from the provincial and 
council of the order. I have known a priest to be practically 
banished to a wretched hamlet amongst savages for two 
years for causing scandal. 

Some late writers speak of the native clergy as if 
they were of superior morality and better behaved than 
the Spanish priests. That appreciation docs no commend 
itself to those who have had some experience of the Philip- 
pine clergy. 

Some of those I have known were of very relaxed 
morals, not to say scandalous in their behaviour. The Philip- 
pine Islands, in short, are not the chosen abode of chastity : 
but I do not know why the Spanish friars should be singled 
out for special censure in this respect. 

I can truly say that I was not acquainted with any class 
out there entitled to cast the first stone. 

Each of the orders (except the Jesuits) is a little re- 
public governed or administered by officers and functionaries 
elected by the suffrages of the members. The head of the 
order is a Superior or General, who resides in Rome, but 
the head in the Philippines is called the Provincial. 

The brethren render him the greatest respect and 
obedience, kneeling down to kiss his hand. 

There is a council to assist the provincial, they are 
called definidorcs or padres graves, the exact nomenclature 
varies in the different orders. 

There is a Procurator or Commissary in Madrid, a Pro- 
curator-General in Manila, a Prior or Guardian to each 
convent not being a rectory, an Orator or preacher, lay- 
brethren in charge of estates or of works, parish priests, 
missionaries, and coadjutors, learning the native dialects. 

F 2 


The members of the order were appointed to benefices 
according to their standing and popularity amongst their 
brethren. The neophytes are trained in one of the semi- 
naries of the order in Spain ; for instance, the Augustinians 
have colleges at Valladolid, La Vid, and La Escorial, with 
more than 300 students. 

When a young priest first arrived in the Philippines, he 
was sent as a coadjutor to some parish priest to learn the 
dialect of the people he is to work amongst. Then he 
would be appointed a missionary to the heathen, where he 
lived on scanty pay, amongst savages, either in the high- 
lands of Luzon or in some remote island, remaining there 
for two or three years. His first promotion would be to a 
parish consisting of a village of thatched houses (nipa) and, 
perhaps, the church and convent would be of the same 
material. This meant a constant and imminent dread of 
the almost instantaneous destruction of his dwelling by fire. 
Perhaps there is communication with Manila once a month, 
when, by sending to the nearest port, he may get letters 
and newspapers and receive some provisions, an occasional 
cask of Spanish red wine, some tins of chorizos (Estremeiio 
smoked sausages), a sack of garbanzos, or frij61es, a box of 
turron de Alicante, and some cigars from the procuration of 
the convent in Manila. These would be charged to his 
account, and frugally as he might live, many a year might 
pass over his head before he would be out of debt to his 
Order. And poor as he might be, he would never refuse his 
house or his table to any European who might call upon 
him. Later on, if his conduct had satisfied his superiors, 
the time would come when he would get nominated to a 
more accessible and more profitable parish, that would 
quickly enable him to pay off the debt due to the procura- 
tion. He would have a church and convent of stone, keep 
a carriage and pair of ponies, and begin to have a surplus, 
and to contribute a little to the funds of his Order. 

Soon he would become Padre Grave, and begin to have 
influence with his colleagues. He would be removed to a 
richer town and nominated Vicario Foraneo, equivalent to 
an archdeacon in England, Later on, he might be elected 
a Definidor, or councillor. Then, perhaps, one of the great 
prizes of the order fell to his lot. He might be appointed 
parish priest of Taal or Birlan, worth at least ten thousand 
dollars a year, or of rich Lipa, high amongst its coffee 
groves (now, alas ! withered), which used to be worth twenty 


thousand dollars in a good year. He would treat himself 
well, and liberally entertain all who visited him, and 
governors of provinces, judges, officers of the Guardia Civil, 
would often be seen at his table. 

He would make large contributions to the funds of the 
Order, with the surplus revenue of his parish. 

If, however, the priest whose career we have been 
following, had shown sufficient character for a champion, 
and had become popular in the Order, he might, perhaps, be 
elected Provincial, and then, disposing of the influence of 
his Order, some day get himself made a Bishop or even 
Archbishop of IManila, should a vacancy occur, and so 
become a prince of the Church. 

Whatever talents a friar had, a sphere could always be 
found for their exercise. If he had a gift for preaching, he 
could be appointed Orator of the Order. If he was good at 
Latin and Greek, he could be made a professor at the uni- 
versity. If he was a good business man, he could be chosen 
procurator. If he had diplomatic talents he could be made 
commissary of the order at Madrid. In any case he was 
sure to be taken care of to the end of his days. 

As for the Orders in themselves, I have already said 
that, excepting the Society of Jesus, they are little republics, 
and that office-holders are elected by the votes of the 
members. When a general Chapter of the Order is held for 
this purpose, the members come from all parts and assemble 
in their convent in Manila, 

I am sorry to say that there has sometimes been so 
much feeling aroused over the question of the distribution 
of the loaves and fishes, that the opposing parties have 
broken up the chairs and benches to serve as clubs, and 
furiously attacked each other in the battle royal, and with 
deplorable results. 

In consequence of this, when the chapter or general 
assembly was to be held, the governor-general nominated 
a royal commissary, often a colonel in the army, to be 
present at these meetings, but only to interfere to keep the 
peace. It was something of an anomaly to see a son of 
Mars deputed to keep the peace in an assembly of the 
clergy. The meeting commenced with prayer, then one by 
one all the dignitaries laid down their offices and became 
private members of the Order, so that at the end of this 
ceremony every one was absolutely equal. 

Then the eldest rose and solemnly adjured any one 


present who held a Bull of the Holy Father, to produce it 
then and there under pain of major excommunication. 
Three times was this solemn warning delivered. 

It owes its origin, perhaps, to some surprise sprung on 
a brotherhood in former days, yet it is to be noted that one 
of the privileges of their Catholic majesties the kings of 
Spain was, that no Bull should run in their dominions 
without their approval. 

Then free from outside interference, and all present 
being on an equal footing the election takes place. Amidst 
great excitement the Provincial, the Procurator, the Orator, 
the Definidores, or Councillors, are chosen according to their 
popularity, or as they are deemed best fitted to advance 
the interests of the voter or the Order. 

The selection of office-holders is a matter of the greatest 
importance to the members, as those in power distribute 
the benefices and are apt to be more alive to the merits of 
their supporters, than to the pretensions of those who have 
voted for others. 

But, however divided they may be on these occasions, 
they unite against any outsider, and unless the question 
is evidently personal, he who offends a member finds the 
Order ranged against him, and, perhaps, the other Orders 
also, for in matters affecting their interests the Orders act 
in unison, and as has been said, have succeeded in removing 
not only governors of provinces, but governors-general 
also when these have failed to do their bidding-. 



Malinta and Piedad — Mandaloyan — San Francisco de Malabon — 
Irrigation works — Imus — Calamba — Cabuyao — Santa Rosa — 
Biiian — San Pedro Tunasan — Naic — Santa Cruz — Estates a bone 
of contention for centuries — ^Principal cause of revolt of Tagals — 
But the Peace Commission guarantee the Orders in possession — 
Pacification retarded — -Summary — The Orders must go I — And be 
replaced by natives. 

The Augustinians own some fine estates near Manila. In 
1877 I visited Malinta and Piedad, which, according to an 
old plan exhibited to me, drawn by some ancient navigator, 
measured over 14,000 acres in extent, a good part of which 
was cultivated and under paddy ; still a large expanse was 
rocky, and grew only cogon (elephant grass). The lay- 
brother in charge, Aureliano Garcia, confided to me that he 
went about in fear, and expected to end his life under the 
bolos of the tenants. I was then new to the country, 
and saw no signs of discontent. I afterwards visited 
Mandaloyan, another estate nearer Manila. This was 
nearly all arable land. The house was large and com- 
modious, and was used as a convalescent home for the 
friars. I have not a note of the extent of this estate, but 
it occupies a great part of the space between the rivers 
Maibonga and San Juan, to the north of the Pasig. The 
lay-brother in charge, Julian Ibeas, did not seem at all 
anxious about his safety. The land here was more fertile 
than that of Malinta, and there was water carriage to a 
market for the crops. 

In view of my report, which was not, however, unduly 
optimistic, my clients deputed me to ask the Augustinians 
for a lease of the above three estates for twenty-five years, 
the rent to be $40,000 * per year for three years, and each 
year after that an addition of a thousand dollars, so that 

* Exchange was then at ^-r. 2d. 


the ultimate rent would be $62,000 per annum. However, 
after taking some time to consider, the procurator declined 
the offer. 

On the above estates there was little or nothing done 
by the owners to improve the land. They had limited 
themselves to building large and convenient houses and 
granaries for their own accommodation, and to entertain 
their friends. 

In 1884 I constructed a pumping station on the River 
Tuliajan in this estate, and laid a pipe line right through 
the property to supply fresh water to the sugar refinery at 
Malabon, five miles distant. I had no difficulty in obtaining 
permission, indeed. Fray Arsenio Campo (now Bishop of 
Nueva Caceres) facilitated the work in every way. The 
only protest was by Doroteo Cortes, a half-caste lawyer, 
who interposed as the pipe had to pass between two fish- 
ponds belonging to him, and he extorted a blackmail $800 
to withdraw his opposition. Let the reader contrast the 
behaviour of the Spaniard and the half-caste, now posing 
as an " Americanista." 

San Francisco de Malabon, another possession of theirs, 
is a magnificent property, situated on the fertile, well- 
watered land that slopes from the summits of the Tagay- 
tay range, north of the vast crater-lake of Bombon, to the 
shores of the ever-famous Bay of Bacoor, the scene of 
Spain's naval collapse. 

Through the volcanic soil three rivers, the Ilang-ilang, 
the Camanchi'le, and the Jalan, have cut deep gashes down 
to the bed-rock, on the surface of which the rapid waters 
rush downwards to the sea. 

A nobly-proportioned house of stone, almost a fortress, 
was planted where it commanded a grand, a stately view. 
From its windows the spectator looked over fields of waving 
grain, over fruit trees, and town and hamlets, down to the 
sea shore, and across the vast expanse of placid bay to 
where in the far north solitaiy Arayat rears his head. The 
thick walls and lofty roof excluded the solar heat, and the 
green-painted Venetians saved the inmate from the glare. 
Very welcome was that hostel, furnished in severe ecclesi- 
astical almost mediaeval style, to me, after the dusty up-hill 
drive of eight miles from Cavite. 

I visited this estate in 1879, and found that extensive 
irrigation works had been carried out. A new dam on one 
of the rivers, about fifty feet high, was approaching com- 


pletion. Unfortunately, the work had been executed by a 
lay-brother, a stone mason, without professional supervision. 
He was ignorant of the necessity of taking special pre- 
cautions when preparing the seat for the dam. Although 
he had a bed of volcanic tuff to build upon he would not 
go to the trouble to cut into and stop all faults and crevices 
in the rock before laying his first course of masonry, and he 
hurried on the job to save expense as he supposed. For 
the same reason he did not attempt to follow the correct 
profile of the dam. When the pressure came on, the water 
spouted up in little fountains, and gradually increased as it 
cut away the soft stone. I advised them what to do, and 
after a good deal of work, Portland cement and puddled 
clay got them out of their difficulty. 

About four miles to the eastward of San Francisco de 
Malabon, and on the same volcanic soil, is the great estate 
of Imus belonging to the Recollets, or unshod Augustinians. 
It is about five miles from the landing-place at Bacoor. 
Here again three rivers run through the property, and the 
view from the house is the same. 

The house itself was a grim fortress and served the 
rebels well in 1896, for they found arms and ammunition in 
it, and successfully defended it against General Aiguirre 
who had to retire, being unable to take it without artillery. 

In 1897 the army of General Lachambre advanced 
against Imus, and on the 24th March took the outer 
defences of the town, notwithstanding the determined 
resistance of the Tagals, of whom three hundred were 
killed in a hand-to-hand combat. Next day the estate 
house, which adjoins the town and had been for six months 
the stronghold of the Katipunan, was bombarded and burnt, 
only the ruins remain. 

There are extensive works of irrigation at this place 
also, and formerly a large sugar works was built here by 
the owners, but it failed, as there was no one fit to take 
charge of it. 

I have not visited this Hacienda, and cannot give its 
extent or value. 

Of all the Orders the greatest land-owners are the 
Dominicans. They have vast estates in Calamba, Cabuydo, 
Santa Rosa, Binan, and San Pedro Tunasan, all on the 
Lake of Bay, also at Naic and Santa Cruz on the Bay of 
Manila. I have several times visited their estates at the 
first two places, and can affirm that they have expended 


considerable sums in building dams for irrigating the lands, 
and I supplied them with some very large cast-iron pipes 
for the purpose of making a syphon across a ravine or 
narrow valley to convey water for irrigating the opposite 
plain. They have consequently very largely increased the 
value of these lands. 

The house at Calamba, solidly built of stone, with a 
strong and high encircling wall, served as a fortified camp 
and headquarters for the Spanish army in operation against 
the rebels in 1897. 

This estate of Calamba has earned a sad notoriety in 
the Philippines, for the disputes which constantly arose 
between the administration and their tenants. 

It is hardly too much to say that the possession of 
estates has been fatal to the Orders. They claim to have 
always been good and indulgent landlords, but the fact 
remains that all these estates are in Tagal territory, that 
only the Tagals revolted, and that the revolt was directed 
against the Orders because of their tyranny and extortions, 
and because they were landlords and rack renters. 

It was, is now, and ever will be an Agrarian question 
that will continue to give trouble and be the cause of crime 
and outrage until settled in a broad-minded and statesman- 
like manner. 

These estates have been a bone of contention for 
centuries, and were a principal cause of the last revolt 
of the Tagals. Yet the Peace Commission at Paris appears 
to have given the three Orders a new title to their disputed 
possessions by guaranteeing to the Church the enjoyment 
of its property, which, if the Spaniards had continued to 
rule the islands, must ultimately have been taken from it 
in the natural course of events, as has happened in every 
other Catholic country. 

I have no doubt that the pacification of the Philippines 
by the American forces has been greatly retarded, and is 
now rendered more difificult, by this clause, which must 
have been accepted by the American commissioners under 
a misapprehension of its import, and from imperfect in- 
formation as to the status quo. This difificult matter can 
still be arranged, but it will require the outlay of a con- 
siderable sum of money, which, however, would eventually 
be recouped. 

In present circumstances I venture to say that a garrison 
would be needed at each estate to protect an administrator 





















or collector, for the Tagal tenants are as averse to paying 
rent for land as any bog-trotter in Tipperary. I do not 
envy anybody who purchases these estates, nor would I 
consider the life of such a one a good risk for an insurance 
company, if he intended to press the tenants for rents or 

To sum up the Religious Orders, they were hardy and 
adventurous pioneers of Christianity, and in the evangelisa- 
tion of the Philippines, by persuasion and teaching, they 
did more for Christianity and civilisation than any other 
missionaries of modern times. 

Of undaunted courage they have ever been to the front 
when calamities threatened their flocks ; they have witnessed 
and recorded some of the most dreadful convulsions of 
nature, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and destructive 
typhoons. In epidemics of plague and cholera they have 
not been dismayed, nor have they ever in such cases 
abandoned their flocks. 

When an enemy has attacked the islands they have 
been the first to face the shot. Only fervent faith could 
enable these men to endure the hardships, and overcome 
the dangers that encompassed them. 

They have done much for education, having founded 
schools for both sexes, training colleges for teachers, the 
university of St. Thomas in Manila, and other institutions. 

Hospitals and asylums attest their charity. They were 
formerly, and even lately, the protectors of the poor against 
the rich, and of the native against the Spaniard. They 
have consistently resisted the enslavement of the natives. 

They restrained the constant inclination of the natives 
to wander away into the woods and return to primitive 
savagery by keeping them in the towns, or, as they said, 
" Under the bells." 

On the other hand, peace and plenty (those blessings 
for which we pray), have corrupted and demoralised the 
Orders. No longer liable at any moment to be called 
upon to fight for their lives, the sterner virtues have de- 
cayed. Increased production and export enriched the 
people, a gold coinage was introduced, and the friars 
allowed avarice to possess their souls. 

In those lands of perpetual summer no death duties 
have to be paid to a Chancellor of the Exchequer, as in 
this island of fog and mist. 

But the friars have a system of charges for performing 


the funeral ceremonies, which comes to much the same in 
the end. I call it a system ; it is a very simple system, 
and consists in extorting as much as they can get, taking 
into consideration the wealth of the family. To give an 
instance, I have been assured by a son of Capitan Natalio 
Lopez, of Balayan, a native gentleman well known to me, 
that the parish priest charged the family six hundred 
dollars for performing their father's funeral ceremony. 
The same rule applies to baptisms and marriages, and this 
abuse calls for redress, and for the establishment of fixed 
fees according to the position of the parties. 

Each friar, as a parish priest, was an outpost of the 
central government, watching for symptoms of revolt. 
Only thus could the Spaniards hold the archipelago with 
fifteen hundred Peninsular troops, and a small squadron 
of warships. 

The greatest, and the best-founded, complaint of the 
natives against the priests, was that whoever displeased 
them, either in personal or money matters, was liable to be 
denounced to the authorities as a filibuster, and to be torn 
from home and family and deported to some distant and 
probably unhealthy spot, there to reside, at his own cost, 
for an indefinite time, by arbitrary authority, without 
process of law. Such a punishment, euphoniously termed 
" forced residence," sometimes involved the death of the 
exile, and always caused heavy expense, as a pardon could 
not be obtained without bribing some one. 

Ysabelo de los Reyes, and other natives, accuse the 
friars of extorting evidence from suspected persons by 
torture. I fear there can be no doubt that many victims, 
including a number of the native clerics, suffered flagella- 
tion and other tortures at the hands of the friars for the 
above purpose. The convents of Nueva-Caceres and of 
Vigan, amongst other places, were the scenes of these 
abominable practices, and Augustinians, Dominicans and 
Franciscans, have taken part in them. This is referred 
to at greater length in another part of this work under the 
heading, "The Insurrection of 1896." 

Individual friars were sometimes, nay, often, very 
worthy parish priests. I have known many such. But a 
community is often worse than the individuals of which it 
is composed. One might say with the Italian musician 
who had served for many years in a cathedral, and had 
obtained the promise of every individual canon to support 


his application for a pension, when he was told that the 
chapter had unanimously refused his request : 
" The canons are good, but the chapter is bad." 

A board will jointly do a meaner action than the 
shadiest director amongst them, and should it comprise 
one or two members of obtrusive piety, that circumstance 
enables it to disregard the ordinary standard of right and 
wrong with more assurance. 

There is a law in metallurgy which has a curious 
analogy to this law of human nature. It is this : An alloy 
composed of several metals of different melting-points, will 
fuse at a lower temperature than that of its lowest fusing 

The Orders, then, have been of the greatest service in 
the past ; they have brought the Philippines and their 
inhabitants to a certain pitch of civilisation, and credit is 
due to them for this much, even if they could go no farther. 
For years their influence over the natives has been de- 
creasing, and year by year the natives have become more 
and miore antagonistic to priestly rule. 

A considerable intellectual development has taken place 
of late years in the Philippines. The natives are no longer 
content to continue upon the old lines ; they aspire to a 
freer life. Many even harbour a sentiment of nationality 
such as was never thought of before. 

But if the Orders had lost ground with the natives and 
with many Spaniards, their influence still preponderated. 
Owners of vast estates, possessors of fabulous riches, armed 
with spiritual authority, knowing the secrets of every 
family, holding the venal courts of justice as in the hollow 
of their hand, dominating the local government, standing 
above the law, and purchasing the downfall of their enemies 
from the corrupt ministries in Madrid, these giant trusts, 
jealous of each other, yet standing firmly shoulder to 
shoulder in the common cause, constitute a barrier to 
progress that can have no place nor use under an American 
Protectorate. They are an anachronism in the twentieth 
century, and they must disappear as corporations from the 

They should not, however, be buried under an avalanche 
of contumely and slander ; their long and glorious past 
should be remembered, and in winding up their estates 
due regard should be paid to the interests of every member, 
I cannot here intimate how this is to be done, for it is an 


intricate subject, rendered more complex by the reluctance 
of the American Government to interfere in religious 
matters, even though they are so bound up with the 
politics of the Philippines that no pacification can be 
effected without following popular sentiment upon this 

So far as the landed estates are concerned, the settle- 
ment could be arrived at by a commission with ample 
powers. In the meantime, no sale of these estates should 
be recognised. 

The benefices held by the friars should be gradually 
bestowed upon the secular clergy, as suitable men can be 
found. The native clergy have always been badly used by 
the friars ; they have had to suffer abuse and ignominious 
treatment. They have not been in a position to develop 
their dignity and self-respect. 

I have spoken of them in general as leaving something 
to be desired as to decorous conduct, but they will doubt- 
less improve when placed in positions of consideration and 

Amongst them are men of considerable learning ; some 
have passed brilliant examinations in theology and canon 

As regards piety, Malays, whether heathen, Mahometan 
or Christian, take their religion lightly, and we must not 
expect too much. I daresay they are pious enough for 
the country and the climate. 

( 79 ) 



Jvlasonic Lodges — Execution or exile of Masons in 1872 — The 
"Associacion Hispano Filipina" — The " Liga Filipina" — The 
Katipuuan — Its programme. 

Fray Eduardo Navarro, Procurator of the Augustinians, 
and Ysabelo de los Reyes, an Ilocano, and author of some 
notable works, agree that the first masonic lodge of the 
Philippines was founded in Cavite about i860. The latter 
states that Malcampo and Mendez-Nuiiez, two distinguished 
naval officers, were the founders. Soon after this, another 
lodge was founded in Zamboanga, also under naval 
auspices. After 1868, a lodge was founded in Manila by- 
foreigners, a wealthy Filipino being secretary. Another 
lodge was founded in Pandakan, another in Cebu, and still 
another in Cavite, to which Crisanto Reyes and Maximo 
Inocencio belonged. 

These lodges at first had only Peninsular Spaniards 
or other Europeans as members, but gradually Creoles, 
Mestizos, and natives, joined the brotherhood, and sub- 
scribed liberally to its funds. 

The Catholic clergy have always looked upon Masons 
as most dangerous enemies, and many pontiffs have launched 
their anathemas against the brotherhood. But, so far as 
one can see, to quote from ' The Jackdaw of Rheims,' " No 
one seemed a penny the worse." 

Masonry grows and flourishes in spite of them all. To 
give an example. Many years ago, in the very Catholic 
city of Lima, I attended the civil funeral of a priest, the 
learned Doctor Don Francisco de Paula Gonzales Vigil, 
who died excommunicate. Twelve thousand men, including 
the Masons with their insignia, deputations from the Senate 
and Chamber, from the Municipality, Army, Navy, and 
other bodies, formed the funeral cortege. The Municipality 


presented a tomb in the public cemetery, which is one of 
the finest in the world, and an orator pronounced an im- 
passioned eulogy upon the virtues and patriotism of the 
deceased. It was a wonderful manifestation, and remains 
graven upon my memory. On that day every priest and 
friar found something to occupy himself with at home. 
Whatever may be the case in Great Britain or in the 
United States, there can be no doubt that in Catholic 
countries the lodges are antagonistic to the clergy and the 

The lodges in the Philippines were founded by anti- 
clerical Spaniards of liberal views, and the Creoles, Mestizos 
and natives who joined them found brethren disposed to 
sympathise with them and to work with them against the 
friars. There was no idea of revolting against the mother 
country, but rather to introduce a more liberal government, 
with representation for the civilised provinces in the Spanish 
C6rtes. It must be remembered that this representation 
had already existed, and only required to be revived. There 
had been deputies to the C6rtes-Generales from 1810 to 
1814, and from 1820 to 1823, and Procuradores from 1834 
to 1837. 

The C6rtes of Cadiz, on 14th October, 18 10, de- 
clared : — 

" The kingdoms and provinces of America and Asia are, and 
ought to have been always, reputed an integral part of the Spanish 
monarchy, and for that same, their natives and free inhabitants are 
equal ill rights and privileges to those of the penitisulaP 

These are very noble words, and, delivered in the 
majestic language of Castile by some enthusiastic orator, 
must have gone straight to the hearts of those that heard 

Spain is as celebrated for orators as Great Britain for 
the lack of them. Our generation has never produced a 
speaker like Castelar. But, unfortunately for the Philip- 
pines, these grand and sonorous phrases dissolved in air, 
and led to nothing practical. The friars stoutly opposed 
what to them seemed dangerous innovations ; they were 
successful, and darkness again prevailed. 

The insurrection of Cavite, in 1872, resulted in the 
execution or exile of many members of the masonic body, 
and the brotherhood was for some years under a cloud. 

The Peninsular Spaniards dissociated themselves from 


the revolutionary party. To use a simile which has been 
employed in England to describe the difference between 
Liberals and Radicals, they were " going by the same train, 
but not going so far," 

The Creoles and Mestizos gradually founded new 
societies, which were alleged to aim at obtaining reforms 
by legal and constitutional means. 

"The Asociacion Hispano-Filipina" had for its first 
president Doroteo Cortes, and amongst its officers Am- 
brosio Rianzares Bautista, Pedro Serrano, and Deodato 

The " Liga Filipina " was founded by Dr. Rizal and 
Domingo Franco ; its first president was shot. Nearly all 
the members were Masons ; they were well off, and of fair 
education, not inclined to put their persons or property in 
danger. They did not want to fight. Their programme 
may be summed up as follows : — 

1. Expulsion of the friars, and confiscation of their 


2. The same political, administrative and economical 

concessions as had been granted to Cuba. Free- 
dom of the press, and freedom of association. 

3. Equalisation of the Philippine and Peninsular armies, 

and a just division of Civil Service posts between 
natives and Spaniards. 

4. Return to owners of lands usurped by the friars, and 

sale of such lands as really belonged to the 

5. Prevention of insults to the Philippine natives, either 

in sermons or in the press. 

6. Economy in expenditure. Reduction of imposts. 

Construction of railways and public works. 

It was certainly not without risk to be a member of one 
of these societies, for the Orders are vindictive in the 
extreme, and are not troubled with scruples when it is a 
question of punishing an opponent. 

Still, the Creole and Mestizo element were made 
cautious by the possession of property, and its members 
cannot be called fighting-men. They did not intend to 
run the risk of having holes bored through them. 

They founded newspapers in Spain ; they wrote violent 
articles, they made speeches, they obtained the support of 
some Liberals and anti-clericals in the Peninsula, and 



numbered many adherents in the islands. Still, they were 
comparatively harmless. Not so, however, was a society 
which was formed of very different elements. Taking a 
hint, perhaps, from the murderous brotherhood of the Ku- 
Klux-Klan, some resolute and courageous Tagals imagined 
and formed that terrible secret society, the Katipunan. 
There is no K in the Spanish alphabet, but this letter is 
found in the Malay dialects, and consequently in Tagal. 
Therefore, the symbol of the society, K.K.K., was as 
distinctly anti-Spanish as was the full title, which was 
represented by the initials — 

N M A N B 

The words corresponding to these initials were : — 

Kataas-taasan Kagalang-galang Katipunan 

or Sovereign Worshipful Association 

Nang Manga Anac Nang Bayan 
of the (plural) sons of the Country. 

They used signs and passwords. There were three grades 
of members : — 

I St grade 


word Anak nang bayan, 

2nd „ 


„ Gom-bur-za.* 

3rd „ 


Andres Bonifacio, a warehouse-keeper in the service of 
Messrs. Fressel & Co., of Manila, was the guiding spirit of 
this society, and at the meeting of ist January, 1896, the 
Supreme Council was elected as follows : — 

President . . . Andres Bonifacio. 

Fiscal and Doctor Emilio Jacinto 6 Dison, alias Ping Kian. 

Treasurer , . . Vicente Molina. 

'Pantaleon Torres. 
Hermengildo Reyes. 
Francisco Carreon. 
I Jose Trinidad. 
Balbino Florentino. 
,A<ruedo del Rosario. 


* This word is formed of the first syllable of the names of three 
native priests executed after the Cavite mutiny, Fathers Gomez, 
Burgos, and Zamora. 



K K 


The members of the Katipunan were poor people — - 
writers, common soldiers, washermen, mechanics, and 
tenants on the friars' estates. They subscribed small 
sums monthly for the purchase of arms, and for other 
expenses. Bearing in mind how many conspiracies had 
been denounced to the priests by the women, the leaders 
of this movement gave their meetings the outward appear- 
ance of benevolent associations, and directed the members 
to represent the society to their wives in that light. 

Later on a woman's lodge, with twenty-five members 
was organised, under the presidency of Marina Dison, but 
the women were not informed of the true object of the 

Fray Eduardo Navarro, Procurator of the Augustinians, 
in a cleverly-written work, entitled 'The Philippines; a. 
Study of Certain Matters of Moment,' published in 1897, 
prints under No. 3 of the Appendix the title granted by the 
Walana Lodge, No. 158, certifying that "our dear sister, 
Purificacion Leyva, has been initiated in the degree of" 
Companion-Mason at the session of 8th April, 1894." 

On reading this work, I infer that the friars considered 
the Katipunan a Masonic body, but this is a mistake. The. 
Katipunan adopted some of the Masonic paraphernalia, 
and some of the initiatory ceremonies, but were in no 
sense Masonic lodges. 

The programme of the Katipunan was, in its own 
words, "to redeem the Philippines from its tyrants, the 
friars, and to found a communistic republic." This was 
simple and direct, and they meant it. 

How many men were affiliated to this society cannot be 
known. Estimates range from 10,000 to 50,000 members, 
I think there can be no doubt that it was the most potent 
factor in the insurrection of 1896, and that its memberSj 
unlike the Creoles and Mestizos, were ready to give their 
lives for their cause. 

G 2 




Combat at San Juan del Monte — Insurrection spreading — Arrival of 
reinforcements from Spain — Rebel entrenchments — Rebel arms 
and artillery — Spaniards repulsed from Binacayan^and from 
Noveleta — Mutiny of Carabineros— Prisoners at Cavite attempt 
to escape— Iniquities of the Spanish War Office — Lachambre's 
division — Rebel organization — Rank and badges — Lachambre 
advances — He captures Silang — Perez Dasmarinas — Salitran — 
Anabo II. 

The Augustinians take credit to themselves that one of 
their order, Father Mariano Gil, parish priest of Tondo, 
discovered the existence of the revolutionary conspiracy, 
on the 19th August But already on the 5th of July a 
lieutenant of the Guardia Civil had declared in a written 
report that there were over 14,000 men belonging to the 
valley of the Pasig, affiliated to the conspiracy. 

A council of the authorities was convened on the 6th of 
August, but nothing was done. On that same date, how- 
ever, the Governor of Batangas telegraphed that a discovery 
of arms, ammunition and Republican flags had been made 
at Taal. In consequence of this. General Blanco ordered 
some arrests to be made. 

On the 19th, Father Gil gave information to General 
Blanco that he had discovered the existence of a secret 
revolutionary society, and two days later Blanco reported 
to the Government in Madrid that there existed a vast 
■organization of secret societies. 

At this time the garrison of Manila consisted of some 
1500 men, most of them being natives. As arrests were 
being continually made, the members of the Katipunan, 
or those suspected of being such, left their homes and 
took to the woods although very poorly equipped with 

On 30th August a party of the rebels under Sancho 


Valenzuela, Modesto Sarmiento, and others had a fight 
with some native cavalry and Guardias Civiles at San Juan 
del Monte near Manila. The rebels lost heavily in killed, 
their chiefs were taken prisoners and shot on the 4th 
September, at the Pasco de la Luneta. 

A Spanish artilleryman was murdered by some rebels 
at Pandacan about this time, and martial law was pro- 

The Guard ia Civil, all native soldiers, was now con- 
centrated in Manila abandoning their outlying posts. After 
many vacillations and contradictory cablegrams to the 
Government in Madrid, General Blanco now definitely 
asked for large reinforcements. 

On September ist, the people of Noveleta revolted and 
killed a captain and a lieutenant of the Guardia Civil and 
three days later the rebels penetrated to the town of 
Caridad, close to Cavite. 

Early in September rebels were in arms, and dominating 
great part of the Provinces of Manila, Cavite, Batangas, 
Bulacan, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija. 

By the middle of the month rebel bands appeared in 
Tarlac, Pangasinan, Laguna, Morong and Tayabas. 

On the 9th September, the Cavite rebels attacked San 
Roque, which is close to the town of Cavite, and burned 
part of it. On the 12th, thirteen persons who had been 
convicted by a court-martial of complicity in the revolt 
were shot in Cavite, 

The cables from General Blanco to the Madrid Govern- 
ment were all this time misleading and contradictory, and. 
showed that he had no grasp of the state of affairs. These 
dispatches were subjected to severe criticism in the Heraldc,. 
a Madrid newspaper. 

By the middle of September troops arrived from Zam- 
boanga and other southern stations, and the garrison of 
Manila was brought up to 6000 men, two-thirds of whom 
were natives. Reinforcements were sent to Cavite, for 
the rebels were in great force about Silang, Imus, and 

On the 17th September another attack was made by 
the rebels on San Roque, but was repulsed. 

On the 1st October the mail steamer CataluTia arrived 
with a battalion of marines from Spain, greatly to the 
delight of the Spaniards, who gave the force an enthusiastic 


Next day the ss. Monserrat arrived with more troops, 
and from this time forward troops kept pouring in. 

Still General Blanco remained on the defensive in and 
around the city of Manila and the town of Cavite, and 
repulsed attacks made by the rebels on the magazines at 
Binancayan and Las Piiias, 

The rebels were now firmly established over the rest of 
the Province of Cavite. The natural features of this part 
of Luzon made the movements of regular troops extremely 
difficult. The country abounds in rivers which run from 
south to north parallel to each other at short distances. 
They run at the bottom of deep ravines, which present 
excellent positions for defence. Many of these rivers have 
dams across them and the sluices in these might be opened 
by the defenders, or the dams could be blown up in case a 
column of the assailants should be entangled in the ravine 
below, when they would inevitably be overwhelmed in the 
descending torrent. 

In places the country could be flooded and thus be 
rendered impassable for troops. 

But the industiy of the rebels, skilfully directed, had 
added enormously to these natural advantages. From the 
reports of eye-witnesses I can affirm that the entrenchments 
of the Tagals were colossal. Tagals and Boers have 
demonstrated that a competitive examination is not neces- 
.sary to enable fighting-men to entrench themselves. The 
Tagal lines ran from the delta of the Zapote River to Naic 
in an almost unbroken line, approximately parallel to the 

They were doubled and trebled in front of villages or 
towns and across the roads. 

The trace was en crcmaillh'e, the section being 6 feet 
thick at the top and 8 feet high, the exterior face vertical, 
with a revetment of bamboos fastened together with rattans. 
It was in fact a bank of earth built up against a strong 
bamboo fence. 

The defenders fired through loop-holes left in the 
parapet, and were veiy well covered, but they could only 
fire straight before them and horizontally. 

The defences of the towns had thicker and loftier 
parapets ; in some cases there were three tiers of loop-holes 
properly splayed. 

The insurgents were very insufficiently armed, and at 
first there were ten men to a rifle. The man who was 


reputed the best shot carried the rifle and cartridge belt, 
and if he was killed or wounded in an engagement, the 
next best shot took the weapon and continued the fight. 
In the early actions there was scarcely ever a rifle left on 
the ground by the insurgents. 

The only cannon the rebels had at first were some 
ancient brass swivel guns called falconetes or lantacas, 
which they took from the estate-houses at Imus and 

They also had some brass mortars like quart pots, 
which are used for firing salutes on feast days. These they 
fastened at an angle to blocks of wood, thus making small 
howitzers, quite effective at short range. They loaded 
these with the punchings from boiler-plates and broken 

They showed a considerable ingenuity in making cannon 
out of any materials at hand. They would take a steel 
boiler-tube, a stay tube for choice, say about three inches 
bore and a quarter of an inch thick. Plugging up one 
end and drilling a touch-hole, they would drive this tube 
into a hole bored in a log of hard wood turned on the 
outside to a taper, then they drove eight or nine wrought- 
iron rings over the wood. They drilled through the wood 
to suit the touch-hole and the gun was ready. 

They fitted no trunnions, but mounted this rude cannon 
upon a solid block of wood. 

In other cases they made some wire guns by lapping 
steel boiler-tubes with telegraph-wire. 

Towards the end of the campaign of Lachambre's 
division against the rebels, some modern field-pieces of 
eight centimetres were captured from them, but it is not 
clear where these came from. 

To supplement their scanty stock of rifles, they made 
some hand-guns of gas-tube. These were fired by applying 
a match or lighted cigar to the touch-hole, and would seem 
to be very clumsy weapons. But I may say that when on 
a visit to the estate of Pal pa, in Peru, I saw a Chinaman 
who was in charge of the poultry corral, kill a hawk 
hovering, with a similar gun. 

The Spanish Military and Naval Authorities now took 
the revolt very seriously, and on the 8th November the 
squadron comprising the Castilla, Reina Cristina, and 
other vessels, and the guns of the forts at Cavite and 
Puerto Vaga, opened upon the rebel position at Cavite, 


Viejo, Noveleta, Binancdyan, and other places within range, 
and kept it up for hours. The next morning the firing was 
resumed at dayh'ght, supplemented by the guns frcm 
launches and boats well inshore. Troops were landed 
under the protection of the squadron, and advanced against 
the entrenchments of Binancayan. They delivered three 
frontal attacks with great gallantry, reaching the parapet 
each time, but were beaten back, leaving many dead upon 
the ground. No flanking attack was possible here for the 
parapet extended for many miles each way. 

A simultaneous attack was made upon Noveleta by a 
column of 3000 Spanish and native infantry under Colonel 
Fermin Diaz Mattoni. 

This force started from Cavite and marched through 
Dalahican and along the road to Noveleta. This road is 
a raised causeway running through a mangrove swamp, 
having deep mud on each side impassable for troops. 
This is at least a mile of swamp, and the troops advanced 
along the causeway and crossed a bridge which spanned a 
muddy creek. 

No enemy was in sight, and the town was not far ofif. 
Suddenly the head of the column fell into a most cunningly 
devised pitfall. The road had been dug out, the pit 
covered with wattle, and the surface restored to its original 
appearance. The bottom of the pit was set with pointed 
bamboo stakes which inflicted serious wounds upon those 
that fell upon them. 

At the moment of confusion the rebels opened a 
withering fire from concealed positions amongst the man- 
groves upon the column standing in the open. 

The Spaniards and native troops made great efforts to 
get forward, but could not stand the fire and had to retire. 
When they got back to the bridge it was down, and they 
had to wade across the creek under a close fire from the 
rebels hidden amongst the mangroves. In this action the 
Spaniards are said to have lost 600 killed and many 
hundreds wounded. The loss fell principally on the 73rd 
and 74th Regiments of Native Infantry. 

The rebels were greatly encouraged, and got possession 
of a large number of rifles, with ammunition and accoutre- 

Both these attacks were made under the direction of 
General Blanco, who witnessed them from a lofty staging 
erected within the lines of Dalahican. After these disasters 


he resumed the defensive, except that the squadron and 
the batteries at Cavite and Puerto Vaga frequently bom- 
barded the rebel positions. 

At this time thousands of natives were in prison in 
Manila awaiting their trial. A permanent court-martial 
had been organised to try the suspects. Great numbers 
were shot, and many hundreds were transported to the 
Caroline Islands, to Ceuta, and Fernando F6. Wealthy 
natives were mercilessly blackmailed, and it is reported 
that those who were discharged had to pay large sums for 
their release. 

The Spanish Volunteers in Manila committed many 
arbitrary and even outrageous actions, and aroused the 
hatred of the natives far more than the regular troops did. 
They allowed their patriotism to carry them into most 
lamentable excesses. 

On the 25th February a rising and mutiny of the 
Carbineers or Custom-House Guards took place in Manila 
at the captain of the port's office. The scheme miscarried 
and was only partially successful. The officer on duty 
was shot, and also the sergeant, and the rebels made off 
with some rifles and ammunition. 

The volunteers and some troops hastily called together 
pursued the rebels through Tondo as far as the Leper 
Hospital, till nightfall, the last volley being fired at 
6.15 P.M. In this affair the mutineers lost a great many 
men, but some of them got away and joined the rebels. 

Blanco had not been severe enough with the rebels or 
suspected rebels to please the friars. His management of 
the attacks upon Noveleta and Binancdyan had been faulty, 
and his health was bad. It was not surprising that, having 
the priests against him, and the military dissatisfied, that he 
was recalled. He left at the end of 1896. General Polavieja, 
an officer who had risen from the ranks by his military 
talents, and who, when serving in Cuba, had very accurately 
gauged the situation, and had made a remarkably clever 
report to the government, was sent out to replace Blanco. 
Polavieja was inexorable with the rebels and their sym- 
pathisers. Military executions took place about once a 
week for two months. Francisco Roxas, a mestizo ship- 
owner, Numeriano Adriano, and many other mestizos and 
natives were shot at the Pasco de la Luneta. 

On December 6th the prisoners in Cavite jail rose, 
murdered their jailer, and attempted to escape. One 


hundred and fifty prisoners were concerned in this affair. 
Of these, forty-seven were shot in the streets of the town, 
and twenty-one were captured, whilst thirteen were shot 
in the bushes behind Cafiacao. Those recaptured were 
tried for prison-breaking, and were all shot the next 

By the beginning of 1897, a large number of troops 
had arrived from Spain. They were, however, largely 
conscripts, raw youths who had never handled a rifle, mere 
raw material in fact, sent out without uniform or equipment, 
many having only what they stood up in, or at most, having 
a spare shirt and a singlet tied up in a handkerchief. We 
talk about the shortcomings of our War Ofhce officials, and 
certainly they sometimes give examples of wooden-headed 
stupidity, and are behind the age in many particulars. But 
for deliberate inhumanity, for utter callousness to human 
suffering, to loss of health and life, I think the Spanish 
War Office could hardly be outdone. And I speak of their 
misdeeds from personal knowledge in the Philippines and 
in Cuba. What an enormous amount of suffering was 
caused to the working-people of Spain by the sending to 
Cuba and to the Philippines of over 200,000 men in 
1895-96. Never in this generation were men shipped 
away so destitute of clothing, provisions, surgeons and 
medical comfcrts. Never have I seen troops in the field 
with such wretched equipment, or so devoid of transport, 
tents, and supplies. 

Whatever successes they achieved were secured by the 
inborn valour of the troops, and by extraordinary exertions 
on the part of the generals and staff to improvise on the 
spot what the national treasury should have supplied them 
with at the commencement of hostilities. 

The raw recruits having been drilled and exercised 
with the rifle were organised in fifteen battalions and called 
Cazadores (chasseurs). These battalions, with four regi- 
ments of native infantry and some native volunteers, were 
formed into brigades under Generals Cornell, Marina, 
Jaramillo and Galbis. The first three brigades constituted 
a division, which was placed under the command of General 
Lachambre, an officer of great energy, and of long experi- 
ence in the Cuban wars. 

By the beginning of 1897 the Tagal rebellion had 
concentrated its forces in the province of Cavite. Embers 
of rebeUion still smouldered in other provinces of Luzon, 


but many rebels from outlying places had thrown in their 
lot with those of Cavite, and in great numbers, very in- 
differently supplied with arms and ammunition, but amply 
with provisions, they confidently awaited the long-prepared 
attack of the Spanish forces behind the formidable entrench- 
ments that their persevering labour had raised. In the 
interval they had organised themselves after a fashion, and 
had instituted a reign of terror wherever they held sway. 

The organisation of the rebels in the province of Cavite 
was of a somewhat confused nature, and seemed to respond 
to the ambition and influence of particular individuals 
rather than to any systematic principle. 

Thus Silang was declared a vice-royalty under Victor 
Belarmino, styled Victor I. 

The rest of the province was divided into two districts, 
each ruled by a council ; the first was Imus and its vicinity, 
under Bernardino Aguinaldo with ministers of war, of the 
treasury, of agriculture and of justice. 

The second w^as San Francisco de Malabon, presided 
over by Mariano Alvarez, with ministers of state as above. 

But above the kingdom of Silang and the two republics, 
the President of the Katipunan, Andres Bonifacio, held sway 
as lieutenant of the Generalissimo Emilio Aguinaldo. He 
resided in his palace at San Francisco, and from there 
dictated his orders. The supreme power was in the hands 
of Aguinaldo. 

All these authorities exercised despotic power, and 
certainly ill-treated and robbed their own countrymen who 
did not desire to join them, far more than the Spaniards 
have ever done in the worst of times. They frequently 
inflicted the death-penalty, and their so-called courts- 
martial no more thought of acquitting an accused person 
than a regimental court-martial in England would. The 
terrible President of the Katipunan ultimately became a 
victim of one of these blood-thirsty tribunals. 

Their military organization was curious. The province 
was sub-divided into military zones. First Silang, second 
Imus, third Bacoor, fourth San P'rancisco dc Malabon, fifth 
Alfonso. Each zone had an army which consisted of all 
the population able to work, and was divided into two parts, 
the active or fighting force and the auxiliary but non- 
combatant part. The active force was divided into regi- 
ments and companies, and these last into riflemen and 
spearmen, there being commonly five of the latter to one 


of the former. Besides the usual military ranks, they 
instituted the following functionaries : 

Minister of Marine . . . . 
Principal Chaplain to the Forces. 
Intefidatit- General of Taxes . 
General of Artillery . . . . 
hispector of Ordnance Factor ies\ 
General of Engineers j 

Judge Advocate General . 

Marcelo de los Santos. 
Eladio Almeyda. 
Silvcstrc Aguinaldo. 
Crispulo Aguinaldo. 

Edilberto Evangelista. 

Santos Noc6n. 

All the above held the rank of lieutenant-general. 
The badges of rank were as follows : 


Rebel Badges of Rank. 

Lieiitenant Generals, 

K on the hat or cap. 
Z. L. I. B. on the arm. 

K on the left breast. 










The Ministers, 


The Secretary to the Generalissimo, 


The rebels occupied the whole of the province of Cavite, 
except the fortified town of that name containing the naval 
arsenal, and a small strip on the shores of the Laguna 
where the Spanish troops were posted. 

Cornell's brigade was at Calamba and Marina's brigade 
at Biiian. They had outlying detachments amounting to 
1500 men at Santa Cruz, Santo Domingo, Tayabas, and 
along the line from Tanauan to Baiiadero, leaving each 
brigade 4000 men for the advance into the rebel territory. 
The divisional troops numbered about 1300, making a total 
of 9300 combatants. 

The brigade under Jaramillo had its headquarters in 
Taal, Batangas Province, with outlying detachments at 
Batangas, Calaca, Lian Balayan and Punta Santiago, and 
a force holding the line of the Pansipit River, altogether 
amounting to 1000 men, leaving 1600 free to operate. 

Besides this a fourth brigade, not belonging to the 
division, having General Galbis as brigadier, was extended 
along the northern bank of the Zapote River, under the 
immediate orders of the governor-general. The Lakes of 
Bay and Bombon (Taal) were guarded by armed steam- 
launches and other small craft, whilst the gunboats of the 
squadron patrolled the sea coast. The rebel province was 
thus held in a grip of iron. 

On the 1 2th February, 1897, General Lachambre re- 
ported himself ready to advance. General Polavieja ordered 
Jaramillo to attack the rebel trenches at Bayuyungan on 
the 14th, and to keep up the attack until Lachambre had 
seized Silang, when he was to attack Talisay on the Lake 
of Taal. The marines at Dalahican were ordered to attack 
Noveleta, whilst Lachambre was to advance on the 15th, 
the two brigades taking different routes, but converging on 

The march was extremely difficult, and the nine-centi- 


m^tre guns were only taken through, at the cost of most 
strenuous efforts. The enemy tenaciously defended every 
favourable position, and were only driven off at the cost of 
many lives. 

On the 19th, Silang, one of the principal rebel towns, 
was taken by assault and at the point of the bayonet, after 
a preparatory bombardment in which the artillery fired 
105 rounds of shell, whilst 25,000 rifle cartridges were used 
by the infantry. 

The rebels lost 2000 men killed and wounded, whilst 
the Spanish losses were 12 killed and 70 wounded. The 
town was strongly entrenched and stoutly defended, and 
its capture with so small a loss may justly be called a 
creditable operation. Marina's brigade attacked from the 
south and Cornell's brigade from the east. 

The action lasted from 7 to 11.30 A.M. The rebels 
were discouraged, but still, on the 22nd, they delivered an 
attack as if they would retake the town, and pressed on 
with great fury. They killed four of the Spaniards and 
wounded twenty-one, but in the end were driven off, 
leaving 400 dead on the ground. The houses in Silang 
were found fully furnished and provisioned. In the house 
of the so-called Viceroy of Silang, Victor Belarmino, the 
principal ornament of the sala was a chromo-lithograph 
portrait of the Queen Regent. 

The church-doors were wide open and the altars pro- 
fusely illuminated. On the sacristy table lay the priestly 
robes and ornaments, ready, doubtless, for the celebration 
of a Te Deum for the expected victory. But he who was 
to wear them, the celebrated Tagal Bishop, lay with a 
bullet through his heart across the parapet he had fiercely 

Lachambre preserved the best houses around the church 
and convent and utilised them as storehouses, hospital, and 
barracks, burning the rest of the town as a punishment to 
the rebels. He then garrisoned and fortified the post and 
connected it with the telegraph line. 

On the 24th Lachambre marched from Silang, his main 
body advancing by the direct route to Perez Dasmariiias 
parallel to the River Casundit, a flanking force of three 
companies guarding the left of the column, whilst Lieutenant 
Colonel Villalon, with a battalion and a half having started 
an hour earlier than the main body, took the road to 
Palimparan, having the Rio Grande on his right, and by 


his advance protecting the right flank of the column. 
Villalon advanced rapidly, and, brushing aside all opposi- 
tion, rushed Palimparan with a loss of one killed and one 
wounded, killing seven of the rebels in the attack. Here 
he bivouacked, and at sunset was joined by another force 
consisting of half a brigade under Colonel Arizon, detached 
from General Galbis' force on the Zapote River. 

In the meantime the main body had advanced to within 
three miles of Perez Dasmariiias and bivouacked at the 
hamlet called Sampalcoc, On the following day Perez 
Dasmariiias was taken by assault, after a short bombard- 
ment by the mountain batteries. The rebels were strongly 
entrenched, and made a stout resistance. They had flooded 
the rice fields to the east of the town and rendered them 

The town was attacked from the south and west, but it 
took hours of hard fighting for the Spaniards to break in, 
and even then the rebels fought hand to hand, and many 
preferred death to surrender. Those who fled were taken 
in flank by Arizon's force, which approached the northern 
end of the town from the eastward. The loss of the 
Spaniards was 21 killed and 121 wounded, whilst the 
natives left 400 dead at the foot of their defences, and a 
great number were killed outside the town. 

The early part of the defence was directed by Aguinaldo, 
but he fled when the Spanish forces closed up, leaving 
Estrella, an ex-sergeant of the Guardia Civil, in his place. 
Estrella fled later on when the Spaniards had entered the 
town. Unintimidated by this rude lesson, the rebels that 
same night fired into the town, and on the 27th they 
attacked a column which went out to make a reconnaissance 
towards Palimparan, and gave a mountain battery a chance, 
which they promptly took, of getting at a dense body of 
them with case. The artillery fired 22 rounds in this 
action, and the infantry used 63,000 cartridges. The Spanish 
loss was two killed and ten wounded, whilst the rebels lost 
at least 300. 

The church, convent, and stone houses round the Plaza 
of Perez Dasmariiias were loopholed and prepared for 
defence, and occupied by a garrison of two companies of 
infantry. Owing, however, to the difficulty of bringing up 
supplies, the division could not resume its advance till the 
7th March. Then the division took the eastern road to 
Imus, whilst the half brigade under Arizon marched by a 


parallel road on the right flank, which converged upon the 
Imus road at Salitran, a village with a large stone estate- 
house belonging to the Recollcts, strongly entrenched and 
held by the rebels. 

On arriving within range two guns of Cornell's brigade 
opened fire on the estate-house from an eminence, but after 
the fifth round the Spanish flag was shown from the house, 
it having been occupied by Arizon's force arriving from the 
east after a very slight resistance, for the rebels seemed to 
have no one in command. They had prepared for an 
attack from the east, but when they found the Spaniards 
arriving in great force upon their right flank, enfilading 
their strong entrenchments, they became demoralised and 
took to flight. 

The scouts now reported that a formidable entrenchment 
a mile and a quarter long, was occupied by the rebels about 
a mile north of the village. This entrenchment, called 
Anabo II., covered both the roads to Imus, and each flank 
rested on a deep ravine — the eastern end had a redoubt, 
and the western end a flanking epaulement. 

The ground in front was perfectly open, and there was 
difficulty in making a flanking attack, so General Zabala, 
with a half brigade, made a direct attack. The fighting 
line gradually advanced, taking such cover as the pilapiles 
of the rice-fields could give, until they arrived within 
lOO yards of the parapet, when Zabala, waving high his 
sword, gave the order for the assault, falling a moment after 
pierced through the breast by a shot from a lantaca. Two 
captains fell near him, but the lieutenants led their com- 
panies to the assault ; the cazadores sprang across the ditch 
and clambered up the high parapet with the agility and 
fury of leopards, bayoneting those of the defenders who 
remained to fight it out, and sending volley after volley 
into those who had taken to flight. 

The Spanish loss was ii killed and 33 wounded, whilst 
200 of the rebels were killed. This heavy loss did not 
however appear to intimidate them in the least, for on the 
8th they made two desperate attempts to retake the 
position, in both of which they came within close range 
of the Spaniards, who poured repeated volleys into them 
by word of command, whilst the mountain-guns played 
upon them with case. In this action the Spaniards lost 
5 killed and 25 wounded, and they calculated the rebel 
killed at 300. 

( 97 ) 

THE INSURRECTION OF 1 896-97 — continued. 

The Division encamps at San Nicolas — Work of the native engineer 
soldiers— The division marches to Salitran — Second action at 
Anabo II. — Crispulo Aguinaldo killed — Storming the entrench- 
ments of Anabo I. — Burning of Imus by the rebels — Proclama- 
tion by General Polavieja — Occupation of Bacoor — Difficult 
march of the division — San Antonio taken by assault — Division 
in action with all its artillery — Capture of Noveleta — San Fran- 
cisco taken by assault — Heavy loss of the Tagals — Losses of the 
division — The division broken up — Monteverde's book — Polavieja 
returns to Spain — Primo de Rivera arrives to take his place — 
General Monet's butcheries — -The pact of Biak-na-Bato — The 
74th Regiment joins the insurgents — The massacre of the Calle 
Camba — Amnesty for torturers — Torture in other countries. 

On the lOth (March) the division marched to Presa-Molino,- 
which was occupied that same evening, and leaving three 
companies of infantry to guard the position, the division 
continued its march through a most difficult country, 
arriving in the afternoon on the Zapote River, in touch 
with the 4th Brigade, formerly commanded by Galbis and 
now by Barraquer. 

From there Lachambre with his staff rode over ta 
Paraiiaque, and reported himself to the Captain-General 

The troops encamped on the downs of San Nicolas, one 
brigade on each side of the River Zapote. Notwithstanding 
the comparatively favourable emplacement of the camp, 
the troops and their officers suffered severely from the 
effect of the climate upon frames weakened by over-exer- 
tion, by indifferent nourishment and by sleeping on the 
ground. Malarial fevers, intestinal catarrh, dysentery, and 
rheumatism sapped their vitality, whilst nostalgia preyed 
upon the younger soldiers and depressed their spirits. 
Since the 15th February the division had lost in killed, 



wounded, and invalided, no less than 135 officers, and 
troops in greater proportion. 

Yet still greater exertions were to be required from the 
soldiers. The 4th Brigade was incorporated in the division, 
and two additional battalions, one from the 3rd Brigade 
and the other from the Independent Brigade, brought the 
number of combatants nearly up to 12,000. 

Having previously made a practicable road by Almansa 
to Presa Molino and Salitran, defended by redoubts at the 
most difficult fords, and having organised his transport 
with such means as the country afforded, Lachambre again 
set out, his objective being Imus, but the attack was to be 
from Salitran. 

The work of the native engineer soldiers, and of the 
74th Native Regiment in constructing this road and the 
redoubts, merits the highest praise, and it must be admitted 
that it is almost impossible for an army of white men to 
carry on a campaign in the Philippines or in similar terri- 
tory, without the assistance of native pioneer or engineer 

The road being ready, and the convoys of provisions 
having gone forward, on the morning of the 22nd March 
the division started on its march to Salitran, where it 
arrived on the evening of the 23rd, having had some sharp 
skirmishes on the way. 

Early on the 24th the division set out for Imus, and 
once more the formidable trenches and redoubts of 
Anabo II., restored, strengthened, and crowded with 
determined defenders, barred their path. These works 
had once already been taken by assault, and had cost the 
division the loss of the brave General Zabala and other 
oflficers and men. 

Protected on each flank by a deep ravine with a river 
at the bottom, and with open ground in front, the attack 
had been rendered more difficult by flooding the arable 
land before the trenches, and the position of the rebels 
was an exceedingly strong one. Lachambre had to accept 
a direct attack, but he sent a body of troops forward on 
each flank to advance simultaneously and overlap the ends 
of the entrenchment. 

The infantry deployed, the firing line advanced under 
fire without stopping to within three hundred yards of the 
parapet, when they halted, taking what cover they could 
and keeping up a steady fire. Then the mountain battery 


was brought up and fired common shell at close range, 
breaching the parapet. A rush forward soon brought the 
firing-line within 150 yards of the parapet. General Marina, 
watching the engagement well to the front, had one of his 
staff officers killed at his side ; seeing the favourable moment 
arrive, he gave the order for the assault. 

Once more the troops exhibited their conspicuous 
bravery. The long line, led by its officers, dashed forward 
with the bayonet, the bugles sounding the charge, and with 
impetuous speed, soon reached the parapet. However 
terrible the attack, the stout-hearted Tagals stood firm, 
disdaining to fly. 

Bolo and bayonet clashed, Euro^Dean courage and Malay 
fury had full play, till in the end, as ever in equal numbers 
and in stand-up fight, the European prevailed. Many 
of the defenders fell, the rest sought safety in flight. 

The engagement lasted two and a half hours without 
cessation, and over three hundred rebel dead were counted 
in or near the works, amongst them was Crispulo Aguinaldo, 
a brother of General Emilio Aguinaldo. The Spaniards 
lost 9 killed and 108 wounded. 

After a short rest the division resumed the advance 
upon Imus, and bivouacked after marching about a couple 
of miles. 

On the 25th the advance was continued on a broad 
front. Scarcely had the division marched for half-an-hour 
when the leading ranks came in sight of another line of 
entrenchments more than two miles long, six feet high, and 
five feet thick, well protected with cane fences in front, 
one of these being at a distance of 100 yards from the 

Lachambre orders the centre to make a direct attack 
and the wings a flanking movement. The rebels retain 
their fire till the Spaniards arrive within two hundred yards, 
and then the parapet is crowned with flame both from small 
arms and lantacas. The scene of the day before was re- 
peated, the parapet stormed, with a rebel loss of over six 
hundred. After a short halt the advance against Imus was 
resumed. The distance was short, and the appearance of 
the thousands of bayonets and the explosion of a few 
shells produced an indescribable panic amongst the in- 
habitants and the many who had come from other towns to 
assist in the defence. 

They took to flight, disregarding the protests of their 

II 2 


leaders Emilio Aguinaldo and Andres Bonifacio. In order 
to cover his retreat, the former ordered the magazine to be 
blown up and the town to be burned. This delayed the 
advance of the Spaniards in the centre, but the wings 
moved forward and the thousands of fugitives were exposed 
to a flanking fire, and more than eight hundred of them bit 
the dust. It was afternoon before Lachambre could enter 
what remained of Imus, when as a mark of honour for 
their splendid services, the colour of the 74th Regiment of 
Native Infantry was raised upon the tower of the church — 
all the troops presenting arms and afterwards giving en- 
thusiastic cheers. 

Thus was taken the citadel of the Katipunan with a 
loss to the Spaniards of 25 killed and 129 wounded. 

The taking of Imus gave General Polavieja an oppor- 
tunity of offering an amnesty to the rebels, which he did 
not neglect. On the 26th of March he issued a proclama- 
tion offering pardon to all who had borne arms against the 
Royal Authority, or who had assisted the rebels, provided 
they presented themselves before Palm Sunday the nth of 
April. Leaders of the rebels were to present themselves 
with their forces and arms. 

On the 26th March the division, leaving a garrison in 
Imus, started for Bacoor to take the defences in reverse, 
and such was the effect on the rebels of their defeat at 
Imus and of the advance in overwhelming force, that they 
fled, and the division occupied Bacoor almost without firing 
a shot. 

It was otherwise with Binacayan, for Marina's Brigade 
having made a reconnaissance in force on the 28th, were 
received with a heavy fire, and after an hour's skirmish in 
which some were killed on each side, they returned to their 
camp at Bacoor ; Lachambre considering that an attack in 
that direction would result in a useless waste of life, for the 
advance would be along narrow causeways across swamps. 
Having received provisions and ammunition by sea from 
Manila, he returned with his division to Imus, the garrison 
of which had not been molested by the rebels. 

At daylight on the 31st March, the division left Imus 
and marched across country in a westerly and southerly 
direction, fording numerous streams running at the bottom 
of deep ravines, as well as many irrigating canals and 
ditches. Soon after the start the right flank was fired upon, 
the fire increasing as the column moved forward. The 


engineers had to improve the approaches to the fords of the 
Rivers Julian and Batong Dalig under fire. 

The leading brigade carried several entrenchments on 
its front and flank without halting, but extending skirmishes 
on either flank to beat off the enemy. The rear brigade 
was attacked on both flanks and had to fight a rearguard 
action as well. The division bivouacked for the night at 
Bacao, a point from which it threatened the rebel towns of 
San Francisco, Santa Cruz, Rosario and Noveleta, all 
within easy reach. 

The losses on the day's march were 6 killed and 37 
wounded, whilst 400 rebel killed were counted on open 
ground, and many must have fallen amongst the bushes 
and trees. 

They, however, were not at all dismayed, and surrounded 
the bivouac at night, firing repeated volleys and engaging 
the outposts. 

On the following day (ist April), the division with all 
its baggage crossed the River Ladron, and took up a posi- 
tion in the centre of a large tract of rice-fields, having 
Noveleta on the north, San Francisco on the south, 
Rosario and Santa Cruz to the west, and San Antonio 
on the east, San Antonio was first taken by assault 
after the parapet had been breached by the fire of two 
batteries of mountain guns. The fugitive Tagals who 
escaped with their lives took refuge in Noveleta. 

The situation was now as follows : Arizon's Brigade 
threatened Noveleta, Marina's Brigade threatened Rosario 
and Sarralde's Brigade attacked Santa Cruz — the baggage 
being in the centre and out of fire. 

At this moment a dense mass of the enemy issuing from 
San Francisco, made a desperate attack upon the Spaniards 
nearest to them. 

The whole of the division with its twelve guns, was now 
in action and surrounded by the enemy, Lachambre in the 
centre keenly watching the fight. When he judged the 
right moment had arrived, he ordered Arizon's Brigade to 
storm Noveleta. 

The Brigade greeted this order with thundering shouts 
of "Viva Espaiia," and with the pluck that has always dis- 
tinguished the Spanish soldier when well led, carried the 
entrenchments at a run, and fought a hand to hand combat 
with the defenders, who were either killed or driven out, 
notwithstanding that these were the very best of the rebel 


troops, amongst them being many of Aguinaldo's Guards, 
wearing a special uniform, some of them having served in 
the native regiments. Here, again, the 74th Native In- 
fantry distinguished themselves by their remarkable 
bravery, and once more their colour was displayed from 
the church tower as a recognition of their valuable and 
loyal services. 

The capture of Noveleta placed the division in com- 
munication with the marines occupying the entrenchments 
of Dalahican. 

This action cost the division 11 killed and 58 wounded, 
but many hundreds of the rebels were killed. 

In consequence of this, the rebels abandoned Cavite, 
Viejo, and Binacayan, which were occupied the following 
day without resistance. 

The rebels, however, on the 4th, and again on the 5th, 
attacked the troops in Noveleta and sustained the combat 
for some time, killing 10 and wounding 33 Spanish, but 
leaving 50 of their own dead on the ground. 

On the 6th the division marched from Noveleta, which 
was occupied by a garrison of marines, and took the direc- 
tion of San Francisco, the advanced guard in extended 
order across the same open ground upon which the engage- 
ment of April 1st was fought. The rebel positions on the 
right flank were marked by lines of skirmishers with their 
supports and reserves. The Tagals had, however, inun- 
dated the part of this plain immediately in front of the 
town, and the advance was made with great difficulty ; the 
guns and ammunition boxes having to be carried by 
the gunners with the assistance of the infantry. With 
undaunted bravery the troops struggled on under a heavy 
fire, but Lachambre, realising the difficulty and the danger 
incurred, changed the direction of the advance. The right 
wing under Arizon inclined to the right, and the left, under 
Marina, bore away to the left. Half a brigade crossed the 
River Ladron, notwithstanding the opposition of the rebels, 
and attacked the town from the east. Firmer ground was 
soon reached, the guns that had cost so much labour taking 
up, were mounted, and a rain of shell soon fell amongst the 
rebels. The infantry poured in steady volleys, advancing 
in the intervals of firing. The whole combined attack 
being within a proper distance for the final rush, Lachambre 
gave the word, and like greyhounds released, the Spanish 
and native infantry leaped to the assault. The parapet 


was high and deep the ditch, for the defenders had not 
spared their labour on it, and as the Spanish line reached 
the edge, the rebels boldly mounted the parapet and dis- 
charged their arms at close quarters. In this critical 
moment the moral superiority of the white man once more 
was manifest. The Spanish troops reached the parapet 
and a hand-to-hand combat with the bolder rebels took 
place, the bayonet against the spear or bolo. The less- 
determined of the enemy fled, and in a few minutes 120 
Tagals lay dead against the parapet, and five guns and 
eighty rifles remained as trophies to the victors. The 
companies re-formed for the pursuit, but the enemy fired 
the thatched huts to interpose a curtain of flame between 
them and their pursuers ; a measure which was only 
partially successful, for some of the troops, nimbly darting 
through the lanes, shot down or bayoneted many of the 
fugitives, killing 400 in the pursuit, besides those who died 
at the entrenchments. The Spanish loss was 25 killed 
and 125 wounded, including several officers. The fighting 
had lasted four hours over very difficult ground, and the 
troops were exhausted. Lachambre therefore camped ia 
the town, which has many fine edifices and a spacious, 
church and convent. The bells of the church, in a joyful 
peal, announced the Spanish triumph. The rebels were 
under the command of Andres Bonifacio, the President 
of the formidable Katipunan. This terrible blow to the 
insurrection was followed by the occupation of the towns 
of Santa Cruz and Rosario, without firing a shot. 

Many of the natives had joined the rebellion under com- 
pulsion, and had long desired to submit themselves. Now 
they came in by hundreds eveiy day to claim the amnesty 
offered by General Polavieja. 

Fifty-two days had the campaign lasted, fifty-seven 
combats had taken place, and the total loss of the divi- 
sion was I general, 14 officers, and 168 men killed, and 
56 officers and 910 men wounded. Probably a far larger 
number died or were invalided from disease, induced by 
the fatigue, exposure and privations inseparable from such 
a campaign, especially as most of the men were mere 
youths, raw recruits, and with little possibility of taking 
care of themselves, even if they knew how. Notwith- 
standing the excessive fatigue and the depressing nature 
of the surroundings, the Spanish troops maintained a fine 
martial spirit, and ever showed themselves ready to respond 


to the calls made upon them. They were well led by their 
officers, who devoted themselves unsparingly in their 
country's service, and they had confidence in their generals, 
who were untiring in their exertions to do their best for 
their men. Lachambre displayed the greatest solicitude 
for the well-being of the force under his command ; whilst 
showing the utmost resolution, and pushing his attacks 
home in every case, yet he sacrificed his men as little as 
possible, and always had patience to wait till his flanking 
attacks could join in the assault. The distances the 
division had to traverse were very small, but the absence 
of roads and bridges made the provisioning of the army a 
matter of the utmost difficulty. 

Those who know the poverty of the Spanish Army 
in animals, vehicles, and stores, will understand what 
Lachambre and his staff accomplished. On the I2th 
April, 1897, the division was broken up, and the brigades 
were stationed at various places in Cavite and the neigh- 
bouring provinces. 

The general, brigadiers, officers, and troops, are for- 
tunate in having as chronicler of their exploits, so pains- 
taking and appreciative an officer as Lieut-Colonel Don 
Federico de Monteverde y Sedano, who in his book, ' La 
Division Lachambre,' published in 1898, gives a detailed 
account of the campaign, with sketches illustrative of the 
various actions. Seiior Monteverde does justice to every 
Spaniard, from the divisional-general downwards. I could 
wish he had said something more about the services of the 
73rd and 74th Regiments of Native Infantry, who seem to 
have been always in the forefront of the battle and where 
the hardest work was being done, as in assisting the magni- 
ficent engineer corps, without whom I doubt if the campaign 
could have been successful. His book, however, is invalu- 
able to those who may have to conduct operations in the 
Philippines, and the invariable success achieved by La- 
chambre, contrasts remarkably with the failures in the 
early part of the rebellion, and one cannot help seeing a 
parallel between this little war and the greater one in South 
Africa. Each was mismanaged at the beginning, but as 
soon as the invading forces were organised in one command, 
success was achieved. 

A few days after the breaking up of the division, 
General Polavieja embarked for Spain, very much broken 
in health. In a letter written on the 9th March to the 


Minister of War, Polavieja declared himself too ill to ride 
and asked for his relief. He, however, still remained at Para- 
naque, directing the campaign till after the capture of San 

The Spanish press took sides for or against him, the 
papers advocating the interests of the friars praised him, 
whilst the Liberal press held him up to ridicule. 

There is no doubt that he directed the military opera- 
tions in an efficient manner, but under his government the 
arbitrary arrests, cruelties, and tortures, inflicted upon all 
who were suspected of being sympathisers with the rebels, 
or from whom money would be extorted, that had begun 
under Blanco, continued and increased. For Blanco, having 
been informed of the cruelties inflicted, issued an order 
forbidding the practice. 

The next governor-general was General Primo de 
Rivera, who had held that office from 1880 to 1883, and 
had found it a very profitable one. He arrived on the 
23rd April and went to the front on the 29th ; on the 4th 
May, Naic was taken, also a small place called Quintana, 
and Indang. At Naic there was very heavy fighting, and 
some at Indang. 

The troops then advanced to Maragond6n, which was 
taken on the loth after a most stubborn resistance, the 
Spaniards losing many men and the rebels still more 

This place was the last where the rebels made a stand, 
in Cavite province. After this defeat they dispersed in 
roving bands and kept on the move. 

The whole province was a scene of desolation, towns 
burnt, churches bombarded, stone houses blown up, 
property looted, putrefying bodies lying about in hun- 
dreds, the fields laid waste, the cattle driven off, the 
country depopulated, a remnant of the inhabitants hiding 
in the woods ; a few of the bolder ones returned to 
the ruined houses. Such was the result of this unhappy 

I have this description from an eye-witness, and he 
assured me that he had been told by a colonel commanding 
one of the most distinguished regiments engaged in the 
campaign, that not less than 30,000 natives lost their lives 
in that province alone during the rebellion. 

The rebels gave no quarter to Spaniards, and the 
Spaniards only occasionally took prisoners. However, once 


taken they were usually released after being exhorted to 
return to their homes. 

Whilst the operations of Lachambre's division were 
proceeding in Cavite, General Monet, with a force of 3000 
men, was carrying on an indiscriminate butchery of men, 
women, and children, in Bulacan and Pampanga, but he 
displayed no military qualities, and ultimately escaped, 
leaving his forces to surrender. 

The Spanish Volunteers in Manila continued their series 
of abominable outrages, although in August, Primo de 
Rivera issued a decree forbidding intimidation, plundering 
and ravishing. He was ultimately obliged to disband them. 
Driven out of Cavite, the remnant of the rebels under 
Aguinaldo took refuge in the hills and held a strong posi- 
tion near Angat, in the province of Bulacan. As it would 
have taken a long time to reduce them, Primo de Rivera 
tried conciliation, and employed Don Pedro Paterno, a 
native gentleman of means, who had been educated in 
Spain, as mediator. By his instrumentality, an arrange- 
ment was arrived at which, after being approved by the 
Government in Madrid, was signed by the mediator as 
attorney for the rebels and the governor-general for Spain. 
This, known as the pact of Biak-na-bato, was signed on 
December 14th, 1897. 

In consequence, Aguinaldo and a number of the pro- 
minent rebels were escorted to Hong Kong by a relative 
of the governor-general, and there received a sum of 
$400,000, being the first instalment of the sum agreed 

They lived in a quiet and economical manner upon their 
own resources. They did not divide the indemnity nor 
convert it to their own use, but kept it as a war fund in 
case of need. 

The event showed the wisdom of this course, for Primo 
de Rivera had led them to understand that an amnesty and 
reforms were to follow, but, apparently, had caused the 
Spanish Government to look upon the arrangement in a 
very different light, and he subsequently denied that any 
treaty existed. No reforms were ever granted, and things 
in Luzon went on in the same old way. The friars joined 
in raising a large subscription for Primo de Rivera, and this 
seemed to incline him more favourably towards them. 

The amnesty was disregarded, and the priests continued 
their arbitrary courses against those who had been concerned 


in the rebellion. Bands of marauders infested the pro- 
vinces and the country was in a very unsettled state, some 
insurgent bands approaching Cavite. 

On March 24th, the 74th Regiment of Native Infantry 
in garrison at that town, the regiment that had distin- 
guished itself so remarkably in Lachambre's division, being 
always in the front, was ordered to march out against them. 
Whatever the reason, whether they felt that their splendid 
services had not been duly acknowledged, or, as is likel}', 
their pay was months in arrears, they refused to march 
against their own countrymen. Eight corporals were called 
out of the ranks and shot then and there in the presence of 
the regiment, which was again ordered to advance, and a 
threat made that a refusal would mean death to all. 

All did refuse and were sent to barracks to await sen- 
tence. The next morning the entire regiment with arms 
and equipment, marched out and deserted in a body to the 
insurgents, saying they were willing to fight the foreign 
enemies of Spain, but not against their own friends. The 
following day another regiment joined them, but I have no 
note of its number. 

It was now that an event occurred in Manila that 
showed how little desire there was amongst the Spaniards 
to treat the natives with ordinary justice, much less to 
conciliate them. 

This was the massacre of the Calle de Camba, quite a 
short distance from the American Consulate, and it was 
perpetrated on the 25th and 26th of March. On the first 
of those day a number of Visayan sailors from the vessels 
in the Pasig had assembled in a house in the above street, 
which was their usual resort. 

Somehow the story got about that an illegal assembly 
was being held, and the police, without more ado, attacked 
the meeting and shot down a dozen, taking sixty-two 
prisoners. The next morning the whole of these prisoners 
were marched to the cemetery, and all shot, though many 
them were known to have been merely passing by at the 

This is vouched for by Mr. Oscar F, Williams in an offi- 
cial letter to Mr. Cridler, dated 27th March, 1898. It could 
hardly have been a mere coincidence that a revolt of the 
Visayas broke out about ten days later, when they made a 
desperate attack upon the city of Cebii in which many lives 
were lost and much property damaged. 


It seems hardly worth while to relate any more instances 
of Tagal revenge or Spanish brutality. The country that 
had been almost pacified was now again in revolt and 
amongst the insurgents were two battalions of well-trained 
and veteran troops. 

But now events were impending of transcendent im- 
portance — the Spanish-American War had broken out. 

Previously, however, Primo de Rivera left Manila to 
return to Spain, but before going he granted an amnesty 
to all who had tortured suspected persons to extort evidence 
from them. 

Some of the victims had died under torture rather than 
bear witness against their friends, for the Tagal is a Stoic 
after the manner of the Red Indian. Others survive, mere 
wrecks, maimed for life, and living mementoes of Spanish 

Torture for extracting evidence from suspected persons 
is illegal in all Christian countries and their dependencies, 
and also in Japan, but has not yet been entirely routed out 
in British India nor in Egypt. In 1897, four cases of police 
torture in the North-West Provinces and Oudh, ended in 

In Spain, some police officers are now on their trial for 
applying the thumb-screw to the fingers of anarchist prisoners 
in the Castle of Monjuich with such severity, that one of 
them, a railway porter, lost the use of his hands and arms. 
And Ysabelo de los Reyes, a native of Ilocos, declares that 
he was tortured in the same prison by thirst, having been 
fed upon salt food and deprived of water. 

Last March (1900), a captain of police was tried at 
Sambor, in Austrian Galicia, for torturing prisoners with 
the thumb-screw and by deprivation of food, and was sen- 
tenced to a long term of imprisonment. In Corea, China, 
and Siam, torture forms part of the legal procedure before 
sentence, to say nothing of the various and lingering 
deaths the judge may order after the prisoner has con- 
fessed. Let us hope that now there will be no more of it 
in the Philippines. 

( IC9 ) 


Manila Bay — The naval battle of Cavite — General Aguinaldo — Pro- 
gress of the Tagals — The Tagal Republic — Who were the 
aggressors ? — Requisites for a settlement — Scenes of drunken- 
ness — The estates of the religious orders to be restored — Slow 
progress of the campaign — Colonel Funston's gallant exploits — 
Colonel Stotsenburg's heroic death — General Antonio Luna's 
gallant rally of his troops at Macabebe— Reports manipulated — 
Imaginary hills and jungles — Want of co-operation between army 
and navy — Advice of Sir Andrew Clarke — Naval officers as 
administrators — Mr. Whitelaw Reid's denunciations — Senator 
Hoar's opinion — Mr. McKinley's speech at Pittsburgh — The 
false prophets of the Philippines — Tagal opinion of American 
Rule — Senor Mabini's manifesto — Don Macario Adriatico's letter 
— Foreman's prophecy — The administration misled — Racial 
antipathy — The curse of the Redskins — The recall of General 
Otis — McArthur calls for reinforcements — Sixty-five thousand 
men and forty ships of war — State of the islands — Aguinaldo on 
the Taft Commission. 

Manila Bay. 

The width of the entrance to the vast Bay of Manila is 
nine and a half marine miles from shore to shore. It is 
divided into two unequal channels by the Island of Corre- 
gidor and Pulo Caballo, and a rock called El Frayle, about 
a mile and a half from the southern shore, farther reduces 
that channel. 

The Boca Chica, or northern entrance between Corre- 
gidor Island and Punta Lasisi, is two marine miles wide, 
and in the middle of the channel the depth of water is 
about thirty fathoms. 

The Boca Grande, or southern entrance between Pulo 
Caballo and El Frayle, is three and a half marine miles 
wide, with a depth of water in the fairway of about twenty 


In both channels the tide rushes in and out with great 

With channels of such a width there was no difficulty in 
taking a squadron in at night, and little chance of suffer- 
ing damage from the hastily improvised batteries of the 

And it will be evident to all having the slightest know- 
ledge of submarine mining that the conditions are most 
unfavourable to defence by such means. As a matter of 
fact, the Spaniards possessed only nine obsolete submarine 
mines fitted to explode by contact. These were sent over 
to Corregidor, but were not sunk, as it was obvious that they 
were useless. 

On the other hand, it was a perfect position for the 
employment of torpedo boats or gunboats, there being 
excellent anchorage for such craft on both sides of the 
Channel and in Corregidor Cove. But at the time of the 
declaration of war, the Spaniards had no torpedo boats in 
the Philippines. The Elswick-built cruisers Isla de Cuba 
and Isla de Liizon were fitted with torpedoes, and might 
have been watching the channels for a chance to use them. 
Admiral Montojo knows best why he did not detach them 
on this service. 

There was then nothing to prevent the entrance of the 
American Squadron ; the mines, torpedo boats and narrow 
channels only existed in the imagination of some American 
newspaper correspondents. 

But Admiral Dewey's exploit does not need any such 
enhancing, it speaks for itself 

To any one having a knowledge of the Spanish navy, 
and especially of the squadron of the Philippines, the result 
of an action against an Am.erican Squadron of similar force 
could not be doubtful. As a matter of fact the Spanish 
ships, except the two small cruisers built at Elswick in 
1887, were quite obsolete. The Cast ilia and Reina Crist ina 
were wooden vessels, standing very high out' of the water, 
and making admirable targets, whilst their guns were small, 
some of them had been landed at Corregidor, though never 
placed in battery. The boilers of one vessel were in the 

But even allowing for the fact that the tonnage of the 
American Squadron was half as much again as that of the 
Spaniards, and that they had more than twice as many, and 
heavier guns, no one would have supposed it possible 


that the Spanish Squadron could have been completely- 
destroyed without inflicting any damage upon the enemy. 

It was indeed a brilliant victory, reflecting great credit 
upon Admiral Dewey and the officers and crews of the 
American ships, not only for what they did that day, but 
for their careful preparation that enabled them to score so 
decided a success. 

The Spanish sailors put up a good fight and showed 
pluck, but they had no skill as gunners, and so failed in the 
hour of their country's need. Admiral Montojo bravely 
commanded his fleet, but as soon as the action was over he 
seems to have considered that his duty had terminated, for 
he returned to his Villa in San Miguel, leaving the remnants 
of his squadron and the Cavite arsenal to its fate. 

We must infer that Admiral Dewey's victory and its 
consequences were not foreseen by the American Govern- 
ment, for they had made no preparations to send troops to 
Manila, and from the time they learned of the destruction 
of the Spanish Squadron, till they had assembled a force 
strong enough to take and hold the city, three weary 
months elapsed. This was a very hap-hazard way of 
making war, and the delay cost many thousands of lives as 
will be seen later on. 

General Agimialdo. 

On the 19th May, 1898, Don Emilio Aguinaldo, former 
chief of the insurgents, arrived in Manila in pursuance of an 
arrangement with the American Consul-General at Singa- 
pore. He came with a suite of seventeen persons on board 
an American gunboat, and after an interview with Admiral 
Dewey, was landed at Cavite and given two field-pieces, a 
number of rifles and a supply of ammunition. 

He soon reasserted himself as the leader of the insurrec- 
tion, which was already in active progress, and gained some 
signal successes against the Spaniards. On the 24th May 
he issued a proclamation enjoining his followers to make 
war in a civilized manner and to respect property. 

I do not intend to discuss the negotiations between 
Mr. Pratt and Aguinaldo, nor between the latter and 
Admiral Dewey. This subject has been very fully treated 
by Mr. Foreman in the second edition of his book. The 
treating with Aguinaldo was not approved by Mr. Day at 
Washington, and the Consul-General and Consuls who had 


participated in it, and even taken credit for it, were severely 
rapped over the knuckles and promptly adopted an apolo- 
getic tone (see Blue Book). But whatever was the agree- 
ment with Aguinaldo, it is evident that had it not been for 
his assistance and that of the insurgents, the Spanish forces 
could have retired from Manila to Tarlac or other place 
inland out of reach of the guns of the fleet and could have 
prolonged their resistance for years. 

The Tagal Republic. 

The Tagals had made much progress since the insurrec- 
tion of 1896-7. Their ideas had advanced considerably 
since their rudimentary organization in the Province of 
Cavite, as can be gathered from the improved style of the 
various proclamations and decrees published by Aguinaldo. 

They now organized a Government, a real Civil 
Administration, extending over a great part of Luzon, and 
sent an expedition to Visayas. They established a Con- 
stitution, a representative government, and reopened the 
courts and schools, whilst the native clergy carried on 
public worship as usual, Aguinaldo repeatedly asserted 
the determination of the Tagal people to fight to the death 
for independence. At this time the insurgents held 9000 
Spaniards as prisoners of war, and they claimed to have 
30,000 men under arms. 

Paymaster Wilcox, U.S.N., and Mr. Leonard R. Sar- 
gent who travelled through part of Luzon for more than 
600 miles, and during six weeks, reported * to Admiral 
Dewey that a regular and orderly Administration had been 
established, and was in full working order, 

Aguinaldo was at the head of this Government and of 
the army co-operating with the American forces by the 
written request of General Anderson. This should have 
ensured him and those with him at the very least courteous 
and considerate treatment at the hands of the American 
Commanders, and in fact he received this from Admiral 
Dewey, But as soon as the direction of affairs passed into 
the hands of the general commanding the army the deeply- 
rooted contempt felt by Americans for the coloured races 
was allowed full play, Aguinaldo and his staff found them- 
selves ignored, or treated with scarcely veiled contempt, and 
the estrangement was gradually increased, 

* Report published in Outlook, September ist and 21st, 1S99. 


I do not know which party was the aggressor on 
February the 4th, 1899, each swears that it was the other. 
The ad bono test cuts both ways, for whilst it appears that 
the attack on Manila secured two doubtful votes in the 
Senate for the ratification of the Treaty whereby the 
Philippines were bought from Spain, on the other hand, 
Aguinaldo may have felt it necessary to prove to America 
that the Philippines would fight rather than bow their necks 
to the Yankee yoke. So that both parties may have had 
an interest in beginning hostilities. In any case, the next 
day Aguinaldo offered to withdraw to a greater distance if 
an armistice was arranged, but Otis declared that " fighting 
must go on." 

Personally, I think that if a sympathetic and conciliatory 
attitude had been adopted, had the local government estab- 
lished been recognized, had Aguinaldo and his staff been 
given commissions in the Native Army or Civil Service, and 
the flower of the Tagal Army taken into the service of the 
United States, a peaceful settlement could have been made 
■on the lines of a Protectorate. 

I therefore look upon the war as unnecessary, and con- 
sider the lives already sacrificed, and that will have to be 
sacrificed, as absolutely thrown away. 

The tragical side of American unpreparedness is mani- 
fest in the state of anarchy in which the whole Archipelago 
has been plunged by the American unreadiness to occupy 
the military posts as soon as they were vacated by the 
Spanish garrisons. A hideous orgy of murder, plunder, 
and slave-raiding has prevailed in Visayas, and especially in 

Three conditions were essential to a peaceful settle- 
ment : — 

First. — A broad-minded and sympathetic representative 
of America, fully authorized to treat, and a lover of peace. 

Second. — A strict discipline amongst the American 

Third. — The principal aim and object of the Tagal in- 
surrection must be secured. 

General Otis does not seem to me to fulfil the first con- 
dition, he lacked prestige and patience, and he showed that 
he had an insufficient conception of the magnitude of his 
task by occupying himself with petty details of all kinds 
and by displaying an ill-timed parsimony. Apparently he 
had no power to grant anything at all, and only dealt in 



vague generalities which the Tagals could not be expected 
to accept. 

As regards the second point, I regret that I am not 
personally acquainted with the gentlemen from Nebraska, 
Colorado, Dakota and other states serving in the United 
States Army or volunteers. I have no doubt that they are 
good fighting-men, but from all I can hear about them they 
are not conspicuous for strict military discipline, and too 
many of them have erroneous ideas as to the most suitable 
drink for a tropical climate. 

Manila was in the time of the Spaniards a most temperate 
city ; a drunken man was a very rare sight, and would usually 
be a foreign sailor. Since the American occupation, some 
hundreds of drinking saloons have been opened, and daily 
scenes of drunkenness and debauchery have filled the quiet 
natives with alarm and horror. When John L. Motley- 
wrote his scathing denunciation of the army which the great 
Duke of Alva led from Spain into the Low Countries, " to 
enforce the high religious purposes of Philip II., he could 
not foresee that his words would be applicable to an 
American Army sent to subjugate men struggling to be 
free " for their welfare, not our gain," nor that this army, 
besides bringing in its train a flood of cosmopolitan 
harlotry,* would be allowed by its commander to inaugu- 
rate amongst a strictly temperate people a mad saturnalia 
of drunkenness that has scarcely a parallel. 

Such, however, is undoubtedly the case, and I venture 
to think that these occurrences have confirmed many of the 
Tagals in their resolve rather to die fighting for their 
independence than to be ruled over by such as these. 

More important still was it to take care that the Tagal 
insurrection should not have been in vain. That rebellion 
probably cost fifty thousand human lives, immense loss of 
property, and untold misery. It was fought against the 
friars and was at last triumphant. The Spanish friars had 
been expelled and their lands confiscated. Were the 
Americans to bring them back and guarantee them in 
peaceable possession, once more riveting on the chain the 
Tagals had torn off .? 

* The Abbe de Brantome, whose appreciative remarks upon the 
courtesans who accompanied the Army of the Duke of Alva are 
quoted by Motley in 'The Rise of the Dutch Republic,' would have 
been delighted to take up his favourite subject and chronicle the 
following of the American Army. 


This seems to have been General Otis' intention. I 
think he might have stood upon the accomplished fact. 
But he did not. 

The Treaty of Peace under Article VIII. declares that 
the cession cannot in any respect impair the rights of 
ecclesiastical bodies to acquire and possess property, whilst 
Article IX. allows Spanish subjects to remain in the Islands, 
to sell or dispose of their property and to carry on their 
professions. Presumably General Otis felt bound by the 
Treaty in which these general stipulations had been 
embodied by the Peace Commission, in direct contradiction 
to the advice given them by Mr. Foreman (see p. 463, 
55th Congress, 3rd Sess., Doc. No. 62, part i), who pointed 
out the necessity of confiscating these lands, but Mr. Gray 
replied : " We have no law which will allow us to arbitrarily 
do so." 

As soon as the effect of the treaty was known, Arch- 
bishop Nozaleda, who had fled to China from the vengeance 
he feared, returned to Manila. He seemed to have a good 
deal of interest with General Otis, and this did not please 
the natives, nor inspire them with confidence. 

Furthermore, it was reported and generally believed that 
the friars' vast estates had been purchased by an American 
Syndicate who would in due time take possession and 
exploit them. 

One can understand the Tagals' grief and desperation ; 
all their blood and tears shed in vain ! The friars trium- 
phant after all ! 

I do not wish to trace the particulars of the wretched 
war that commenced February, 1899, and is still (October, 
1900) proceeding. 

In it the Americans do not seem to have displayed the 
resourcefulness and adaptibility one would have expected 
from them. For my part, I expected a great deal, for so 
many American generals being selected from men in the 
active exercise of a profession, or perhaps controlling the 
administration of some vast business, they ought naturally 
to have developed their faculties, by constant use, to a far 
greater degree than men who have vegetated in the futile 
routine of a barrack or military station. They prevailed in 
every encounter, but their advance was very slow, and their 
troops suffered many preventible hardships. We know 
very little as to what happened, for the censors, acting 
under instructions from General Otis, prevented the trans- 

I 2 


mission of accurate information ; nothing was cabled, except 
the accounts of victories gained by the American troops. 

It would not be right, however, to pass over the fight- 
ing without rendering due tribute to the heroism of the 
American officers and soldiers. 

Who can forget Colonel Funston's gallant exploit in 
crossing the Rio Grande on a raft under fire with two 
companies of Kansas Infantry and enfilading the Tagals' 
position .'' Or his leading part of same regiment in a charge 
upon an enemy's earthwork near Santo Tomds, where he 
was wounded .-* 

What could be finer than the late Colonel Stotsenburg's 
leading of the Nebraska regiment in the attack on Qui'ngua, 
where he was killed ? And since we are speaking of brave 
men, shall we not remember the late General Antonio Luna 
and his gallant rally of his army in the advance from 
Macabebe, when he fearlessly exposed himself on horse- 
back to the American fire, riding along the front of his line ? 
To justify the slow progress of the army, jungles, forests, 
swamps and hills were introduced on the perfectly flat 
arable land such as that around Malolos, Calumpit, and 
San Fernando, extending in fact all the way from Manila 
to Tarlac* This country supports a dense population, and 
almost every bit of it has been under the plough for 
centuries. The only hill is Arayat. During the dry 
season, say from November to May or June, the soil is 
baked quite hard, and vehicles or guns can traverse any 
part of it with slight assistance from the pioneers. The 
only obstacles are the small rivers and creeks, mostly 
fordable, and having clumps of bamboos growing on their 
banks providing a perfect material for temporary bridges 
or for making rafts. 

The campaign was marked by an absence of co-opera- 
tion between the land and sea forces. Admiral Dewey, 
apparently, was not pleased with the way things were 
managed, for he is said to have stayed on board his ship 
for months at a time. The warships remained at anchor 
in Manila Bay whilst arms t and ammunition were landed 
at the outposts or on the coasts without hindrance, and it 
was not till November that troops were landed at Dagupan, 

* My remarks apply to the accounts published in the Times. 

t May nth, 1899, The Nezo York Herahfs correspondent at 
Manila reports that the insurgents have succeeded in landing ten 
machine guns on the island of Panay. 


the northern terminus of the railway, though this obviously 
ought to have been done in February, so as to attack the 
enemy front and rear. 

The necessity for small gunboats soon made itself felt, 
but such was the jealousy of the army towards the navy 
that it was decided that these must be army gunboats, and 
General Otis is reported to have purchased thirteen small 
gunboats at Zamboanga, in March 1899, without consulting 
or informing Admiral Dewey or even asking for an escort 
for them. It so happened that the Spaniards evacuated 
Zamboanga before any American forces arrived, and the 
insurgents promptly took possession of the gunboats 
already paid for and proceeded to plunder them of every- 
thing useful to them. A native account says that they 
took the gunboats up the Rio Grande into the interior, but 
this is denied by the Americans. Ultimately a cruiser was 
sent down to convoy the gunboats, and if I am correctly 
informed, they were commissioned in charge of junior naval 

Obviously, the services of the navy should have been 
utilised to the utmost extent, and advantage should have 
been taken of the prestige they had gained by the victory 
over the Spaniards, and of the great popularity and 
sympathetic personality of Admiral Dewey. A serious 
responsibility rests upon whoever allowed jealousy to 
prevent the co-operation of the land and sea forces, since 
by failing to secure this they needlessly sacrificed the lives 
of American soldiers and prolonged the war. 

Lieut.-General Sir Andrew Clarke, R.E., a former 
governor of the Straits Settlements, and the greatest 
authority in England on the affairs of the Malay States 
and Islands, was good enough to write a letter which was 
forwarded to Mr. Day, and published in the Blue Book, 
p. 628. 

He pointed out that, although a moderate military force 
might be desirable at one or two important centres, a naval 
force was of more value, especially gunboats able to move 
freely amongst the islands and ascend the many rivers and 
inlets of the sea. 

Therefore to the fleet and its officers he advised that 
political and civil administration of the Philippines should, 
at least in the first instance, be entrusted. Sir Andrew 
believed, and I venture to say that I thoroughly agree with 
him, that amongst the officers of the United States navy, 


active and retired, can be found many men of wide ex- 
perience, broad views, and generous sympathy well fitted to 
administer the affairs of the protectorate. Sir Andrew also 
advised, as Foreman did, and as I do, that the members of 
the Religious Orders, i.e., the Augustinians, the Dominicans, 
the Franciscans, and the Recollets, should be advised to 
return to Spain, receiving compensation for their property. 

Sir Andrew Clarke summed up his advice as follows : 
•' Enlist native sympathy by fairness and justice, and rule 
through native agents, supervised by carefully selected 
American residents." 

As the fleet, by destroying the Spanish squadron, had 
rendered it possible to bring troops by sea, and by capturing 
the arsenal and blockading the Port of Manila, had in- 
vigorated the insurrection, and in fact had brought about 
the cession of the islands by Spain, it would appear to 
outsiders that it and its officers had a strong claim to the 
leading part in completing the settlement and pacification 
of the Archipelago for which the best authorities considered 
them to possess special qualifications. Besides, if peace 
was really wanted, it would have been better to entrust the 
negotiations to the man who had had his fight rather than 
to one looking for his chance. The craze for military 
renown is nowhere more rampant than in the United 
States. Occasions are few and far between, and we must 
not expect generals to throw them away and fly in the face 
of Providence. 

This, however, did not commend itself to those who 
pull the strings ; we ignore the reasons, but we see the 
result. Perhaps it was thought that to allow Dewey to 
add to his victor's laurel wreath the palm of the pacificator 
would be too much honour for one man, and might raise 
him to an inconvenient height in the estimation of his 
fellow citizens, 

A year and twenty days after his decisive victory 
Admiral Dewey sailed from Manila in his flagship. 
Wherever the British ensign flew he was received with 
every derQ#nstration of honour and respect both by naval 
and militaiy officers and by civilians. His reception in 
New York was marked by an almost delirious enthusiasm. 
But long before he arrived, Mr. Whitelaw Reid, disgusted 
with the conduct of the campaign, made a speech at the 
Miami University and denounced the President for neglect 
of duty which brought on the war in the Philippines. 


He said : " If the bitterest enemy of the United States 
had sought to bring upon it in that quarter the greatest 
trouble in the shortest time, he could have devised for that 
•end no policy more successful than the one we have already 
pursued." It must be added that Mr. Whitelaw Reid, 
perhaps to prevent being accused of having sympathy with 
the enemy, denounced Aguinaldo and the Tagals as rebels, 
savages and treacherous barbarians, unfit for citizenship or 
self-government, and declared that the Philippines belong 
to America by right of conquest. 

I suppose Mr. Whitelaw Reid, or perhaps any citizen 
of the United States, has a right to denounce his own 
President, and certainly the management of the Philippine 
annexation has been bad from the beginning. 

But I think Mr. McKinley was badly served by the 
Peace Commission. They seem to me to have made 
many and egregious mistakes. 

1. They took General Merritt's opinion that the Tagals 
would submit, and accepted Mr. Foreman's assurance of 
Tagal plasticity and accommodating nature. 

2. They disregarded the intimation of D. Felipe 
Agoncillo, the accredited agent of the Tagals, that these 
would accept no settlement to which they were not parties. 

3. They treated several millions of civilised Christian 
people like a herd of cattle to be purchased with the 

4. Under Article VIII., they guaranteed the religious 
orders the possession of estates already taken from them. 

5. Under Article IX., they gave the expelled friars the 
right to return and exercise their profession. 

To illustrate their careless procedure, I may add that 
they did not even accurately determine the boundaries of 
the Archipelago to be ceded, and now, in August 1900, 
$100,000 is to be paid to Spain for Sibutu and Cagayan 
Siibi Islands, left out by mistake. If any man has a right 
to say, " Save me from my friends," that man is William 

As regards Aguinaldo and the Tagals, I think that 
Mr. Whitelaw Reid's irritation at their protracted resistance 
has led him on too far. I prefer the opinion of Senator 
Hoar, who, speaking in the Senate of three proclamations 
of Aguinaldo, said : " Mr. President, these are three of the 
greatest state papers in all history. If they were found in 
our own history of our own revolutionary time we should 


be proud to have them stand by the side of those great 
state papers which Chatham declared were equal to the 
masterpieces of antiquity." 

In the same speech he says, and I commend his words 
to the reader's attention : " Mr. President, there is one 
mode by which the people of the Philippine Islands could 
establish the truth of the charges as to their degradation 
and incapacity for self-government which have been made 
by the advocates of Imperialism in this debate, and that 
mode is by submitting tamely and without resistance to the 
dominion of the United States." 

Mr. Whitelaw Reid, however, was perfectly right in one 
thing. The Philippines belong (or will belong) to America 
by right of conquest. On August 28th, 1899, Mr. McKinley 
addressed the loth Pennsylvania Regiment at Pittsburgh 
soon after their arrival from Manila. He said : " The 
insurgents struck the first blow. They reciprocated our 
kindness with cruelty, our mercy * with Mausers. . . . They 
assailed our sovereignty, and there will be no useless parley 
until the insurrection is suppressed and American authority 
acknowledged and established. The Philippines are ours 
as much as Louisiana, by purchase, or Texas, or Alaska." 
Here we get down to the bed rock, and discard all flimsy 
pretences. The Americans have undertaken a war of 
conquest, they bought it in fact, but I fear they are not 
happy either about its material progress or its moral 
aspect. We shall have to wait till November to see what 
they think about it. 

But whenever the cost in lost lives, ruined health, and 
shattered minds, to say nothing of dollars, comes to be 
known, there will be a great outcry in America. 

Mr. McKinley and his advisers are much to be pitied, 
for they were misled by the information given them by 
those they relied on. 

The False Prophets of the Philippines. 

Here is an extract from General Merritt's evidence 
taken from the Blue Book, fifty-sixth congress, third session, 
document No. 62, part i, p. 7,67 : 

Mr. Reid: Do you think any danger of conflict is now reasonably 
remote ? 

* The kindness and mercy are not obvious. 


General Merritt : I think there is no danger of conflict as long as 
these people think the United States is going to take possession there. 
If they imagine or hear from any source that the Spaniards are to be 
reinstated there, I think they will be very violent. 

Mr. Davis : Suppose the United States, by virtue of a treaty with 
Spain, should take Luzon . . . paying no attention to the insurgents — 
how would that be taken by Aguinaldo ? 

Geficral Merritt : I think Aguinaldo and his immediate following 
would resist it ; but whether he could resist to any extent I do not 
know, because his forces are divided. I believe that, as matters go, 
Aguinaldo will lose more or less of his power there. 

Tlie Chairvian : If the United States should say, We will take 
this country and govern it our own way, do you think they would 
submit to it ? 

Getieral Merritt : Yes, sir. 

Mr. Davis: How many troops in your opinion will be necessary 
to administer the government of this island — to secure the administra- 
tion of our government there ? 

General Merritt: From 20,000 to 25,000 would be requisite at 

I admire the conviction of this distinguished officer that 
the benefits of American rule would be highly appreciated 
by the Tagals, of whom, by-the-bye, he knew next to 
nothing, having only been a few weeks in Manila amongst 
sycophantic Mestizo- Americanistas. 

That interesting people were, however, of a different 
opinion. On p. 4582 of the 'Congressional Record,' I find 
that Seiior Mabini, in a manifesto published at San Isidro, 
April 15th, 1899, states that "race hatred is much more 
cniel and pitiless among the Anglo-Saxons " (he is com- 
paring them with the Spaniards). Again he says, "An- 
nexation, in whatever form it may be adopted, will unite 
us for ever to a nation whose manners and customs are 
different from our own, a nation which Jiates tJie coloitrcd 
race with a mortal hatred, and from which we could never 
separate ourselves except by war." The outbreaks against 
the negroes that have recently happened [August, 1900] in 
New Orleans, Liberty City, Georgia, and in New York, 
seem to justify Senor Mabini's remarks. 

Don Macario Adriatico, in an answer to a message of 
General Miller, writing from Jaro, January 3rd, 1900, says : 
" It could easily be conceived that the Philippines would 
not suffer a new reign, least of all of a nation on whose 
conscience the curse of the Redskins rests as a heavy load!' 

In other documents they refer to the probable action of 
the Trusts, and anticipate that, what with the Sugar Trust, 
the Tobacco Trust, and the Hemp Trust, they would soon 


find themselves reduced to the condition of porters and 
workmen, or even of domestic servants. 

They seem to have an intelligent anticipation of what 
will probably befall them when conquered, and hence their 
desperate resistance to a large American army. 

But let us now turn up the evidence of another expert 
on the Philippines, Mr. John Foreman, who also ventured 
to prophesy what the Tagals would do (Blue Book, before 
mentioned, p. 443). 

Mr. Foreman (answering Mr. Day) : " The Tagals are of a very 
plastic nature, willing in their nature {sic), I should say, to accommo- 
date themselves and take up any new established dominion which 
might be decided upon, and I think they would fall into any new 
system adopted. 

"The inhabitants of the Central Islands or Visayas are more 
uncouth, decidedly less hospitable, and somewhat more averse to 
associations and relations with outsiders than the Tagals, but I 
think they would easily come under sway. They want a little more 
pressure and would have to be guided, more closely watched, and 
perhaps a little more of the iron hand used than in Luzon." 

Thus was the administration in Washington misled, and 
it is probable that the American military chiefs reported 
that they could easily overcome all opposition, so they were 
allowed to try. 

Yet in June, 1900, we read, "The recall of General Otis 
is taken to mean that the administration considers the war 
to be at an end, and that there is no longer any necessity 
for military rule." 

General McArthur is appointed to the command, how- 
ever, and the first thing he does is to cable to Washington 
for more troops, whilst Admiral Remey asks for an extra 
battalion of marines. These are to be sent, also at least 
three regiments of infantry. Sixty-five thousand men and 
forty ships of war are now admitted to be the proper 
garrison to hold down the Philippines. 

However necessary reinforcements may be, so deep is 
the racial antipathy between the United States' soldiers, 
white or black, and the natives, that every additional man 
sent out is a source of disaff"ection, and even exasperation. 
Not only will the volunteers become demoralised and 
diseased in mind and body by their sojourn in America's 
new possession, but the very fact of their presence renders 
the pacification of the country more difficult. The more 
troops are kept there, the more discontented the natives 
will be. 


To bring this chapter up to date, the position seems to 
be as follows : There is a recrudescence of activity amongst 
the insurgents ; fighting is going on over a great part of the 
Archipelago, the American troops are harassed and over- 
worked, sickness is rife, including the bubonic plague ; yet, 
notwithstanding all this, the Taft Commission has taken 
over the administration of the islands from September ist. 

The date fixed is not a convenient one for the Com- 
mission, as it is in the middle of the rainy season, but it 
has probably been selected to suit the presidential 
campaign in America. 

Aguinaldo has issued a proclamation warning the 
Filipinos against the Taft Commission, which, he says, 
has no authority from Congress ; does not represent the 
sentiments of the American people, and is simply the 
personal instrument of Mr. McKinley sent out to make 
promises which it has no power to keep, and which the 
United States Government will not be bound to observe. 
He denounces the Americanistas, and threatens condign 
punishment to all who accept offices under the Commission. 
It would appear that a settlement on present lines is still 
some way off". 

Judge Taft seems to have inherited the cheerful 
optimism of General Otis. On September 1st he reported 
that the insurrection is virtually ended, and on 20th for- 
warded another favourable report. On 21st, General 
McArthur cabled accounts of engagements in several 
provinces of Luzon. The American troops at Pekin are 
being hurried to Manila, as the reinforcement of General 
McArthur is absolutely imperative. 




Their fears of a corrupt government — The islands might be an earthly- 
paradise — Wanted, the man — Kajah Brooke — Sir Andrew Clarke 
— Hugh Clifford — John Nicholson — Charles Gordon — Evelyn 
Baring — Mistakes of the Peace Commission — Government should 
be a protectorate — Fighting men should be made governors — 
What might have been — The Malay race — Senator Hoar's 
speech — Four years' slaughter of the Tagals. 

Not a few of the natives in arms were, and still are, sincere 
admirers of the true greatness of the United States. The 
noble deeds and words of America's great men attain the 
summit of human grandeur in their fervid imaginations. 

The statesmen and the historians of the great Republic 
receive their tribute of praise from Filipino lips. 

The names of Washington, Lincoln, Prescott, Motley, 
are known and honoured by them. Were the natives 
treated according to the immortal principles of right and 
justice laid down or praised by such as these, they would 
welcome the tutelage, and, in fact, all Asia might envy 

But they will never consent to become the prey of the 
politician, the boss, the monopolist, and the carpet-bagger, 
and from these they must be assured of protection before 
they will submit. 

What confidence can they have in a form of government 
under which the tariffs on their great staples will be made 
in the interests of their American competitors. 

Under such a system, and with a pension list steadily 
growing by millions of dollars year by year, their comfort- 
able competence would, in a few years, be reduced to the 
hideous poverty of over-taxed British India. 

Having passed so many years amongst this people, I 
may be expected to give some opinion as to whether the 
Philippines can be governed by America. 


The islands were badly governed by Spain, yet 
Spaniards and natives lived together in great harmony, 
and I do not know where I could find a colony in which 
the Europeans mixed as much socially with the natives. 
Not in Java, where a native of position must dismount to 
salute the humblest Dutchman. Not in British India, 
where the Englishwoman has now made the gulf between 
British and native into a bottomless pit. 

It will be difficult for the Americans to avoid this social 
ostracism of the natives, and in this respect they are not 
likely to do as well as the Spaniards, being less tolerant. 

As regards the administration of the government, no 
doubt great improvements can be made ; but I abstain 
from prophecy, remembering Merritt's and Foreman's want 
of success in that line. There is certainly a wonderful 
opportunity to show the world how to govern a tropical 
protectorate or dependency. 

So rich a country with so intelligent and industrious a 
population only requires good guidance to make it an 
earthly paradise. But the guidance should be given by 
the gentle hand of an elder sister, and not by the boot of a 
frontier ruffian. 

Much as our officials praise the administration of the 
Indian Empire, I think it quite possible with a few years of 
disinterested tutelage to weld the Philippines into a nation, 
more united, freer, happier, richer and better educated, than 
the finest state in that vast possession. What is wanted is 
THE MAN, no stubborn and tactless general "spoiling for a 
fight," harsh, peremptory, overbearing, but a civilian of the 
highest rank, or a naval officer, one of America's very best, 
full of sympathy, tact and patience, yet firm as Stonewall 
Jackson. He must have a gracious presence, and " mag- 
netism " in the highest degree, for he must rule by personal 
influence, by inspiring confidence and affection. 

Not otherwise did Rajah Brooke obtain his election to 
the sovereignty of Sarawak ; Sir Andrew Clarke pacify the 
Malay Peninsula ; nor is it otherwise that Hugh Clifford is 
leading the Malays of North Borneo to peaceful pursuits. 

The man, when found, must be invested with absolute 
power, and be backed up by all the forces of the Republic. 

The British Government gave America an example of 
what to avoid when it sacrificed Governor Eyre, of Jamaica, 
to a shrieking gang of pseudo-philanthropists, when, in a 
great emergency, whilst the honour of white women and 


the lives of men were at the mercy of a mob of negroes, he 
omitted some legal technicality before hanging one of the 
cowardly instigators. 

However, I do not think America will go back on her 
sons like that. 

Great Britain has produced some men who could have 
taken up the burden of the Philippines. It happens that 
the three I shall cite were all soldiers, but their extra- 
ordinary magnetic qualities by no means proceeded from 
their profession. 

The God-like man who died at Delhi, the beloved of 
John Lawrence, would have made an ideal ruler : the 
people would have worshipped him. 

The hero who died at Khartoum could have ruled the 
Philippines, or any Asiatic or African country, and the 
people would have loved him. 

To quote one who is still with us. Lord Cromer has 
coped with difficulties of a different kind, yet, perhaps, as 
great as those of the Philippines, and in a few years has 
changed the face of the land of Pharaoh, and lightened the 
lot of millions. This has been done by the assistance of a 
few engineers, administrators, judges and soldiers. He and 
all of them have displayed the most unfailing tact and 
patience, indomitable courage and fortitude, and each has 
put honour and duty before all. Men like John Nicholson, 
Charles Gordon and Evelyn Baring, are rare, but their 
peers doubtless exist amongst Americans of the good old 
colonial stock, and it is the President's business to find 
them, and send them out to protect and govern America's 
great dependency. 

America has, I suppose, taken these islands from Spain, 
to save them from the ruthless * Teuton, and to show the 
world that she can do for the Philippines what we have 
done for Egypt. Unfortunately, she began wrong by 
treating with Spain, and buying the islands, as if the 
natives were cattle on a ranch. 

Then the Peace Committee went wrong over the estates 
of the Religious Orders, as before explained. 

In my opinion, the form of government should be a 
protectorate, varying in character with the civilisation of 
the different islands, the executive functions being in the 
hands of the natives whenever possible, but under inspection 

* I think, in view of the German atrocities in Africa, including, 
many cases of flogging women, that this epithet is well earned. 


to prevent abuses. On this basis peace could, I think, be 
made, and then America should remember that the most 
worthy of the natives are precisely those who have been in 
arms for their freedom. Their chiefs (with one or two 
exceptions), are the men who should be appointed to 
govern provinces, and the fighting-men enrolled in the 
native army. 

No offices of government should be given to the so- 
called Americanistas, who are mostly people who need 
not be taken into account, and whose support is worth 
nothing. They will go on with their pettifogging and their 
pawnbroking, and that is enough reward for them. They 
are Americanistas because they cannot help themselves, 
and not from any attachment to American ways. Formerly 
the Spaniards protected them ; now the American bayonets 
stand between them and the Tagal do/os. 

Without this, well they know that what happened to 
the mulattos in Hayti would surely happen to them sooner 
or later — perhaps sooner. 

It is, indeed, sad to see what is, and to think what 
might have been accomplished by a little patience, a little 
forbearance, a tinge of sympathy, for a gallant people 
struggling for freedom and light. But no patience was 
vouchsafed to them, no forbearance was shown them, nor 
can I discover in what has been done the faintest sign of 
sympathy for them. 

Yet the Malay race can claim to have enlisted the 
sympathies of some not undistinguished men. Rajah 
Brooke, Spenser St. John, Hugh Clifford, Professor Blumen- 
tritt, Louis Becke, Joseph Conrad — the names that first 
occur to me — have all confessed to an affection for them. 
The old Spanish conquerors speak of their dignified 
courtesy and gentle manners. 

There are, however, in America, generous souls who 
can judge the Tagals fairly and even indulgently. I do- 
not allude to those who raise a clamour to discredit the 
administration for political purposes, but to the noble, 
eloquent, and truly patriotic speech, inspired in the best 
traditions of the United States, delivered by Mr. Hoar in 
the Senate on April 17th. I hope that touching appeal to 
the national conscience will bear fruit, and that, by the 
exercise of true statesmanship, an end may be put to this 
dreadful war, and a pacification effected satisfactory to 
Filipinos and Americans. 


For four long years, slaughter and destruction have 
ravaged one of the fairest lands on earth, converting what 
might be a paradise into a pandemonium. 

What evils have these poor Tagals not suffered in that 
time ? Arbitrary imprisonment, torture, confiscation of 
property, banishment to unhealthy places, military execu- 
tions, bombardments, the storming and burning of towns, 
indiscriminate slaughter, and the bubonic plague, added to 
the calamities they are always exposed to — volcanic erup- 
tions, floods, earthquakes, typhoons, locusts, epidemics. 

Famine seems to be the only calamity they have been 
free from, but even that may not be far distant. 

( 129 ) 



At the Spanish conquest — ^Rice — the lowest use the land can be put 
to — How the Americans are misled — Substitutes for rice — Wheat 
formerly grown — Tobacco — Compafiia General de Tabacos — 
Abacd, — Practically a monopoly of the Philippines — Sugar — Coffee 
— Cacao — Indigo — Cocoa-nut oil— Rafts of nuts — Copra — True 
localities for cocoa palm groves — Summary — More sanguine fore- 
casts — Common- sense view. 


The great wealth of the Archipelago is undoubtedly to be 
found in the development of its agriculture. Although the 
Central and Ilocan Mountains in Luzon and parts of Min- 
danao are rich in gold, it is the fertile land, the heavy rain- 
fall and the solar heat, that must be utilized to permanently 
enrich the country, The land is there and the labour is 
there, and all that is wanting is capital, and a settled 
government that will make roads and bridges and keep 
them in repair, clear the rivers of obstructions and improve 
the ports, and above all, establish and maintain some toler- 
able courts of justice. The sun, the rain, the soil, and 
the hardy Philippine farmer will do the rest — a popula- 
tion equal to that of Java could live in affluence in the 

The agriculture of the Philippines at the time of the 
first arrival of the Spaniards consisted mainly in the culti- 
vation of rice. It is to the Spaniards that the natives owe 
the introduction of maize, coffee, cacao, sesame, tobacco, the 
indigo plant, the sweet potato, and many fruits. They also 
imported horses, horned cattle, and sheep. But the great 
development of the cultivation of sugar and hemp is almost 
entirely due to British capital, with some assistance from 

The natives probably learned from the Chinese how to 



terrace the hillsides and the sloping lands, and how to erect 
the pildpilcs, or small dykes, for retaining the rain. At 
that time, and for centuries after, taxes were paid in paddy 
as they have been in Japan until quite recently. 

Under the heading " Tagals," a description is given of 
the planting of paddy, and an illustration shows the aspect 
of a newly-planted paddy-field or tubigan. Mountain rice- 
lands are called bacores or dalatanes. The cutting and 
harvesting of paddy is paid for in kind, sometimes in 
Camarines Sur, a third of the crop is given for getting 
it in, but in the province of Manila it is cultivated in equal 
shares to the farmer and the owner of the land. 

By looking at the illustration it will be seen that, the 
fields being divided into such small patches of irregular 
shapes at different levels, it would be difficult, if not im- 
possible, to use a reaping-machine. I have elsewhere given 
the reasons for my opinion that the cultivation of rice is the 
lowest use that the land and the husbandmen can be put to, 
and whenever the cultivation is given up, it is probably an 
indication that the cultivators are raising some more profit- 
able crop, and earning money by exporting valuable pro- 
duce, wherewith to import rice from countries in a lower 
stage of civilisation. 

This is most certainly the case in the Philippines, and 
year by year, as the exports of hemp, sugar and tobacco 
have increased, the imports of rice from Saigon and Rangoon 
have risen correspondingly. And yet the United States' 
Department of Agriculture, issued in the latter part of 1899 
a circular with the title, ' Plant Products of the Philippines,' * 
which, amongst other inaccurate appreciations, says : " It 
seems strange that an almost exclusively agricultural 
country should not produce enough food for its own 
population, but such is at present the case with regard to 
the Philippines." It proceeds to say that in some years the 
value of rice imported into Manila from Saigon was valued 
at $2,000,000. But I would point out to the author of that 
circular that the export of the three great staples of the 
Philippines in those years averaged, perhaps, $30,000,000, 

* In making these remarks, I am not in any way desirous of 
depreciating the Department of Agriculture, for I hold the belief 
that its reports are written with exceptional abihty. But this circular 
bears internal evidence of having been written by some person, 
perhaps a consul, unfamiHar with Philippine agriculture, and pub- 
lished without correction. 


and this, evidently, could not have been accomplished if 
they had cultivated their own rice. 

The Spaniards sometimes raised this same groundless 
clamour, and, perhaps, the author of the circular took it 
from them ; but I look upon it as a great mistake arising 
from insufficient knowledge of the subject. The rice im- 
ported into Manila is largely shipped to the tobacco and 
hemp provinces, Cagayan and Albay, where the people are 
exclusively employed in the cultivation and preparation of 
those valuable products, and are far richer, and on a higher 
grade of civilisation than the rice-growers of Cochin China. 

In the Philippines themselves, the people of the rice- 
growing districts are the poorest and most backward of all. 

Besides paddy, the natives cultivate the dava or mijo 
{Paniaim miliaceuni), the mongo, a species of lentil {Phaseo- 
liis miingo), called in some provinces balat or balatong, for 
their own consumption. 

When rice is dear, they mix a certain amount of maize 
with it, and when it is really scarce they eat the seeds of 
the sorghum {Helens saccharatiis) instead of it. They also 
make an infusion of these seeds, which is not unlike barley- 
water. The camote {Ivipovioea batata) is the principal food 
of the more uncivilised tribes. 

All the natives find a great resource in the banana, 
which the Tagals called saguin. The following varieties 
are excellent : Bungulan, Lacatan, Ternate, and Tindoc. 

Wheat was formerly grown in northern Luzon. The 
late Archbishop of Manila, Fray Pedro Payo, informed 
me that, when he was a parish priest years ago, he always 
ate bread made from Philippine flour, which he thought 
far better and safer than the Californian flour that had 
superseded it. -...^ 

Tobacco is an important crop in the Philippines, and 
from the year 1781 was cultivated in Cagayan as a govern- 
ment monopoly. In the villages of that province the people 
were called out by beat of drum and marched to the fields 
under the gobernadorcillo and principales, who were re- 
sponsible for the careful ploughing, planting, weeding, and 
tending, the work being overlooked by Spanish officials. 
Premiums were paid to these and to the gobernadorcillos, 
and fines or floggings were administered in default. The 
native officials carried canes, which they freely applied to 
those who shirked their work. 

In another part of the book I have referred to the series 

K 2 


of abuses committed under the monopoly : how the wretched 
cultivators had to bribe the officials in charge of the scales 
to allow them the true weight, and the one who classified 
the leaves, so that he should not reject them as rubbish and 
order them to be destroyed ; in fact, they had to tip every offi- 
cial in whose power it was to do them any injustice. Finally, 
they received orders on the treasury for the value of their 
tobacco, which were not paid for months, or, perhaps, for 
years. They sometimes had to sell their orders for 50 per 
cent, of the face value, or even less. 

However, even the Spanish official conscience can be 
aroused, and at the end of 1882 the monopoly was 

Here it is only right to honourably mention a Spanish 
gentleman to whom the natives of the Cagayan Valley 
in a great measure owe their freedom. Don Jose Jimenez 
Agius was Intendente General de Hacienda, and he 
laboured for years to bring about this reform, impressed 
with the cruelty and injustice of this worst form of 
slavery. The Cagayanes were prohibited from growing 
rice, but were allowed as an indulgence to plant a row 
or two of maize around their carefully tilled tobacco- 

Possibly this circumstance has led the author of the 
circular I have before quoted to make the extraordinary 
statement : " Tobacco, as a cultivated crop, is generally 
grown in the same field as maize." Does he think it grows 
wild anywhere .'' 

In 1883, the " Compailia General de Tabacos de Fili- 
pinas " was established in the islands, the capital being 
raised in Paris and Barcelona. 

This Company has been under very capable manage- 
ment ; the technical department being overlooked by M. 
Armand Villemer, a French engineer of great ability and 
experience. The Company has done a great deal to im- 
prove the cultivation of the plant and the preparation of the 
leaf. They run light draught paddle-steamers and barges 
on the Cagayan River, and sea-going screw-steamers from 
Aparri to Manila. 

Their estates are mentioned under the heading " Caga- 

Besides the Cagayan Valley, the following Provinces 
produce tobacco in considerable quantities. 

In Luzon, the Ilocos North and South, Abra, Union, 


Nueva Ecija. Also Masbate, Ticao, and most of the 
Visayas Islands. The Igorrote also raise a considerable 

The quantity of tobacco and cigars exported since 1888 
is given in the Appendix ; and, seeing the enormous extent 
of land still available in the Cagayan Valley, there can be 
no doubt that the production can be very largely increased 
as the demand grows. 

The export of leaf tobacco from Manila, the only 
shipping port, has increased from 204,592 quintals in 1888, 
to 287,161 quintals in 1897, and during the same period 
the export of cigars has increased from 109,109 mil to 
171,410 mil. 

The cultivation of the Musa textilis is almost a mono- 
poly of the Philippines, and, indeed, of certain parts of 

Volcanic soil, a certain elevation above the sea, and 
exposure to the breezes of the Pacific, a bright sun and an 
ample rainfall, seem necessary to the production of a fine 
quality of this fibre. 

Several attempts have been made to produce this fibie 
elsewhere ; the Government of British India sent a gentle- 
man to Manila to study the question. lie wrote a report, 
but I have never heard that any abaca was produced. 

The plant was said to grow wild all along the Sarawak 
rivers ; but here again some mistake must have been made, 
for nothing seems to have come of it. 

There is, in fact, nothing so far to compete with it, and 
there is an immense and growing market. The price has 
lately fluctuated enormously, and I do not intend to pro- 
phesy what profits might be made in planting it. 

In 1897, no less than 915,338 bales were exported, 
about 114,400 tons, and if we take the average price at 
that time as $15 per bale, we get a sum of over $13,730,000 
as the value of that year's export, the largest in quantity, 
but not in value. 

The export of hemp has been almost entirely developed 
by British and American enterprise, and dates from veiy 
recent times. 

The spread of the sugar-cane cultivation in the Philip- 
pines from the year 1870 was rapid, and is in great measure 
due to the advances made by British and American houses 
to the planters. It was for many years a most profitable 
business, and this is proved by the large and handsome 


houses of the planters in the towns of the sugar districts. 
The continual increase of the beet sugar production, how- 
ever brought down prices to such an extent as to reduce 
the profits below the heavy interest paid on loans or 
advances. I But it seems now that bottom has been reached, 
and that rising prices and more economical methods of 
financing and of manufacturing will give the planters a 
fresh start. Those who know what has been and is being 
done by central sugar factories in Cuba, will not doubt the 
possibility of doing better in the Philippines, where labour 
is cheaper and is on the spot. 

Under the headings Pampangos, Pangasinanes, and 
Visayas, will be found many interesting particulars of the 
working of sugar plantations in these provinces. 

In 1893, the export of sugar amounted to 260,000 tons ; 
since then it has declined, but in 1897 it still amounted to 
close on 200,000 tons, 

The export of coffee has almost entirely ceased, and the 
cause is ascribed to the ravages of an insect which destroys 
the bushes. Lipa, in Batangas province, was the great 
coffee centre, and became one of the richest towns in 
Luzon. Notwithstanding this prosperity, the plantations 
were never cultivated with proper care. Weeding was 
much neglected. In 1888, the export reached 107,236 
piculs, but in 1897 it had fallen to 21 11 piculs. 

There is an opening for coffee-planting on many of the 
elevated plateaux of the islands, and capital with skill ought 
to find its reward. 

The Moros of Lake Lanao export a certain quantity of 
coffee of indifferent appearance but excellent flavour. 

Cacao grows well in many parts of the Archipelago, but 
I have never seen any large plantations of it. A few trees 
may be seen in the gardens of old houses, but they must be 
protected from insects and rats, and require looking after. 

The quantity raised in the islands is not sufficient to 
supply the home demand, so that cacao beans are imported 
from Venezuela and chocolate from Spain. 

It is a risky business to plant cacao in the northern 
Philippines ; the trees are delicate and suffer from the 
typhoons. And the produce is so valuable that, unless 
watched at night or protected in some way, the cones may 
when nearly ripe be carried away by thieves. 

In Palawan, where the typhoons do not ravage, I have 
seen cacao trees 30 feet high, with an abundant crop. 


The plant from which indigo is elaborated was cultivated 
in former years to a considerable extent in some provinces, 
notably the Ilocos, but the export trade was destroyed by 
the adulterations of the Chinese. 

In 1895, 6672 quintals were exported from Manila, but 
only 462 quintals in 1896. Ten specimens of Ilocos indigo 
were shown at the Madrid Exhibition of 1887, and the 
price varied from $12 to %6j per quintal. 

For home use the dye is sold in a liquid form, contained 
in large earthen jars called tinajas. It is known as 

Sesame and other oil-giving seeds are cultivated to a 
small extent in several provinces, but neither the seed nor 
the oil figure in the list of exports. 

The cocoa-nut palm grows in most of the lowlands of 
the Philippines, except in the North of Luzon. In suitable 
soil it grows to the very edge of the sea, as in the Cuyos 
Islands, In the provinces of Laguna and Tayabas there 
are large numbers of these trees and a lively business is 
carried on in making oil from nuts or in sending them to 
Manila for the market or for shipment. 

When large quantities are to be sent, they are formed 
into rafts in a very ingenious manner, each nut being 
attached by a strip of its own fibre without any rope being 

These rafts are sometimes a hundred feet long and ten 
or twelve feet wide, and are navigated across the lake and 
down the Pasig. Finally they are brought alongside a 
steamer, the nuts are cut adrift and thrown into the hold 
through the cargo ports. 

The nuts that are to be used for making oil are stripped 
of their husks and cut in halves. They then pass to a 
workman who is provided with an apparatus called a 
Cntciiran. This is mounted upon a trestle and consists of 
a revolving shaft of hard polished wood, carrying on its 
overhanging end an iron disc about three inches in diameter 
having teeth like the rowel of a spur. 

This is set edgeways in a slot in the shaft. On each 
side of the trestle near the ground is a treadle ; from one 
of these a cotton cord passes over the shaft taking a round 
turn and is made fast to the other treadle. The operator 
sits astride the trestle with a foot on each treadle. By 
working them alternately he produces a rapid revolution of 
the shaft in alternate directions, and the cutting disc being 


double-edged it cuts both ways. By holding a half nut 
against the revolving cutter he in a few seconds rasps out 
every particle of the nut which falls upon a tray in fine 

The shredded material is then heated in a cast-iron pan 
over a slow fire, and whilst hot is filled into bags of strong 
material which are placed in the press. 

This is constructed entirely of hard wood, and the pres- 
sure is obtained by driving wedges with a heavy mallet. 

The system is primitive, but all the apparatus is prac- 
tical and very cheap. 

D. Carlos Almeida of Bifian stated to me in 1890 that 
400 large cocoa-nuts gave by this process one tinaja or jar 
of oil, equivalent to 10^ English gallons, which was then 
worth on the spot six Mexican dollars. It is sold in Manila. 
At this time cocoa-nuts were sold in Santa Cruz, the capital 
of the Laguna, for about $15 per thousand. The oil cake 
was used either to feed pigs or as a manure about the roots 
of coffee-plants. The owner of cocoa-palm groves in Luzon 
or Visayas lives in anxiety during several months of each 
year, for should the vortex of a typhoon pass over or near 
his plantation, a large proportion of his trees may be 

The true locality for such plantations is in the southern 
and western parts of Mindanao and Palawan, to the south 
of a line drawn from the northern point of Mindanao to 
Busuanga Island in the Calamianes, preferring the most 
sheltered spots. 

In this region the danger from typhoons is inconsider- 
able, and the trees flourish exceedingly, I have been shown 
trees in bearing at Puerta Princesa which I was assured were 
only three years old. I saw older trees bearing immense 
bunches of nuts, too many to count, and it seemed won- 
derful to see a slender trunk bearing aloft sixty feet in 
the air so heavy a load. From fifty to one hundred trees 
can be planted on an acre according to the space allowed 
to each, and when in full bearing after six or seven years 
each tree might give eighty nuts in a year. The crop goes 
on all the year round. 

Copra is prepared from the nuts either by drying the 
whole nut under cover in the shade, allowing the water to 
become absorbed and then breaking up the kernel for 
bagging, or else by breaking it up first of all and drying it 
in the sun. 


In the first case a large airy shed is required, and the 
process takes three months. In the latter case three days 
of sunshine will suffice, but the kernels must be protected 
from the dew at night and from any chance shower of rain. 
Artificial heat does not produce good copra, and besides is 
expensive to apply. 

Making copra is one of the most paying enterprises in 
the Philippines, but it requires capital to be laid out several 
years beforehand, unless a plantation can be bought to start 

Previous to 1890, the quantity of copra exported was so 
small that no record was kept of it. In that year 74,447 
piculs were exported, and the trade has gone up by leaps 
and bounds, so that in 1897 no less than 8 11,440 piculs were 
sent out, over fifty thousand tons. 

The present position of agriculture seems to be that there 
are in the Philippines somewhere about six millions of 
civilised Christian people tilling eight million acres of land, 
and exporting some thirty million dollars' worth of produce 
each year. They also raise a large quantity of food-stuffs 
for their own consumption, but import perhaps a couple 
of million dollars' worth of rice because it is cheaper to buy 
it than to grow it, as we in England import wheat for the 
same reason. The area of land under cultivation is com- 
puted at one-ninth of the total area of the islands. 

The author of the circular Plant Products of the Philip- 
pi?ies, to which I have before referred, makes the following 
remarks: "In view of the natural fertility of the soil and 
the vast extent of these rich lands not yet under cultivation, 
it is safely assumed that the total agricultural production of 
the islands could be increased tenfold." 

This gentleman seems to be of a sanguine disposition, 
and he reminds me rather of Oscar F. Williams' cheerful 
optimism. But in one way he is more cautious than that 
gentleman. He does not fix a time for his prophecy to be 

I would point out, however, that in the seventy-five 
million acres comprised in the islands there are volcanic 
cones, peaks of basalt, stony plains, unexplored regions, 
swamps and other undesirable localities for establishing 
farms or plantations, and that some of the good lands are 
held by warlike tribes who would resent any intrusion into 
their domains. 

There are, it is true, great tracts of land in Mindanao 


and Palawan, and no doubt in time they will come under 

Taking everything into consideration, I hold to my view 
that with peace, honest government and a good Vagrancy 
law, the export of produce might be doubled in twenty 
years if capital is forthcoming in sufficient amount. The 
land is worth nothing without the husbandmen, and it will 
take the Philippines a long time to recover from the 
devastating effects of the insurrection of 1896-7 and the 
American war of subjugation. 

( 139 



Value exaggerated — Difficulties of labour and transport — Special 
sawing machinery required — Market for timber in the islands — 
Teak not found — Jungle produce — Warning to investors in com- 
panies — Gutta percha. 

During the three and a quarter centuries the Spaniards 
have held the Philippines, the forests of Luzon have 
supplied enormous quantities of the finest timber for 
building houses, churches, convents, bridges, warships, 
lighters and canoes. No care has ever been taken to 
replant, and the consequence is that at this day long logs 
of many kinds most wanted are not obtainable, all the large 
trees of valuable timber have long ago been cut, and only in 
the most distant and least accessible places are any worth 
having to be found. 

The greatest nonsense is talked about the value of the 
Philippine forests, but in fact it is only in the fever-stricken 
Island of Mindoro, and in certain parts of Palawan and 
Mindanao, that any large and valuable trees can be found. 

Labour is a great difficulty ; wood-cutters are scarce, and 
they are a wild, unruly lot ; only men inured to such a 
rough life can resist the malaria of the woods, and even 
they are occasionally down with fever. 

Chinamen would not venture into the forests, and only 
the natives of each district are available, as they do not 
care to go far from their houses. In order to engage them 
it is necessary to make them advances of money which it 
will seldom be possible to recover. A good deal of tact 
is required in dealing with the cutters, they are very 
independent and will not put up with abuse. A consider- 
able capital is required to give advances to, and feed these 
men, also for buying buffaloes, which die unless good care 
is taken of them. 


If a cutter can be found who has buffaloes of his own, 
it is better to hire them with him, as then they are sure to 
be taken care of. 

The dragging the large logs to a river or port can only 
be done by teams of buffaloes. The conditions prevailing 
prevent the employment of chutes, wire ropes and winding 
engines, or tram-lines. 

The valuable trees do not grow together in numbers as 
in the forests of California and Oregon, but are found at 
considerable distances from each other. It is therefore 
only possible to commence the use of mechanical convey- 
ance at the spot where the logs can be assembled by 
animal labour. Even so, the number of logs from any 
district will be so small that it will hardly pay to lay down 
a tramway. 

The logs are squared in the woods and the butt ends 
are rounded like the runners of a sleigh, two holes are 
chopped at the top corners with a small adze called a 
palacol, through which rattans are passed for the buffaloes 
to be yoked to. They are then dragged down to the river 
or sea. The wood is too heavy to float, and bundles of 
bamboos are attached to it to give it buoyancy. 

The idea of putting up saw-mills in the forests is absurd 
— for the reason given above. 

The wood is very hard and tough, and specially made 
machinery is required to work it. 

The framing must be heavier, the feed lighter, and the 
teeth of the saws much smaller and with less set. I have 
had some excellent machinery and saws specially made in 
England for this purpose, by Thomas Robinson & Son of 
Rochdale, but I sent home logs of the woods required to 
be worked, for the saws, planers, and moulding cutters 
to be made to suit. The ordinary sawing machinery as 
shown in trade catalogues would be of no use at all. 

The whole business is extremely risky, it requires a 
manager, immune to jungle fever, a man of great vigour 
yet patient and tactful. Such a man, understanding the 
native ways, would probably succeed after years of hard 
and dangerous work ; but I warn any one thinking of taking 
up this business that in Luzon valuable trees are few and 
far between, and distant from port or river, whilst in other 
islands where there are timber trees they stand there 
because no one could ever be induced to go and cut 


As for exporting these timbers to the United States or 
other places, there is no need to do that, for demand for 
timber in Manila and other towns is greater than the 
supply, and iron construction is increasing in consequence. 

Oregon or Norway pine is of no use for building 
purposes in the Philippines, for it would be devoured 
within a year or two by the anay (white ants). I am 
told, however, that in spite of warnings the United States 
military authorities have constructed stables and storehouses 
of this timber. 

I think it quite useless to mention the names of the 
different Philippine timbers, as those who take an interest 
in them can purchase the ' Manual de Maderero ' (Wood- 
cutters' Manual) and obtain all the information they require 
from it. 

Molave is the most important, being proof against the 
white ants, and almost imperishable. Ypil and yacal are 
splendid woods for large roofs. They can be obtained long 
enough for tie-beams, even for wide spans, and excellent 
roof-frames can be made by bolting them together. 

On the Zambales mountains and in Benguet and 
Lepanto there are forests of coniferse. When the Manila- 
Dagupan Railway was being built, I had some sample 
sleepers brought down from thence. They were quite 
suitable, but could only be used if thoroughly creosoted, 
as otherwise they would merely provide food for the white 
ants. As there are no gasworks in the Islands, creosote 
could not be produced, nor would it pay to import it from 
Hong Kong or elsewhere on account of the freight and 

There is no market in the islands for pine and no one 
cuts the trees. They are not of great size. The Igorrotes 
burn them to clear the land for planting. 

True ebony is not found in the forests, but a veiy hand- 
some and heavy wood, called Camagon, is the nearest 
approach to it, being dark-brown nearly black, streaked 
with bright yellow. It is found of larger size than ebony 
and is sold by the pound. 

Teak has often been reported to exist and samples of 
the alleged teak have been shown to me. On comparing 
them with teak from Rangoon a considerable difference 
was noted and the characteristic odour was absent. My 
own impression is that there is no teak in the Philippines. 
I have paid two dollars a cubic foot for teak in Manila and 


if there was any to be had, this price would, I think, have 
fetched it out. 

As for such jungle produce as gum-damar, canes, and 
rattans, if the reader will refer to my remarks on Palawan 
he will see that the most valuable products are mostly 
worked out, and that in any case this is not white man's 

There is, however, one branch that, in view of increasing 
scarcity and rising price, should be carefully looked after 
by the Philippine Administration ; I refer to the collection 
of gutta-percha in Mindanao. This caused quite a boom 
for a short time, but as usual the Chinamen got hold of 
the stuff and mixed it with various kinds of rubbish, so that 
it was soon discredited in the European market. 

An official of high-standing might be appointed to the 
double office of Protector of the Natives, and Conservator 
of the Forests in Mindanao, and rules for collecting the 
gutta without destroying the trees should be prepared and 
enforced by personal visits from the conservator and his 
deputies, to whom all the gutta should be handed, being 
paid for in cash. This would probably yield a large 
revenue to the Government and greatly benefit the natives, 
for they might receive half the value of the gutta instead of 
the minute fraction the Chinese now give them. 

The reader who has perused the previous remarks will 
no longer be liable to be caught by tales of the fabulous 
riches of the Philippine forests. And, above all, he should 
keep clear of any companies that may be formed to exploit 
them. Energetic and tactful individuals may succeed, but 
the success will be due to personal qualities, and will be 
contemporaneous with that gifted party and disappear with 
him. This is what happened to the " Laguimanoc Saw 
Mills and Timber Company " as soon as the founder left. 

A large proportion of the jungle produce of Mindanao, 
Palawan, and the smaller Southern Islands is smuggled 
away by the Chinese traders to Sandakan or Singapore. 

All that appears in the Table of Exports is two or 
three hundred tons of gum copal shipped each year from 

( 143 ) 



Gold: Dampier — Pigafetta — De Comyn — Placers in Luzon — Gapan 
— River Agno — The Igorrotes — Auriferous quartz from Antaniae 
— Capunga — Pangutantan — Goldpits at Suyuc — Atimonan — 
Paracale — Mambulao — Mount Labo — Surigao — River Siga — 
Gigaquil, Caninon-Binutong, and Cansostral Mountains — Misamis 
— Pighoulugan — Iponan — Pigtao — Dendritic gold from Misamis 
— Placer gold traded away surreptitiously — Cannot be taxed — 
Spanish mining laws — Pettifogging lawyers — Prospects for gold 
seekers. Copper : Native copper at Surigao and Torrijos (Mindoro) 
— Copper deposits at Mancayan worked by the Igorrotes — Spanish 
company — Insufficient data — Caution required. Iron: Rich ores 
found in the Cordillera of Luzon — Worked by natives — Some 
Europeans have attempted but failed — Red hematite in Cebu — 
Brown hematite in Paracale — Both red and brown in Capiz — 
Oxydized iron in Misamis — Magnetic iron in San Miguel de 
Mayumo — Possibilities. Coal (so called) .• Beds of lignite upheaved 
— Vertical seams at Sugud — Reason of failure — Analysis of 
Masbate lignite. Various Minerals : Galena — Red lead — Graphite 
— Quicksilver — Sulphur Asbestos — Yellow ochre — Kaolin, Marble 
— Plastic clays — Mineral waters. 

It is a great mistake to suppose that nothing is known of 
the geology and mineralogy of the Philippines, or that no 
attempts have been made to exploit them. 

The maps of the Archipelago are marked in dozens or 
hundreds of places, coal, copper, lead, iron, gold, and a 
number of works treating of the subject have been pub- 
lished. Amongst the authors are the mining engineers, 
Don Enrique Abella and Don Jose Centeno. But some of 
their most important reports are still in manuscript, for the 
revenues of the Philippines were almost entirely absorbed 
in paying the salaries of the officials, and there was a great 
disinclination to spend money in any other way. 

At the Philippine Exhibition, held at Madrid in 1887, 


more than seven hundred specimens of auriferous earths or 
sand, gold quartz, and ores of various metals were shown, 
and in this branch alone there were 109 exhibitors from all 
parts of the Archipelago. 

Besides ores there were the tools and utensils used by 
the miners, and models of the furnaces and forges in which 
the metals were reduced and worked, with the metals in 
different stages of concentration or manufacture, and a 
complete show of the finished products. 

A great many Mining Companies have been formed in 
Spain or in Manila at different times which have all failed 
from a variety of causes, want of skill, bad management, 
costly administration, or because the richness of the vein or 
seam had been exaggerated. 

The difficulty of getting labour is considerable, as 
mining is a work the generality of natives do not care to 
take up, although in some provinces they are used to it, for 
example, in Camarines Norte and in Surigao. 

Employers seem to forget that the ordinary food of a 
native, rice and fish, is not sufficiently nourishing to enable 
him to do hard and continuous work, such as is required 
in mining. A higher rate of pay than the current wage is 
essential, to allow the miner to supply himself with an 
ample ration of beef or pork, coffee and sugar, and 
provision should be made for him to be comfortably 

In this complaint of want of labour it is not always 
the native who is to blame, and if a mine cannot afford 
to pay a reasonable price for labour, it had better stand 

Probably the one great reason why mines have not 
prospered in the Philippines is that there has never been 
slavery there, as in Cuba, Peru^ Mexico, Brazil, ancient 
Egypt, and other great mining countries, where whole 
populations have been used up to minister to the avarice 
of their fellow-men. 

Names of some Metals in Tagal. 

Gold . . 


Iron . . . Bacal. 


. Pilac. 

Steel . . • PataliDi 

Copper . 


Forged Steel Biualon 

Lead . 


Coal . . . Uling. 

Tin . . 

Tviga pjiti. 



From my remarks upon the other minerals it will be 
seen that I have no illusions on the immediate prospects of 
working them. 

With gold, however, it is different. For centuries 
large quantities have been collected or extracted, mostly, 
no doubt, from placers, still some rich veins are known to 

The early writers agree that gold is plentiful, Dampier 
says : " Most, if not all, the Philippine Islands are rich in 

Speaking of the Batanes Islanders, he says : — 

" They have no sort of coin, but they have small crumbs of the 
metal before described " (he seemed at first to doubt whether it was 
gold), which they bind up very safe in plantain leaves or the like. 
This metal they exchange for what they want, giving a small quantity 
of it — about two or three grains — for a jar of drink that would hold 
five or six gallons. They have no scales, but give it by guess." 

In the 'Relacion de las Islas Fihpinas,' 1595(1'), the 
author remarks that the Tagals " like to put on many 
ornaments of gold, which they have in great abundance." 

Farther on, he says of Luzon : — 

" The people of this island are very clever in knowing " (valuing) 
"gold, and they weigh it with the greatest subtleness and delicacy 
which has ever been seen ; the first thing they teach their children is 
to know gold and the weights used for it, for amongst them there is 
no other money." 

Farther on, he says : — 

" Ilocos . . . has much gold, for the principal mines of these 
islands are in the mountain ranges of this province, of which they 
get the advantage, for they trade with the miners more than any 
people. The Spaniards have many times endeavoured to people the 
mines so as to work them, but it has not been possible up to the 
present, although the Governor, Gonzalo Ronquillo, took the greatest 
pains, and it cost him many men, the country being so rough and 
destitute of provisions." 

In Pigafetta's 'Voyage Round the World' (Pinkerton), 
Vol. ii., p. 333, we read that at Caraga (Mindanao) a man 
offered an ingot of massive gold for six strings of glass 



On p. 331, he says : — 

" The king who accompanied us informed us that gold was found 
in his island in lumps as large as walnuts, and even as an &^<^y 
mingled with earth ; that they used a sieve for sifting it, and that all 
his vessels, and even many of the ornaments of his house were of 
this metal." 

On p. 348, he says that he saw many utensils of gold in 
the house of the Raja or King of Butuan. 

On p. 349, we find the following remarks : — 

" What most abounds is gold. Valleys were pointed out to me 
in which by signs they made me comprehend there were more lumps 
of gold than we had hair on our heads, but that, for the want of iron, 
the mines exact greater labour to work them than they feel inclined 
to bestow." 

Coming down to later days, Thomas de Comyn, 1810, 
writes : — 

" Gold abounds in Luzon and in many of these islands ; but as 
the mountains which contain it are in the power of pagan Indians, 
the veins are not worked, nor even the mines known. These savages 
collect it from placers or streams, and bring it as dust to the Christians 
who inhabit the plains, in exchange for coarse cloth or fire-arms, and 
at times they have brought it in grains of one or two ounces' weight. 

" It is the general opinion that this class of mines abound in the 
province of Caraga, situated on the east of the great island of 
Mindanao, and that there, as well as at various other points, gold is 
found of 22 carat fine." 

He states that the Royal Fifth, or rather Tenth (for it 
was found the mines could not pay a fifth, and it was 
reduced by half), in the year 1809 amounted to $1144. 
This would represent an extraction of gold equal to only 
$11,440; but this was probably but a small part of the 
whole, as from the circumstances of the case the gold dust 
from the washings would be surreptitiously disposed of, 
and only the few mines that were worked, paid the tax, I 
had occasion, about twevle years ago, to make inquiry how 
much gold was raised in Camarines Norte, and a person 
well-informed on the subject estimated it at a value of 
$30,000 gold dollars. 

Gold is certainly very widely distributed in the islands. 
I have seen women washing the sands of the River San 
Jos6 del Puray in the province of Manila, and noted what 
small specks they collected. I was informed that their 
average earnings were about 25 cents per day. Whether 


these sands could be dredged and washed mechanically on 
a large scale with profit I cannot say. 

In 1890, I ascended the Puray River and went up the 
Arroyo Macaburabod to where it bifurcates. There, close 
to the boundary of the province of Manila and district of 
Moron, I found a face of disintegrated quartz glittering 
with large crystals of iron pyrites. 

This was near a geological frontier where the igneous 
and sedimentary rocks joined, and the neighbourhood was 
highly mineralized, there being iron, coal, and gold within 
a short distance, I took a large number of samples, and 
the analyst Anacleto del Rosario declared that one of them 
gave an assay of 17 dwts. of gold to the ton. But of course 
such assays prove nothing, for the accidental presence of a 
grain of gold in the sample would make all the difference 
in the results. 

Near Gapan in Nueva Ecija more profitable washings 
are situated, and at times large numbers of men and women 
are to be seen at work, especially after a sudden flood has 
come down. The sands of the River Agno also yield gold, 
and the washing for it is quite an industry amongst the 
Pangasinan women about Rosales, but the return is said 
to be small. But after a north-westerly gale has heaped up 
the black sand at the mouth of this river in the Bay of 
Lingayen, the people turn out in numbers to wash it, and 
sometimes have better luck. But although these washings 
are poor, a considerable quantity of gold is obtained from 
the Igorrotes, and there is no doubt that these people have 
for centuries worked quartz veins or pockets, and that they 
only extract sufficient for their modest requirements in the 
way of purchasing cattle, cloth, and tools. They do not 
hoard any gold, for they say that it is safer in the mine 
than in their houses. When one of them requires a few 
ounces he goes to his mine, gets it out, and immediately 
proceeds to purchase what he wants. Possibly they do not 
consider the supply inexhaustible, and they have thought 
for to-morrow, or for those who will come after them. It 
is not their object to exhaust the bounties of nature in the 
shortest possible time. 

When they have found a rich pocket they build a house 
over the pit, and when not at work they cover the hole with 
roughly-hewn planks or logs ; they take precautions in dis- 
posing of the detritus, so that it does not call attention 
from a distance. 

I. 2 


In the Exhibition of 1887 the Comandante Politico- 
Mih'tar of the Province of Benguet showed samples of 
auriferous quartz from Antaniac and from Capunga, also 
quartz with visible threads of gold from the latter place, 
also leaf gold from the veins, two specimens of auriferous 
quartz from Pangutantan with gold extracted from it, and 
gold-dust from the River Agno, 

Other exhibits included specimens of gold-bearing rock 
from Lepanto and Infantas, and compact auriferous quartz 
from the celebrated gold-pits of Suyuc near Mancayan. 
All these quartz reefs are worked by the Igorrotes. 

Gold is also found near Atimonan in Tayabas, but the 
neighbourhood of Paracale and Mambulao, and the slopes 
of Mount Labo are most famous in Manila. 

During the last century large quantities of gold were 
taken from the surface-workings, which are now exhausted, 
or only afford a miserable living to the natives who treat 
the auriferous earths in a very primitive way. 

The gold having been taken, the next thing was to use 
the reputation of the mines to attract capital, and this was 
done to some considerable extent, one company being 
founded on the ruins of another. One of the later ones 
was the " Ancla de Oro," or Golden Anchor, but its capital 
was expended without results. The late Don Antonio 
Enriquez, a Spanish gentleman well-known to British and 
Americans in Manila, worked some mining properties there 
for some years, and had faith in them. 

He consulted me about them, and I forwarded some 
samples of the ores to my agents in London, who had them 
analyzed by Messrs. Johnson & Matthey, but the results 
were not encouraging, and did not confirm the analysis 
made in Manila. 

About 1890, Messrs. Peele, Hubbell & Co. got out an 
American mining expert, whose name I forget, but I believe 
he was a mining engineer of high standing. He spent 
some time at Mambulao and Paracale, and made a careful 
examination of the country. It was understood that his 
report did not encourage any further expenditure in pros- 
pecting or development. But of late years further attempts 
have been made to boom the place, and the Mambulao 
Gold Mining Syndicate, London, 1893, has been formed. 
I am unaware on what new information the promoters 
rely to justify their bringing this place again before the 


Surigao, in the old kingdom of Caraga, is rich in gold 
which is very widely disseminated. Father Llovera, a 
missionary who, in March, 1892, made an excursion up the 
River Siga to visit some unbaptized Mamanuas in the 
mountains, declares that the sands contain much gold, so 
much so that particles were plainly visible. This river 
takes its rise in the eastern Cordillera, between Cantilan 
and Jabonga, and runs in a north-easterly direction into the 
southern part of Lake Mainit. The missionary also declares 
that veins of gold were visible in some of the pieces of 
rock lying in the bed of the river, which they broke to 
examine. But he does not seem to have brought back any 
specimens, as one would expect. 

His declaration is confirmed by Dr. Montano, a French 
traveller and skilled explorer, who however does not say 
that he saw the gold dust amongst the sand. 

From Surigao to Gigaquil the people are engaged in 
washing the sands for gold. 

Foreman states that for many months remittances of 
four or five pounds weight of gold were sent from Mindanao 
to a firm in Manila, and that it was alluvial gold from 
Surigao extracted by the natives. 

Don Jose Centeno, Inspector of Mines, says in a report : 
" The most important workings effected in Surigao are in 
the Caninon-Binutong and Cansostral mountains, a day's 
journey from the town. 

" These mountains consist of slaty talc much metamor- 
phosed, and of serpentine. In the first are found veins of 
calcite and quartz from half-an-inch to three inches thick, 
in which especially in the calcite the gold is visible mixed 
with iron and copper pyrites, galena and blende. It is a 
remarkable circumstance that the most mineralized veins 
run always in an east and west direction, whilst the poor 
and sterile veins always follow another direction. The 
workings are entirely on the surface, as the abundance of 
water which flows to them prevents sinking shafts, and 
nothing is known of the richness at depth. Rich and 
sterile parts alternate, the gold being mostly in pockets. 
From one of the veins in Caninoro in a length of eighteen 
inches one lucndred owices of gold were taken." 

Some time after this find, Messrs. Aldecoa & Co., a 
Manila firm, erected stamps at Surigao, and a certain 
amount of gold was sent up by every steamer to Manila, 
but in spite of the apparently favourable circumstances, 


the enterprise was ultimately abandoned and the machinery 

I do not know the reason, but people in Manila are so 
used to the collapse of mining companies that it is regarded 
as their natural and inevitable end, and no explanations 
are required. 

Nietc (p. 75) mentions the northern parts of the province 
of Surigao and Misamis as the richest in gold. In Misamis 
there is both alluvial gold and rich quartz reefs, the richest 
known spots being Pighoulugan on the River Cagayan, 
Iponan and Pigtao. The ore at the latter place is auriferous 
iron pyrites, called by the natives Inga. 

Nuggets weighing from two and a half to four ounces 
have been found in these places, so that Pigafetta's stories 
are not without foundation. 

On March 20th, 1888, a clerk of Don Louis Genu, a 
merchant in Manila, called upon me on business and 
exhibited a large pickle bottle full of gold which he had 
just received from Cagayan de Misamis. There were 
several pounds weight of it, and I carefully examined it 
with a lens. I found it in pieces, many of them half an 
inch or more in length, slightly flattened, and having 
minute particles of white quartz adhering to them, and 
a few loose particles of quartz. The pieces were not 
water-worn, and had evidently formed part of a seam of 
dendritic or lace gold, such as I had seen exhibited by 
a vendor of mining properties in Denver, Col., just a year 

This exhibit opened my eyes to the possibilities of gold 
mining in Mindanao, but I did not leave my business to go 

The natives of this part of Mindanao look upon washing 
for gold as their chief resource. A certain quantity of what 
they collect is used to make ornaments, and passes from 
hand to hand instead of coin in payment of gambling debts, 
and stakes lost at cockfights. The Mestizos and Chinamen 
get hold of the rest and send it away surreptitiously, so that 
no statistics can be collected. It is impossible to tax gold 
collected in this way, but the Government might derive a 
profit by establishing posts in each district where gold 
would be purchased at a fixed price and so get, say, ten or 
twenty per cent, out of it instead of allowing the Chinese 
and Mestizos to make perhaps forty or fifty per cent, 
according to the ignorance of the vendor. 

Vf" JaCc p. 150. 


Foreman is probably quite right in saying that the 
influence of the friars has always been exerted against any 
mining company, whether Spanish or foreign. They did 
not want a rush .of miners and Jews to the Philippines. 
But now, under the American Government, their power 
must decline, and new undertakings will, in a measure, be 
free from this hindrance. 

The Spanish mining laws and regulations are excellent 
and a perfect model for legislation on the subject. They 
are based on the principle that the ownership of the surface 
gives no title to the minerals underneath, which belong to 
the State. The owner can, however, obtain a title by 
developing a mine. 

The ingenuity and unscrupulousness of that vile breed, 
the native Pica-Pleito or pettifogging lawyer, has greatly 
contributed to stop Europeans from proceeding with mining 
enterprises, as success would bring down these blackmailers 
in swarms. 

It is to be hoped that the new government will lay a 
heavy hand on these birds of prey. Rightly considered, 
they are only a species of vermin, and should have verminous 

Now that the fortune of war has handed over the 
sovereignty of the Philippines to an enterprising and ener- 
getic race, I cannot doubt that the mystery of centuries 
will be dispelled. 

Amongst the Californian, Colorado, or Nevada volun- 
teers, there should be men having the courage, the know- 
ledge of prospecting, and the physical strength necessary' 
for success in this quest, if they can obtain permission from 
their superiors to attempt it. The prospects are so good 
that they should not have any difficulty in getting capitalists 
to finance them. 

They will require to go in a strong party to prevent 
being cut off by the savages, and to escort their supplies of 

As deer and wild pig abound they will be able to supply 
themselves in a great measure with meat by sending out a 
couple of good shots to hunt. 

For such as these gold mining ought to be most re- 
munerative, and enable those who survive the many perils 
to retire with a fortune after a few years of hard work. 
But so far as I know there is not at present sufficient 
information about any mines in the Philippines, whether of 


gold or any other metal, to warrant the establishment of 
companies for purchasing and working them. 

Mining claims can be staked out and registered under 
the present laws by natives or foreigners, but in limited 
areas, and placers or river beds can be worked by all 
without leave or license, and cannot be monopolised. 

I wish to avoid prophesy, but I shall be much surprised 
if the Philippines, in American hands, do not turn out in a 
few years an important gold-producing country. 


Native copper has been found in several places in the 
islands, amongst them are Surigao and Torrijos in Mindoro. 

In the article on the Igorrotes, I have spoken of the 
copper mines of Mancayan, and related how, when worked 
by the savages they were successful to the extent of supply- 
ing themselves with cooking-pots, trays and ornaments, 
besides leaving an annual surplus of about nineteen tons of 
copper, which was sold. 

A Spanish company obtained the concession about 
1864, and drove out the natives. 

The title was the Sociedad Minera de Mancayan, and 
they experienced considerable difficulties in getting a 
merchantable product, their science being at a disadvantage 
compared to the practical knowledge of the Igorrotes. 
They, however, persevered, and got up to a make of about 
180 tons in one year — nearly ten times the production 
obtained by the Igorrotes. But the usual fate of Philippine 
mining companies overtook them, and the works were 
closed in 1875, it was said from scarcity of labour. 

Several kinds of ores are found at Mancayan, almost on 
the surface, red, black and grey copper, also sulphates and 
carbonates of copper. 

About Mambulao cupro-ferruginous quartz and copper 
pyrites are found, but are not worked. 

I am quite unable to venture any opinion on the 
prospects of copper-mining and smelting in the Philippines, 
but no doubt experts will shortly obtain the necessary data 
to decide what can be done, but capital should be laid out 
with great caution, and the many difficulties of climate, 
carriage and labour taken into consideration. 



There is plenty of iron ore in the Philippines. In Luzon 
it occurs plentifully in the western spurs of the Cordillera 
all the way from Bosoboso to San Miguel de Mayumo, and 
it is now worked near the latter place in a primitive way. 
Plough-shares, cooking-pots and bolos are the principal 
productions ; the fuel used in all cases is charcoal. I sent 
to the Philippine Exhibition of 1887 at Madrid a dozen 
bolos made from native iron. The ore is very rich, giving 
70 to 80 per cent, of iron ; when polished it is of a beautiful 
silvery white colour, very tough, and of the finest quality. 
Attempts have been made by Europeans to work the iron 
ores of Luzon, but they have invariably ended in the 
bankruptcy of the adventurers, and in one case even in 

When deer-shooting at the Hacienda de San Ysidro 
above Bosoboso many years ago, I learned from the natives 
there that in the next valley, not far from the hamlet of 
Santa Ines, there existed the remains of some old iron- 
works, abandoned years ago. They said there were un- 
finished forgings still lying about, amongst them two 
anchors. I did not, however, go to examine them, being 
intent on shooting. 

Red hematite is found in Cebii, brown hematite in 
Paracale and other parts of Camarines Norte, and both 
red and brown in Capiz. In Misamis oxydized iron is 
found. Some of the iron about San Miguel de Mayumo is 

I do not believe that at present, and for many years 
to come, it is possible to work these ores and make iron 
and steel to compete with American or British imported 

But the time may come when, under different conditions, 
these remarkable ores may be turned to account ; in fact, 
it is asserted a scarcity of high class iron ore will soon 
occur, in which case the Philippine ores of such extraordinary 
richness will come into use. 


It is common to see coal mentioned amongst the 
mineral resources of the Philippines, but so far as I have 
been able to learn, no true coal has been found there, nor in 


any of the adjacent islands. There are beds of h'gnite of 
varying quality, and when enthusiastic finders are told of 
the poor quality of their samples, they reply at once, " It 
will be better at depth." 

The Philippine formations seem to greatly resemble 
those of Borneo, and there it was found that the lignite got 
poorer at depth, so that mines were abandoned from this 
cause alone. 

The Philippine beds of lignite have been violently up- 
heaved by the cataclysms of former ages, and are often 
turned up vertically, as at the mines of Sugud in Albay. 
I was consulted about these mines after a considerable sum 
had been thrown away. The Spanish engineer employed 
commenced by building himself a commodious house ; he 
then laid a tramway from the port to where the mine was 
to be, and bought a winding engine. The available capital 
was expended, and nothing more was done. 

The position of the seams at Sugud very much resembles 
the occurrence of the seams at the Pengaron mine in 
Borneo, which stopped work i8th October, 1884, after a 
precarious existence of thirty-six years, on account of the 
poor quality of the coal and the relatively high cost of 
extraction. This is on the authority of Dr. Theodor Pose- 
witz in 'Borneo: its Geology and Mineral Resources,' 
1892, and what follows so exactly applies to all the so- 
called coal in the Philippines, that I shall quote the 
paragraph : — 

P, 480. — "A number of analyses were carried out, and practical 
tests were applied on board various ships. The result was always 
more or less favourable, yet nobody would have the coal." 

The coal mine in the British Colony of Labuan was 
given up after several years' working. 

People blame the Spanish Government, the priests, the 
natives, the roads, but the reason of failure in the Philippines 
is very simple. " Nobody would have the coal," that is to 
say on board ship. The lignite could be used on land, 
but there is little demand for it, except for navigation. 
Some of it is liable to spontaneous combustion in the 
bunkers, some is so charged with sulphur as to be bad for 
the furnaces, or else it will not keep steam. I doubt if 
there is any good coal between Japan and Australia, and 
as long as coal from there can be delivered at present 
prices in Manila, I don't advise anybody to put money 



into Philippine coal unless they know more about it than 
I do. 

It has often been said that the Philippines have never 
been explored. This is, however, only true of certain 
regions, and as regards beds of the so-called coal you will 
find them marked on the maps all over the principal 

If you proceed to the village nearest the spot, you will 
find, very probably, that the seam has been known for a 
century, and that pits or adits have been made and a lot of 
money spent to no purpose. Nobody ever made any money 
out of Philippine lignite that I know of, but I don't 
prophesy whether anybody ever will. 

I append an analysis of some so-called coal that was 
brought me from Masbate in 1889. 

Analysis of Masbate Lignite. 

Laboratory of A, del Rosario y Sales. 

No. 1367. i6//j April, 1889. 

Lignite from Masbate. 
Colour, black. 
Physical condition, fragile. 
Fracture, splintery. 

Colour, when reduced to powder, blackish brown. 
Burns with difficulty, giving a short flame ; not very smoky, and 
leaves a brick-red ash. 

Coke not very spongy, pulverulent and lightly agglutinated. 
Density at 33° C, i •3082. 



Hygroscopic water 
Volatile constituents 
Fixed carbon 
Aluminic . 
Ferric, calcic 
, Sulphuric acids, etc 







Coke = 50*79. Equivalent calories 

Ash = 2* 58. Absolute calorific effect, centesimal 

Sulphur per 100 of hgnite .... 

Iron calculated in metallic state 

Lead reduced by i gramme of combustible 
(mean) by Bcrthier's assay . . grammes 




Various Minerals. 

Lead. — Galena is found in Tayabas and in Camarines 
Norte ; in the latter province there is found chromate of 
lead with ferruginous quartz. This ore is often found 
mixed with iron or copper pyrites, and sometimes with 

I have seen samples of galena from Cebu which was 
said to be auriferous, but I have never heard that any of 
these ores have been worked anywhere in the islands. 

If it should be found profitable to smelt the gold- 
bearing ores, as is so splendidly done at Denver, Col, the 
galena will be necessary to the success of the process. 

Red Lead is found in Camarines Norte and other 

Graphite. — In 1891 some pieces of this valuable mineral 
were shown to me by a native, who said he had found the 
ore in Mindoro, but he would not say from what locality. 

Quicksilver. — I have seen small bottles of this handed 
round by native disciples of Ananias. But I have never 
seen a bit of cinnabar or other ore of mercury, and I shall 
not believe there is any of this metal in the Philippines 
until I see the ore in situ, or have good testimony to that 

Sulphur abounds ; there are several places where it can 
be obtained in large quantities near the volcanoes. 

Asbestos. — This curious mineral would not strike a native 
as being of value. 

All I can say about it is that at the Madrid Exhibition 
of 1887 a specimen of this substance was shown by the 
Civil Governor of Ilocos Norte as having been found in 
that province. 

Yellozv Ochre is found in Batangas, Camarines, Albay, 
Leyte and Antique, amongst other places. 

Kaoli7i is found in Manila, Batangas and Camarines 
Sur, and probably in many other places. 

Marble of a yellowish colour has been quarried at 
Montalban. I have used some of it, but found it full of 
faults, and not very satisfactory. 

Plastic Clays for pottery and for making bricks and 
tiles abound. 

Mineral Waters. — As might be expected in a volcanic 


region, hot springs and mineral waters of very varied con- 
stituents abound. 

I do not think that the analyses of these would interest 
the general reader. 

I may say that I have derived great benefit from the 
hot-springs of Los Baiios on the lake, and greatly regretted 
that I could not remain at the extraordinary vapour baths 
of Tibi near Tabaco. 




Cigars and cigarettes — Textiles — Cotton — Ahacd, — Jusi — Rengue — 
Nipis — Saguran — Sinamdy — Guingon — Silk handkerchiefs — Pifia 
— Cordage — Bayones — Esteras — Baskets — Lager beer — Alcohol 
— Wood oils and resins — Essence of Ylang-ilang — Salt — Bricks — 
Tiles — Cooking-pots — Pilones — Ollas — • Embroidery — Gold- 
smiths' and silversmiths' work — Salacots — Cocoa-nut oil — Saddles 
and harness — Carromatas — Carriages — Schooners — Launches — 
Lorchas — Cascos — Pontines — Bangcas — Engines and boilers — 
Furniture — Fireworks — Lanterns — Brass Castings — Fish breeding 
— Drying sugar — Baling hemp — Repacking wet sugar — Packing 
tobacco and cigars — Oppressive tax on industries — Great future 
for manufactures — Abundant labour — Exceptional inteUigence. 

The manufactures of the Philippines, such as they are, 
have been mentioned when describing the different tribes 
or peoples and only a summary is necessary here. 

The making of cigars and cigarettes employs probably 
30,000 people in the Province of Manila, the vast majority 
being women. But the best cigars are made by men who 
have been trained under skilled operatives brought from 

A vast improvement has taken place since the Govern- 
ment monopoly has been abolished, and now the Manila 
cigars are as well-made and are put up in as tastefully 
decorated boxes as the Havanas. 

Cigarettes are now largely made by machines ; the 
Compaiiia de Tabacos de Filipinas having rows of them 
in their factories. 

Textiles are made in hand-looms all over the Archipelago 
by the women in their spare time. 

But in certain Provinces large numbers of women are 
regularly employed at the loom-working for those who 
make a business of it. In Ilocos and Union veiy excellent 
coverlets, sheets, serviettes, handkerchiefs and towels are ■ 


woven from cotton, as well as the fabrics called abacd, jusi 
or rengue, nipis, saguran, sinamay and guingon. This last 
is very suitable for military or naval uniforms ; it is a blue 
cotton cloth similar to what sailors call dungaree. 

In some of the towns of Pampanga and Bulacan. 
notably in Baliiiag where the people are specially clever 
and industrious, excellent silk handkerchiefs are woven. 
In Camarines and Albay the fabrics of abaca are more 
commonly woven, and in Cebii the women are accustomed 
to work at the loom. 

But it is from Ilo-ilo and neighbourhood that a very 
large trade is done with the other islands in many kinds of 
textiles. There also the Visayas work industriously at it 
as a trade and produce most beautiful fabrics of piiia, silk, 
cotton, and abaca, as well as the cheaper sorts for the use 
of the working classes. In some of the mixed materials a 
beautiful effect is produced by running stripes of silk, 
either white or of the most brilliant colours, lengthways 
through the piece. I have sent some of these jusi dress 
fabrics to ladies in England and they have been greatly 
appreciated when made up by a bonne faiscuse. 

They are very suitable for wearing in the Philippines or 
elsewhere in the tropics, being light and gauzy. This 
material, as well as some of the other fine gauzy fabrics, 
takes a long time to make in a hand-loom, the advance is 
imperceptible. I should like to put some of the calumniators 
of the Filipinos to work a hand-loom and make a dress- 
length of jusi. I think every one would recant before he 
had made a yard. 

At the Philippine Exhibition of 1887 there were more 
than three hundred exhibitors of textiles, and one of them, 
the Local Board of Namaypacan in the Province of Union, 
showed one hundred and forty-five different kinds of cloths. 

There are several rope-works at Manila and the material 
used is abaca, the ropes produced are equal to any to be 
had anywhere. 

In Camarines Sur both harness and hammocks are made 
from this material. 

In the Provinces ropes are made of cabo-negro, a black 
fibre from the wild palm, said to be indestructible ; of buri, 
of fibre from the anab6, of the bark of the lapuit, and of 
rattan. Bayones or sacks for sugar, esteras or sleeping 
mats, hats and cigar cases, and baskets of all sorts, are 
made at different places and from the commonest up to tlie 


very finest. That called the Tampipi is now regularly 
kept in stock in London, and is very handy for travelling. 

There is a lager beer brewery in Manila that must 
have piled up money since the American garrison arrived. 

Alcohol is distilled both from sugar and from the juice 
of the nipa-palm {Nipa friicticans). 

The oils and resins of Ilocos have been mentioned when 
describing the Ilocanos ; they are not exported, finding a 
ready market in the country. 

Essence of Ylang-ylang is distilled in Manila and other 
towns ; it used to fetch formerly looo francs per kilo- 

Salt is made at many places between Parafiaque and 

Bricks, tiles, cooking pots [bangas], stoves [calanes], 
sugar moulds [pilones], and draining pots for the pilones 
[ollas], are made in many provinces. 

The industry of the women is also shown by the very 
beautiful embroideries of all sorts, either in white or coloured 
silks or in gold or silver. Some of this latter work, however, 
is done by men. 

In some cases they introduce seed-pearls or brilliant 
fish-scales in their work. The slippers worn by the women 
on grand occasions are often works of art, being richly 
embroidered in silver and gold on cherry coloured velvet. 

Some notable pieces of goldsmiths' and silversmiths' 
work have been done in Manila, and in the provinces some 
of the natives carve bolo handles and other articles out of 
buffalo horn and mount them in silver with much taste. 

The salacots, or native hats, are beautifully woven by 
hand from narrow strips of a cane called nito [lygodium], 
and the headmen have them ornamented with many pieces 
of repousse silver {see Illustration). 

Cocoa-nut oil is expressed in the province of the Laguna, 
in Manila and other places. Soap of the ordinary kind is 
manufactured from it. 

Saddles and harness are made in all the leading towns, 
and the ordinary country vehicle, the carromata, is made in 
the chief towns of provinces and some others ; but some of 
the components, such as the springs, and axle-arms and 
boxes are imported. But in Manila really elegant carriages 
are constructed, the leather for the hoods, the cloth for the 
linings, the lamps, as well as a good deal of the ironwork, 
being, however imported. 


[ To J'luc p. i6u. 


In former years large frigates have been built, armed, 
and fitted out at Cavite and other ports, but at present the 
ship-building industry is in decadence, and the shipwrights 
capable of directing so important a job have died out. The 
increasing scarcity and high price of timber is now a 
difficulty, and sailing vessels are in little demand. Small 
steamers and launches are now built, but larger steamers 
are ordered from Hong Kong or Singapore, or, in case of 
vessels well able to make the passage, the order goes to 

The native craft called lorchas, pailebotes, pontines, 
barotos, paraos, cascos, guilalos, barangayanes, bangcas, 
vintas and salisipanes are still built in large numbers. The 
last are very light and fast craft used by the Moros on their 
piratical expeditions. 

Engines and boilers for steam launches are made in 
Manila, church bells are cast of a considerable size ; iron 
castings are also made. 

Amongst the miscellaneous articles manufactured are 
all sorts of household furniture, fireworks and lanterns. 
Dentists, painters, sculptors and photographers all practise 
their trades. 

There is no doubt that the Filipinos have learnt a 
certain amount from the Spaniards as regards their 
manufactures ; but, on careful consideration, I think they 
have learnt more from the Chinese. Their first sugar-mills 
were Chinese and had granite rollers, and from them they 
learnt the trick that many a moulder might not know, of 
casting their sugar-pans in a red-hot mould and cooling 
slowly and so getting the metal extremely thin yet free 
from defects. The casting of brass cannon and of church 
bells has been learnt from them, and doubtless they taught 
the Igorrotes how to reduce the copper ores and to refine 
that metal. Again, the breeding of fish, an important 
business near Manila, and the manufacture of salt round 
about Bacoor comes from them. I am not sure whether 
the hand-loom in general use is of the Chinese pattern, but 
I think so. 

Distilling the nipa juice is certainly a Chinese industry, 
as also the preparation of sugar for export. This is done in 
establishments c^!i\&^ farderias, and is necessary for all sugar 
made in piUmes or moulds. The procedure is described 
under the head of Pampangos, and an illustration is given 
of the process of drying the sugar on mats in the sun. 



Many native men and women and numbers of Chinese 
coolies arc employed in Manila, Ilo-ilo, and Ccbii in 
preparing produce for shipment. 

The hemp used to come up from the provinces loose or 
merely twisted into rolls to be pressed into bales at the 
shipping ports, but of late years several presses have been 
erected at the hemp ports in Southern Luzon and on the 
smaller islands. 

There are a number of hemp-presses in Manila, each 
requiring about sixty coolies to work it, and one or two 
clerks to attend to the sorting and weighing. 

They were paid so much per bale pressed. 

Steam, or hydraulic presses, would long ago have been 
substituted bu'. for the fact that the clerks or pcrsoneros 
were each allowed one or two deadheads on the pay list, and 
this was so profitable to them that they strongly opposed 
any changes, and none of the merchants cared to take the 
risk of the innovations. 

Two presses were set in line, astride a pair of flat rails, 
a small one called the Bito-bito for the first pressure on the 
pile of hemp, and the large one to squeeze down the bale to 
its proper size. 

They were simply screw presses having hardwood frames 
set deep into massive stone foundations and surrounded by 
a granite pavement, 

A pair of these presses, i.e., a Bito-bito and a press 
erected in Manila under my direction in 1888, cost $4400, 
the woodwork foundation and pavement costing $2850, and 
the screws, nuts, capstan-heads, etc., costing S^SSO- The 
small press had a screw 4 inches diameter and 6 feet long, 
and was worked by two or four men. The large press had 
a screw 8j inches diameter, and 12 feet long. 

Both screws worked in deep gun-metal nuts and had 
capstan-heads. When the large press was near the end 
of its travel the capstan bars were manned by forty coolies 
putting out their utmost strength and shouting to encourage 
each other as they tramped round on the upper floor 
keeping step. 

The turn out was about 250 bales from daylight to 
dark. Each bale weighed 2 piculs, say 2S0 lbs., or eight to 
the English ton. The bales should measure 10 cubic feet, 
that is a density of 28 lbs, per cubic foot. The hemp could 
be pressed into a smaller volume, but it is asserted that the 
fibre would be seriously damaged. Sometimes from care- 


less pressing the bales measure 12 cubic feet. They swell 
after leaving the press and after being moved. 

At the date I have mentioned, the charge for screwage 
was 50 cents per picul, but it has been raised since then. 

Dry sugar was exported in its original bags, and loading 
and shipping cost 12^ cents per picul. Wet sugar usually 
required repacking for export, and the charge for discharging 
the coaster and rebagging was 17^ cents per picul, as well 
as I2i cents for loading and shipping. 

It lost 2\ per cent, in weight in repacking and 10 per 
cent, during the voyage in sailing vessel to Europe or 
America. So that altogether one-eighth of the total was 
lost to the shipper, and there was a good perquisite to the 
skipper or mate in pumping the molasses out of the bilges. 

The repacking was usually done by natives, and the 
old mat bags scraped by women who receive half the sugar 
they save. The mats are sold to the distillers and are 
thrown into their fermenting vats, to assist in the manu- 
facture of pure Glenlivat or Bourbon whisky, Jamaica rum 
or Hollands gin. 

In 1 89 1 I saw on board a steamer just arrived from 
Antwerp hundreds of cases containing empty gin bottles 
packed in juniper husk, the labels and capsules bearing the 
marks of genuine Hollands. 

They were consigned to one of the Manila distillers, 
and must have enabled that respectable firm to make a 
large profit by selling their cheap spirit as imported liquor. 

Undoubtedly the manufactures and industries of the 
Philippines are in a primitive condition, but the tax called 
the Coiitribticion Industrial has discouraged improvements, 
for as soon as any improved machinery or apparatus was 
adopted, the tax-gatherer came down upon the works for 
an increased tax. Thus any sort of works employing a 
steam-engine would be charged at a higher rate. This tax, 
if it cannot be abolished, should be reformed. 

There is a great future before the manufactures of the 
Philippines, for the people are industrious, exceptionally 
intelligent, painstaking and of an artistic temperament, so 
that an ample supply of labour is always available for any 
light work if reasonably remunerated. They will not need 
much teaching, and only require tactful treatment to make 
most satisfactory operatives. 

M 2 




Philippines not <a poor man's country — Oscar F. Williams' letter — No 
occupation for white mechanics — American merchants unsuccess- 
ful in the East — Difficulties of living amongst Malays — Inevitable 
quarrels — Unsuitable climate — The Mali-mali or Sakit-latah — The 
Traspaso de hambre — Chiflados — Wreck of the nervous system. 
— Effects of abuse of alcohol — Capital the necessity — Banks — 
Advances to cultivators — To timber cutters — To gold miners — 
Central sugar factories — Paper-mills — Rice-mills — Cotton-mills — 
Saw-mills— Coasting steamers — Railway from Manila to Batangas 
— From Siniloan to the Pacific — Survey for ship canal — Bishop 
Gainzas' project — Tramways for Luzon and Panay — Small 
steamers for Mindanao — Chief prospect is agriculture. 

The commercial prospects of the Islands are great, even if 
we do not instantly take for gospel the fairy tales we are 
told about Manila becoming the centre of the trade of the 
Pacific. There can be no doubt that if peace and an honest 
administration can be secured, capital will be attracted and 
considerable increase in the export of hemp, tobacco, and 
sugar will gradually take place as fresh land can be cleared 
and planted. As I have elsewhere said, the Philippines in 
energetic and skilful hands will soon yield up the store of 
gold which the poor Spaniards have been so mercilessly 
abused for leaving behind them. But the Philippines 
are not and never will be a country for the poor white man. 
A white man cannot labour there without great danger 
to his health. He cannot compete with the native or 
Chinese mechanic, in fact he is not wanted there at all. 
For my part, I would never employ a white man there as a 
labourer or mechanic, if I could help it, more especially 
an Englishman or an American, for I know from experience 
what the result would be. As foreman or overseer a 
white man may be better, according to his skill and 


Now let me, as soon as possible, expose the absurdity of 
a mischievous letter, which I fear may already have done 
much harm, but I hope my warning may do something to 
counteract its effects. I quote from the Blue Book so often 
mentioned : pp. 330-1. 

Mr. Williams to Mr. Day. 

U. S. S. Baltimore, Manila Bay, 
July 2nd, 1898. 


* * * * • 

If long occupation or possession on the part of our government be 
considered, I believe early and strenuous efforts should be made to 
bring here from the United States men and women of many occupa- 
tions — mechanics, teachers, ministers, ship-builders, merchants, elec- 
tricians, plumbers, druggists, doctors, dentists, carriage and harness 
makers, stenographers, type-writers, photographers, tailors, black- 
smiths, and agents for exporting, and to introduce American products 
natural and artificial of many classes. To all such I pledge every aid, 
and now is the time to start. Good government will be easier the 
greater the influx of Americans. 

My despatches have referred to our present percentage of export 
trade. If now our exports come here as intestate, duty free, we have 
practical control of Philippine trade, which now amounts to many 
millions, and because of ingrafting of American energy and methods 
upon the fabulous natural and productive wealth of these islands, 
can and probably will be multiplied by twenty during the coming 
twenty years. All this increment should come to our nation and not 

e^o to any other. 

^ * * * * * 

I hope for an influx this year of 10,000 ambitious Americans, and 
all can hve well, become enriched. . . . 

(Signed) O. F. Williams, 


I venture to say that the man who wrote this astonishing 
letter, taking upon himself the responsibility of advising 
" early and strenuous efforts " to send from the United 
States thousands of men and women of many occupations 
to Manila, and of assuring them that " all could live well 
and become enriched," knew nothing at all about the 
state of the Philippine Islands, and is a most unsafe 

What on earth would all these tradespeople find to do 
in the Islands ? Where could they be housed .'' How 
could they be supported } If they came in numbers, the 
doctors and druggists might indeed find full employment 
prescribing and making up medicine for the many sufferers 


from tropical ailments, especially the typhoid fevers, that 
would attack the unacclimatised immigrants and the 
ministers could earn their daily bread by reading the 
Burial Service, whilst the type-writers would be busy 
typing letters to friends at home announcing the deaths 
that occurred ; and warning them against coming to starve 
in Manila. But I defy any one to explain how the ship- 
builders, electricians, plumbers, tailors and blacksmiths are 
to make a living. As regards merchants or agents for 
exporting, I may say that Americans have not been very 
successful in Manila in this capacity. The great and in- 
fluential firm of Russell & Sturgis came to grief through 
over-trading, and another noteworthy firm, IMessrs. Peele, 
Hubbell & Co. failed from rash speculations in sugar, and 
not from any persecutions by the Spanish authorities, as 
has been falsely stated in a magazine article. I speak with 
knowledge on the matter, as I was well acquainted with 
this firm, having been their Consulting Engineer for the 
construction of the Slipway at Caiiacao for which they 
were agents. I think it only right to say that the gentle- 
men who were heads of these American firms were worthy 
upholders of the high reputation of their country. They 
failed, but no imputations rested on the characters of the 
partners, and I have always heard them spoken of with 
great respect, especially amongst the natives. 

Those of them who were personally known to me were 
men who invariably showed every courtesy and considera- 
tion to all who came in contact with them, whether Euro- 
peans or natives. Notwithstanding their misfortunes they 
were a credit to their country, and they did a good deal 
towards the development of the trade of the Philippines. 

I believe that the estates of Russell & Sturgis when 
realised, paid all their liabilities in full, and besides left 
considerable pickings in the hands of the liquidators and 
their friends. Two or three firms were built up out of their 
ruins. Some Chinese half-castes and natives had received 
heavy advances from this firm, especially about Molo and 
Yloilo. One well-known individual had received $60,000, 
and when summoned before the court he claimed the 
benefit of the ' Laws of the Indies,' by which his liability 
was limited to %^. The judge, however, ordered him to 
repay the principal at the rate of a dollar a vicntJi ! I had 
this information from the judge himself 

Curiously enough, American merchants have been 


equally unsuccessful in other parts of the Far East. 
Many will remember the failure of Messrs. Oliphant & Co., 
the great China merchants, agents for the American Board 
of Missions,* notwithstanding their desperate effort to 
retrieve their position by reviving the coolie trade with 
Peru, and in later days Messrs. Russell & Co. of Hong 
Kong also came to grief 

I can give no explanation of the reasons for these four 
great failures, but I conjecture that all these firms were in 
too much of a hurry, and tried to " hustle the East." Yet 
in face of this calamitous experience, Oscar F, Williams 
advises more to come, " pledges every aid," and predicts 
that " trade can, and probably will, be multiplied by twenty 
during the coming twenty years." 

For my part, I should think it great progress if the 
exports and imports of the Philippines could be doubled in 
twenty years. The idea of sending plumbers to Manila 
where lead pipes are not used, is a comicality only matched 
by the suggestion that tailors arc wanted amongst a popu- 
lation dressed in cotton shirts and trousers, and where the 
white people wear veranda-made white duck suits. 

Both notions are more suitable for a comic opera than 
for an official document. 

There is only one more paragraph in this letter that 
I need comment on. 

Mr. Williams says : " Good government will be easier, 
the greater the influx of Americans." 

To those who know the East there is no necessity to 
argue on this point. I therefore state dogmatically that the 
presence of white settlers or working people in the Islands 
would add enormously to the difficulties of government, 
This is my experience, and during the Spanish Adminis- 
tration it was generally admitted to be the case. 

In British India the Government does not in the least 
degree favour the immigration of British workmen. The 
only people who are recognised as useful to that country 
are capitalists and directors of Agricultural or Industrial 

A large number of American mechanics turned loose 
amongst the population would infallibly, by their contempt 
for native customs, and their disregard of native feeling, 
become an everlasting source of strife and vexation. Im- 

* Their Hong was colloquially known as Sion Corner, 


partial justice between the parties would be unattainable ; 
the whites would not submit to be judged by a native 
magistrate, and the result would be a war of races. 

It maybe taken as probable that there is no crime, how- 
ever heinous, that could be committed by an American upon 
a native, that would involve the execution of the death 
penalty on the criminal.* On the other hand, I can quite 
believe that natives laying their hands upon Americans, 
whatever the provocation, would be promptly hanged, if 
they were not shot down upon the spot. The natives, it 
should be remembered, are revengeful, and will bide their 
time ; either to use the bolo upon one who has offended 
them, to burn down his house, set fire to his crop, or put a 
crow-bar in amongst his machinery. I fear that American 
brusqueness and impatience would often lead to these 
savage reprisals. 

I think, therefore, that the American Administration of 
the Philippines should be empowered to prevent or regulate 
the immigration of impecunious Americans or Europeans 
whose presence in the Islands must be extremely preju- 
dicial to the much-desired pacification. No, the poor white 
is not wanted in the Islands, he would be a curse, and a 
residence there would be a curse to him. He would decay 
morally, mentally, and physically. The gorgeous East not 
only deteriorates the liver, but where a white man lives 
long amongst natives, he suffers a gradual but complete 
break-up of the nervous system. This peculiarity manifests 
itself amongst the natives of the Far East in the curious 
nervous disorder which is called mali-mali in the Philippines 
and sakit-latah amongst the Malays of the Peninsula and 
Java. It seems to be a weakening of the will, and on 
being startled, the sufferer entirely loses self-control and 
imitates the movements of any person who attracts his 
attention. It is more prevalent amongst women than men. 
I remember being at a performance of Chiarini's Circus in 
Manila, when General Weyler and his wife were present. 
The clown walked into the ring on his hands, and a skinny 
old woman amongst the spectators who suffered from the 
mali-mali at once began to imitate him with unpleasing 
results, and had to be forcibly restrained by the scandalised 

* See the sentence of court-martial on Julius Arnold, musician of 
M Company, 25th Infantry, for murdering a woman under the most 
atrocious circumstances it is possible to imagine. 



Running amok marks a climax of nerve disturbance, 
when the sufferer, instead of committing suicide, prefers to 
die kiUing others. 

He usually obtains his wish, and is killed without 
compunction, like a mad dog. 

Both natives and white residents are at times in rather 
a low condition of health, and if after exercise or labour 
they fail to get their meal at the proper time, when it comes 
they cannot eat. In its lighter form this is called desgdna 
or loss of appetite, but I have seen natives collapse under 
such circumstances with severe headache and chills. This 
more serious form is known as traspaso dc Jiambre, and is 
sometimes the precursor of fever and nervous prostration. 

The Roman Catholic Church has had the wisdom to 
recognise and make allowance for the liability of residents 
and natives of the Philippines to this serious disorder, and 
has relaxed the usual rules of fasting, as being dangerous 
to health. 

Amongst the Europeans who have been long in the 
Islands, many are said to be " chiflado," a term I can only 
render into English by the slang word cracked. This occurs 
more particularly amongst those who have been isolated 
amongst the natives. 

It is not easy to account for, but the fact is undeniable. 
I have heard it ascribed to " telluric influence," but that is 
a wide and vague expression. Perhaps the explanation 
may be found in the extreme violence of the phenomena of 

The frequent earthquakes, the almost continuous vibra- 
tion of the soil, the awe-inspiring volcanic eruptions, with 
their sooty black palls of ash darkening the sky for days 
together, over hundreds of miles, the frightful detonations,* 
the ear-splitting thunder, the devastating rage of the 
typhoons, the saturated atmosphere of the rainy season, 
and the hot dry winds of Lent, with the inevitable con- 
flagrations, combine with depressing surroundings and 
anxieties to wreck the nerves of all but the strongest 
and most determined natures. If to all this the white 
resident or sojourner in the Philippines adds the detestable 
vice of intemperance, or even indulges in a liberal con- 

* The Krakatoa explosion was heard all over the Southern Philip- 
pines like the iiring of heavy guns, although the distance in a straight 
line is over 1500 miles. This will give some idea of the loudness of 
volcanic explosions. 


sumption of spirits, then instead of merely shattering his 
nerves, he is likely to become a raving maniac, for it takes 
much less whisky to bring on delirium tremens there, than 
it does in a temperate climate. 

Long sojourn in some other lands appears to act in a 
different manner. In tropical Africa it seems to be the 
moral balance that is lost. The conscience is blunted if not 
destroyed, the veneer of civilisation is stripped off, the 
white man reverts to savagery. The senseless cruelties of 
l^eters, Lothaire, Voulet, Chanoine, and of some of the 
outlying officials of the Congo Free State are not mere 
coincidences. They must be ascribed to one common 
cause, and that is debasement by environment. The 
moral nature of a white man seems to become contami- 
nated by long isolation amongst savages as surely as the 
physical health by living amongst lepers. 

If a poor white man wishes to sink to the level of a 
native, he has only to marry a native woman, and his object 
will be fully attained in a few years. But he will find it 
very much to his pecuniary interest, for she will buy cheaper 
and sell dearer than he can, and will manage his house and 
his business too, most economically. Some of her relations 
will come and live with him, so that he will not feel lonely, 
and a half-caste family will grow up round about him, 
talking the dialect of their mother, which he, perhaps, does 
not understand. But if the poor white man takes out a 
white wife, he will probably have the pain and distress of 
seeing her fade away under the severity of the climate, 
which his means do not permit him to alleviate. White 
women suffer from the heat far more than men. Children 
cannot be properly brought up there after the age of twelve. 
They must either be sent home to be educated, or allowed 
to deteriorate and grow up inferior to their parents in 
health, strength, and moral fibre. When I think of these 
things, I feel amazed at Oscar F. Williams' presumption in 
writing that letter. I hope that not many have taken his 
advice, and that any who have will call on him to fulfil his 
imprudent pledges. 

However, now I have done with the poor white man. 
Capital is the great necessity of the Philippines. The 
labour is there if Generals Otis and McArthur have left any 
natives alive. 

More banks are wanted. At present there are three 
important banks in Manila, and two of them have branches 


in Yloilo, The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Cor- 
poration has the largest resources ; next comes the Char- 
tered Bank of India, Australasia, and China, and lastly 
the Banco Espaiiol Filipino. The first two give the most 
perfect facilities for business. I was only interested in 
importing, but certainly nothing more could be desired by 
an importer than their system of opening credits against 
shipping documents ; for practically he only had to pay for 
the goods when they arrived in Manila. All their business 
was done in the most expeditious manner, and I could 
suggest no improvement on their methods. 

The Banco Espaiiol Filipino was in a measure under 
government control, its procedure was consequently very 
slow, and its ways those of bygone days. 

These banks, however, did not advance money to culti- 
vators to clear lands, plant crops, or erect machinery, as the 
returns are too slow, not to say doubtful. Yet this is what 
is wanted ; banks in IManila and the chief towns that will 
advance money for such purposes, under the advice of 
experts personally acquainted with the cultivators and their 
lands. Such a business certainly requires great intelligence 
and discernment. 

Still there is a future for such banks, for agriculturists 
have to pay enormous rates of interest and commissions for 
money to carry on their plantations. Such banks could 
also finance timber-cutters, gold miners, and other bona fide 

Amongst the enterprises I have recommended when 
writing about the Pampangos, and others engaged in 
planting sugar-cane, is the establishment of central sugar 
factories in suitable localities. Such undertakings, judi- 
ciously administered, would have every prospect of success. 

There is also room for paper-mills, rice-mills, cotton- 
mills, and saw-mills, but all these, especially the last, need 
careful consideration for the selection of the locality where 
they are to be placed. The manufacture of various kinds 
of leather could be greatly extended and improved. There 
is employment for more coasting steamers and schooners. 
The latter and hulls of small steamers can be built in the 
country from the native timber. 

Although the development of means of communication 
is all-important, it is evident from the configuration of the 
Archipelago that no great length of railway is required, nor 
would it pay to construct them in so mountainous a country. 


Water-carriage is all-important. In Luzon a line of railway 
i"ni<^ht be made from Manila to Batangas with a branch 
into the Laguna province. It would traverse a fertile and 
thickly-populated country. 

A short line of railway or electric tramway from near 
Siniloan on the Lake to the Pacific would be most useful in 
giving access to and developing the eastern coast, or contra 
costa, as it is called. This coast is very backward in every 
way, indeed from Baler to Punta Escarpada on its extreme 
north, it is quite unknown, and remains in the possession 
of the Dumagas, an aboriginal tribe of heathen savages of 
low type, just as at the time of the Spanish conquest ; and 
it would be worth while to study the question of cutting a 
ship-canal through this narrow strip of land if the mouth 
could be protected from the Pacific surf. There is also 
Bishop Gainza's project that might be revived, that of 
cutting a canal for country craft from Pasacao in Camarines 
Sur to the River Vicol. In Negros and Panay some short 
lines from the ports through the sugar lands might pay if 
constructed very economically. 

Tramways between populous towns not far apart in 
Luzon and Panay would probably pay very well, as the 
people are fond of visiting their friends. 

It will probably be many years before Mindanao will 
be in a position to warrant the construction of railways. 
The island has relapsed into barbarism as a consequence of 
the withdrawal of the Spanish garrisons and detachments, 
and of nearly all the Jesuit missionaries. 

It could, however, give employment to a flotilla of 
small steamers and sailing vessels on its northern and 
southern coasts. 

Such is my opinion in brief upon the possibilities of the 
development of industries and commerce. 

That the commerce of the islands, now mainly British, 
will ultimately pass into American hands, can scarcely be 
doubted. They are not yet firmly seated in power, but 
their attitude to British and foreign firms is already suffi- 
ciently pronounced to allow an observant onlooker to make 
a forecast of what it will be later on. 

Dominating Cuba, holding the Philippines, the Sandwich 
Islands and Porto Rico, the Americans will control the cane 
sugar trade, the tobacco trade, and the hemp trade, in 
addition to the vast branches of production they now hold 
in their hands 

( 173 ) 




Climate — Seasons — Terrible Month of May — Hot winds — Longing for 
rain — Burst of the monsoon — The Alimoom — Never sleep on the 
ground floor — Dress — Manila houses — Furniture — Mosquitoes — 
Baths — Gogo — Servants — Wages in 1S92— The Maestro cook — • 
The guild of cooks — The Mayordomo — Household budget, 1892 
— Diet— Drinks — Ponies — Carriage a necessity for a lady — The 
garden — Flowers — Shops — Pedlars — Amusements — Necessity of 
access to the hills — Good Friday in Manila. 


The average shade temperature of Manila all the year 
round is 83^ Fahrenheit. The highest I have ever seen 
there was 96^, at 2 P.M. in May, and the lowest 6d>°, at 
6 A.M. in December. 

The temperature of the sea-water on the shore at 
Malate is usually 82°, and that of well-water about the 
same. The water-pipes from the reservoir at San Juan del 
Monte are not buried, but are carried on an embankment. 
They are partly shaded from the sun by clumps of bamboos, 
but on a hot afternoon the water sometimes attains a 
temperature of 90°. 

Those figures are high, yet the heat is mitigated by the 
sea-breeze, and the nights are usually cool enough to allow 
a refreshing sleep. 

The climate of Manila is not harmful to the constitutions 
of healthy Europeans or Americans between twenty and 
fifty years of age, provided they at once adopt a mode of 
life suitable to the country, and in clothing, diet, habits and 
recreations, adapt themselves to the new conditions. On 
the other hand, I apprehend that, for persons of either sex 
over fifty who have had no previous experience of life in 
the tropics, there will be great difficulty in acclimatising 


themselves, and the mortality amongst such will be ab- 
normal. Ladies' complexions will not suffer more than 
if they lived in a steam-heated house in Harlem, New 

In all this part of the world the weather depends upon 
the monsoons. These blow with great regularity over the 
ocean, six months from the north-east and six months from 
the south-west. Their action on any particular place is, 
however, modified by the situation of mountains with 
regard to that place. The changes of the monsoon occur 
in April-May and October-November. It is the south- 
west monsoon that brings rain to Manila, and it has a fine 
stretch of the China Sea to career over, all the way, in 
fact, from the shores of Sumatra, till it drives the billows 
tumbling and foaming into the bay. 

The typhoons form far out in the Pacific near the region 
of the Western Carolines, and, whirling round the opposite 
way to the hands of a watch, they proceed on a curve that 
may strike Luzon, or, perhaps, go on for a thousand miles 
or more, and carry death and destruction to the fishermen 
of Fo Kien or Japan. 

When a typhoon passes clear, the usual result is several 
days of continuous heavy rain, but the air is cleared and 
purified. But should the vortex of the cyclone pass over 
your residence, you will not be likely to forget it for the 
rest of your life. 

The year in Manila may be roughly divided into three 
seasons : — 

Rainy Season — June, July, August, September. In these 
four months about loo inches of rain may fall, and 20 
more in the rest of the year. 

Cool Season (so-called) — October, November, December, 

Hot Season — February, March, April, May. 

May is the terrible month of the year, the month of 
fevers and funerals. Let all who can, leave Manila before 
this month arrives. 

Hot, dry winds, dust-laden, pervade the houses, and 
have such an effect even on well-seasoned hardwoods, that 
tables, wardrobes and door-panels, split from end to end, or 
from top to bottom, with a noise like a pistol-shot, leaving 
cracks a quarter of an inch wide that gape till the rainy 
season restores the moisture. 


At this time the heat is at its maximum, and all nature 
gasps or fades. Not a drop of rain has fallen for months, 
the roads are inches deep in dust, the rivers nearly stagnant, 
and covered with a green scum, the whole country quite 
brown, the vegetation burnt up by the sun. Only the 
cockroaches rejoice ; at this season they fly at night, and 
you may have a few fine specimens of the Blatta Orientalis 
alight on your face, or on the back of your neck, should 
you doze a moment on your long chair. Personally, I am 
proof against a good deal, but must confess that the hairy 
feet of a cockroach on my face or neck make me shudder. 

As the month draws to a close, every afternoon the 
storm-clouds gather over the Antipolo Hills. All Manila, 
lying in the glare and dust, prays for rain. Overhead, a 
sky like burnished copper darts down heat-rays that 
penetrate the roofs, and literally strike the heads of the 
occupants. The dry air is surcharged with electricity to 
such an extent that every living thing feels the powerful 
influence ; the sweetest natures become irritable, and quite 
ready to admit that " this is, indeed, a beastly world." 

The nervous system suffers, the newspapers relate cases 
of stabbing, or even running amok amongst the natives, 
and perhaps some suicides occur. If, as not unfrequently 
happens, you should at this time receive an invitation to 
the funeral of a friend or compatriot just deceased from 
typhoid fever, and to be buried within twenty-four hours, 
you will begin to wonder whether Manila is good enough 
for you. Day after day the rain-clouds disperse amidst the 
rumbling of a distant thunder-storm, and day after day do 
longing eyes watch for their coming, and hope for the 

At last, when the limit of endurance seems reached, a 
cool breath of air heralds the downpour. The leaves 
rustle, the feathery bamboos incline before the blast, the 
sky darkens, the cataracts of heaven are loosed, and the 
water tumbles down in torrents. 

Now keep yourself in the house, and on the upper 
floor, and let the water from your roofs run to waste. 
The natives, usually so careless of a wetting, avoid bathing 
or wetting themselves with the first waters, which they 
consider dangerous, and not without reason. The exhala- 
tions from the newly-wetted earth are to be avoided ; these 
earth-vapours are called by the Tagals Alinwoju. Now 
the dust is washed off the roofs and leaves, and in three 


days the fallows are covered with small shoots of grass or 
weeds, the maidenhair ferns and mosses spring from every 
stone wall. The reign of dust is over ; the reign of mud 
begins. Now the frogs inaugurate their nightly concerts. 
After a time you get used to the deafening noise ; you do 
not even hear it. But they suddenly stop, and you are 
astonished at the stillness. 

As the rainy season proceeds, the air is almost entirely 
saturated with moisture : the saturation in August some- 
times exceeds 97 per cent. 

Now green mould will grow upon your boots and other 
leather articles, if left a couple of days without cleaning. 
Everything feels damp, and it is a good plan to air your 
wardrobe round a brazier of red-hot charcoal. 

You will have noticed that the natives universally build 
their houses upon piles. So do the Malays all over the 
Far East. This is the expression of the accumulated 
experience of centuries, and you will be wise to conform 
to it by never sleeping on the ground floor. To a dweller 
in the Philippines this tip is worth the price of the book. 


The dress of both sexes should be as light as possible ; 
my advice is, wear as little as possible, and wear it thin 
and loose. The access of air to the body is necessary to 
carry off the perspiration, some of which is in the form of 

Ladies will find the greatest comfort in the simple but 
elegant dresses called batas, which are princess robes made 
of embroidered cambric or lawn. The materials for these 
dresses can be purchased in Manila, and excellent semps- 
tresses and embroiderers can be hired at moderate wages, 
and the dresses made in the house. For the evenings, thin 
silk or muslin dresses, cut low, are most suitable. 

Men who are young and robust should wear white duck 
jackets, and trousers without waistcoats. Elderly men, or 
those subject to rheumatism, will do well to wear thin 
flannel suits. The material for these can be got in Hong 
Kong. For travelling and shooting, unbleached linen, 
guingon, or rayadillo, is the best material, made into 
Norfolk jackets and pantaloons. I always found white or 
brown leather shoes the best wear, and canvas shooting- 
boots capped and strapped with leather. A Panama hat, 


or a solar topee, is the best head-wear. If one has to be 
much in the sun, a white umbrella, lined with green, should 
be carried. Dress is not an expensive item in Manila. 
Up to 1892, the washing for a whole family, with bed and 
table-linen, could be done for $12 per month. 


Most of the older houses in Manila are of ample size, 
and well suited to the climate, but some of the newer ones, 
built to the designs of a Spanish architect, and having glass 
windows, are very hot and uncomfortable. It is essential 
to live in a good-sized house, so as to escape the heat by 
moving to a different part as the sun goes round. Thus 
you will have your early breakfast in one corner of the 
balcony ; your tiffin, perhaps, on the ground floor ; your tea 
in the open corridor looking on the garden, and your 
dinner, at 7.30 P.M., in the dining-room under the punkah. 

House-rent is paid monthly, and, up to 1892, a good 
detached house of moderate size could be got in one of the 
best suburbs for i^ioo per month, and for less in Santa 
Ana. Such a house would stand in its own garden, and 
would have stables for several horses, and shelter for one 
or two carriages. 

I understand that house-rent is now nearly doubled in 
consequence of the American competition. From their 
lavish expenditure, we must infer that the new-comers 
possess large private means in addition to their salaries. 


The furnishing of a tropical house is much simplified, 
because no carpets or curtains are needed. The fioors are 
of polished hardwood, and they take a good deal of work 
to keep them in good order. A few rugs can be put down 
here and there, if a little colour is required. Where the 
floor is bad, Chinese matting can be laid down at small 
expense. Some of the Mestizos import costly furniture, 
but few of the European residents attempted to follow 
their example. Vienna bent-wood furniture, with cane 
seats, was commonly used, and was very suitable, also 
bamboo or rattan furniture, brought from China or made 
in the country. Such things as wardrobes or bookcases 
should have ring-bolts on each side for lashing to the walls. 



A child or grown person might be killed by a heavy piece 
of furniture falling on it during an earthquake. 

Furniture of all sorts is made in Manila of Red Narra, 
or other wood, by Chinese cabinet-makers, who will work 
to purchasers' requirements. Very excellent teak-wood 
furniture is made in Hong Kong and Shanghai. 

The problem of furnishing a large house for a moderate 
sum, and making it comfortable, and at the same time 
artistic and refined, is not a difficult one, and has often 
been very satisfactorily solved in Manila. 

Large stoneware flower-pots and pedestals can be 
purchased in Manila, and no more suitable ornament can 
be found than handsome palms, ferns, or flowering plants, 
for halls, corridors, or reception rooms. 

The beds should be large, and have thin, hard mattresses 
and horse-hair pillows stuffed rather hard. The coolest 
thing to lie upon is a fine grass mat, ox petate. Covering is 
seldom required. On the bed will be seen a large bolster 
lying at right angles to the pillows, so as to be parallel to 
the sleeper. The use of this is not apparent to the newly- 
arrived Briton or American. This is the Abrasador, used 
throughout the boundless East. 

The candidate for repose, whether on the hard bed, or 
harder floor or deck, lies on his side, and rests his upper 
arm and leg on the Abrazador, thus relieving his hip and 
shoulder from much of his weight. He takes care to keep 
it a little way off his body to allow the air to circulate. 

A mosquito-net must be fitted to every bed, but may 
not always be required. In the sleeping-room there should 
be no curtains, and the least possible amount of furniture, 
and, during the hot season, the bed should stand in the 
middle of the room. It is advisable to have no light in the 
bedroom, but good lights are a necessity in the dressing- 

By being careful about this you will keep your bedroom 
free from mosquitoes. Petroleum is commonly used in the 
Philippines for lighting, and unless the lamps are of the 
best quality, and carefully trimmed, there is considerable 
danger of accident. I used to keep some plants in pots in 
each room so as to throw the earth over any oil that might 
get alight. Whenever there was a shock of earthquake, I 
extinguished the petroleum lamps, and lighted candles 
instead. And whenever we went out to a dinner or dance, 
every petroleum lamp was extinguished^ and cocoanut-oil 


lights or candles substituted in case of an earthquake 
whilst we were out. 

Frequent baths are indispensable to good health in 
Manila. Enormous earthenware tubs, made in China, can 
be procured. These are placed in the bath-room, and filled 
in the evening, so that the water gets refreshingly cool 
during the night. It is not at all advisable to get into the 
water, as the effect is not so good as dashing the water 
over the head with a small bucket called a tabo. By using 
the water thus, and rubbing the skin briskly with a towel, 
a reaction soon sets in, and the bather feels quite in- 

A bath of this kind when rising, and another before 
dressing for dinner, will do much to mitigate the rigour of 
the climate. 

From several stories told me by friends recently 
returned from Manila, it would seem that the Americans 
there, or some of them, at least, are not sufficiently alive 
to the necessity of daily baths, but I refrain from giving 

This seems strange when one remembers the profusion 
with which baths are provided in all the modern hotels in 
the great cities of America. 

Now I must tell you about gogo. This is the dried 
bark of a creeper that grows wild in the woods, and it is 
the finest thing possible to keep your hair in order. 

There are several kinds of this plant, the three most 
commonly used are gogo bayugo {Entada scandcns 
Benth.) ; gogong casay {PeltopJionun fenugineuui Benth) ; 
gogong paltaning {^Albizzia saponaria Bhim.). 

As washing the hair with gogo is one of the luxuries of 
the Philippines, I shall describe how it is done. 

A servant pounds a piece of the stem and bark, and 
steeps it in a basin, twisting and wringing it occasionally 
until the soluble part has been extracted. He then adds 
to the liquor two or three limes, squeezing the juice out, 
and soaking the peel. He also throws in a handful of 
crushed citron-leaves, and strains the liquor through 

The servant then ladles this over your head with a 
calabash, or cocoa-nut shell, whilst you rub your hair with 
your hands. 

As the liquor is strongly alkaline, you must be careful 
to keep your eyes closed until the head has been rinsed 

N 2 


with water. Your hair-wash is made fresh whenever you 
want it, and may cost from two to three pence. 

The fragrance of the citron-leaves is delicious, and when 
you have rinsed and dried your hair, you will find it as 
soft, as bright, and as sweet-smelling as the costliest 
perfumes of Bond Street could make it. 


In the good old times we were well off for servants in 
Manila. They flocked up from the provinces seeking 
places, and those employers who took pains to enquire 
closely into the antecedents of applicants, could almost 
ensure being well served. 

Englishmen paid good wages, and paid punctually, 
hence they could command the best servants. 

Personally, I may say that I kept my servants for years 
— some nearly the whole time I was in the islands. I had 
very little trouble with any of them. There are people 
who say that they have no feeling, but I remember that 
when I embarked with my family on leaving Manila, my 
servants, on taking leave at the wharf, were convulsed with 
tears at our departure. 

A family living comfortably in a good-sized house 
would require the following servants : — 

Wages in 1892. 

Mayordomo, or steward, who would act as butler . 8 per month. 
Two houseboys, one would valet the master, the 

other would trim lamps and pull the punkah, 

@ $6 . . 12 „ „ 

Sempstress or maid to mistress . . • . 6 „ ,, 

Gardener or coolie, would carry water for baths, 

sweep and water . . . . . . 6 „ „ 

Coachman, would look after one pair of horses and 

carriage 12 „ „ 

Food for six ser^-ants, ® $3 each . . . . 18 „ „ 

Maestro cook . . . . . . . i8 „ „ 


American competition for servants has more than 
doubled these rates of pay. Cooks get $50 now. 

The house-boys and maid live in the house, and sleep 
on the floor, with a grass mat and pillows. The mayor- 
domo sometimes lives quite near, being, perhaps, a married 


man. The coachman has his room by the stables, and 
the gardener lives in the lodge, or in a small hut in the 

The maestro-cook does not usually sleep on the premises. 
He arrives about ii A.M., bearing two baskets depending 
from ?i pinga, or palma-brava staff, resting on his shoulder. 
These baskets will contain the day's marketing — eggs, fish, 
meat, chicken, salad, tomatoes, bananas, firewood, and 
many other things. 

He promptly sets to work, and by twelve, or half-past, 
presents a tiffin of three or four courses. 

His afternoon is devoted to preparing the more 
elaborate dinner due at 7.30 P.M., when he will be ready 
to serve soup, fish, entrees, a roast, a curry, and sweets, all 
conscientiously prepared, and sent in hot. Most excellent 
curries are made in Manila, both by Chinamen and natives. 
To my mind, the best are made from prawns, from crab, or 
from frogs' legs. If you cannot eat anything else at dinner, 
you can always make out with the curry. 

The dinner over, the cook asks for orders, and takes his 
departure, to return with perfect punctuality the following 

The Chinese cooks all belong to a guild, which is a 
trades' union and a co-operative society, and are bound to 
follow the rules. 

They would never dream of going into a market and 
bidding one against the other. 

Their system is to assemble early every morning at the 
guild house, and for each man to state his requirements. 
A scribe then tabulates the orders — so many turkeys, so 
many chickens, etc., and two experienced cooks are com- 
missioned as buyers to go into the market and purchase 
the whole lot, the provisions being afterwards fairly divided 
amongst the members, each having his turn to get the 
choice pieces, such as saddle of mutton, kidneys, etc. But 
if a dinner-party is contemplated, the cook who has to 
prepare it gets the preference. 

They thus obtain everything much cheaper than the 
native cooks, even after taking a good squeeze for them- 
selves. 1 believe that they have a fixed percentage which 
they charge, and would consider it dishonest to take any 
more, whilst the guild would not approve of their taking 
any less. 

If you send away your cook, the guild will settle for 


you who is to replace him. All your culinary fancies will 
be well known to the council of the guild, and they will 
pick out a man up to your standard. 

It was customary to give the cook a fixed sum per 
day to provide tiffin and dinner, and this was paid once a 

I found that two dollars a day was sufficient to amply 
provide for my family, and I could have one guest to tiffin 
or dinner without notice, and be confident that the meal 
would be sufficient. In fact, this was part of my agreement 
with the cook. By giving short notice, the dinner could 
be extended for two or three people at an additional 

The cook rendered no account of the money he re- 
ceived ; but, if I was not satisfied with the meals he pro- 
vided, I admonished him, and if he did not do better I 
discharged him. I may say, however, that there was very 
seldom cause for complaint, for the Chinese are thorough 
business men. 

When a dinner-party was given, the cook provided 
according to order, and sent in his bill for the extras. 
There was no housekeeping, and no need to order any- 
thing, and you knew exactly how much you were spending 
weekly, and how much a dinner-party cost. 

The cleaning and polishing your plate and glass, the 
laying the table, the tasteful adorning of it with variegated 
leaves, with ferns or flowers, and the artistic folding of the 
serviettes, may with confidence be left to the mayordomo's 
care ; eveiy detail will be attended to down to the ylang- 
ylang flowers in the finger-bowls. 

With such servants as these, the mistress of the house, 
free from domestic cares, may take her shower-bath, and, 
clad in Kabaya and Sarong, await the moment when she 
must resume the garments of civilisation, and receive her 
guests looking as fresh, in spite of the thermometer, as if 
she had stepped out of a co2(p^ in Piccadilly or Fifth 
Avenue. Ladies used to the ministry of Irish Biddy or 
Aunt Chloe ought to fancy themselves transported to 
heaven when they find themselves at the head of a house- 
hold in Manila. 

I append a note of household expenses for a family 
living moderately in Manila in 1S92. I suppose the cost 
has been doubled under American rule. 



Household Budget in 1892. 
For a family of three adults and three children. 

House-rent ....... per month 

Servants' wages and food . 

Washing ..... 

Forage and grain for two ponies 

Allowance to cook for market 

Extra for two dinner-parties of six or eight guests each 

Bill at Almacen (grocery store) for groceries, ordinary wines, 
spirits, and petroleum. .... per month 

Bill at Botica (drug store) for soda water, ice 
articles ...... 

Case of champagne for dinner-parties. 

Repairs to carriage, shoeing horses, materials for cleaning- 
stable, etc.. ... 

Garden expenses — plants, tools, hose 

Subscriptions to clubs, telephone, newspapers, and 

Tobacco and cigars . 

Taxes on servants and horses 

Clothing for self and family 

Pocket money, entertainments, and sundries 

and various 
per month 

per month 











Per month 600 

Say $7,200 per annum. 


For the benefit of Bcston readers {if I should be lucky- 
enough to have any in that learned city), I may say that 
pork and beans is not a suitable diet for a tropical country. 
I should also forbid the " New England dinner," and roast 
goose, or sucking pig, stewed terrapin, and pumpkin pie. 
A light diet of eggs or the excellent fish to be had in 
Manila, chickens fattened on maize, beef or mutton, once a 
day, and rice, vegetables and salad, with plenty of ripe fruit, 
according to the season, is desirable. The fare can be 
diversified by oysters, prawns, crabs, wild duck, snipe, and 
quail, all of which are cheap and very good in the season. 
There are no pheasants in Luzon, but the jungle cock 
(labuyao) is as good or better. 

In the tropics a good table is a necessity, for the 
appetite needs tempting. Such a diet as I have men- 
tioned will keep you in health, especially if you are careful 
not to eat too much, but to eat of the best. If you econo- 
mise on your table you will have to spend the money at the 


drug-Store. Taboo pork, because — well, when you have been 
a week or two in the country you will not need to ask why 
— Moses and Mahomet knew what they were about. 

My remarks about drinks are intended for the men, as 
ladies do not need any advice on this subject. In a tropical 
climate it is necessary to be very careful in the use of 

Having lived for more than twenty-five years in the 
tropics, and having kept my health remarkably well, I feel 
warranted in giving my experience. I have made surveys, 
or directed works, in many climates, exposed to all weathers, 
and I know that the very worst thing a man can take, if 
he has to work or march in the sun, is spirits. There is 
nothing that will predispose him to sunstroke as much as 
spirits. For marching, walking, or shooting, in the sun, I 
know nothing like cold tea without milk or sugar. It 
should be poured off the leaves after infusing for two 

When you reach shelter you can take a lemon squash 
or a cagelada — this is the juice of cageles (a kind of orange) 
with sugar and water — which is a most cooling drink. Never 
take spirits to buck you up to your work. Whatever spirits 
you drink, let it be after sunset, I am a believer in drinking 
wine at meals ; it makes me shudder to see people drinking 
tea, lemonade, or milk, with their dinners, and laying up for 
themselves torments from dyspepsia, for which they have to 
swallow pills by the boxful. 


There is a race of ponies in the islands that is de- 
scended from Spanish and Arab horses, and owing to an 
absolutely haphazard breeding, the size has diminished, 
although the symmetry has been preserved. Those from 
Ilocos are the smallest, but they are the hardiest and most 

A pair of ponies and a Victoria is an absolute necessity 
for a lady in Manila, and I have little doubt that an 
American judge would declare the " failure to provide " to 
be cruelty and grant a divorce if applied for. 

Both harness and carriages are made in the city, but 
imported harness can be had, better finished, at double the 

In my time a fine pair of ponies could be bought for 


$200 to $300 ; a new Victoria for $500, and harness for %6o. 
The cost of keeping a pair of ponies was $16 per month, 
and a coachman $12 per month, food, and liver>'. What 
the cost is now I have no information. 

The public carriages were not fit for a lady to use, 
though sometimes a suitable one could be hired by the 
week or month from a livery stable. 

The ponies are wonderfully strong and sure-footed. I 
weigh over 200 lbs., yet some of these ponies have carried 
me about all day over rough ground without stumbling. 
They carry a lady beautifully, and riding is the best form 
of exercise a lady can take. 

TJie Garden. 

The garden will be a great source of occupation to the 
mistress of the house. If it is sheltered from the wind and 
supplied with water, she can grow almost anything. And 
plants will come up quickly, too, under the influence of the 
heat and moisture. 

There are nursery gardens at Pasay, where all sorts of 
plants and seedlings can be obtained ; in fact, these are 
hawked about morning and evening. 

The so-called gardener rarely has much skill, but he 
will clean up the garden and water it, and do what he is 

The most beautiful and delicate ferns can be grown, 
and magnificent orchids got to flower, if they are well 
sheltered in a mat-shed. Bananas and pines grow without 
trouble, and radishes, salads, tomatoes, cucumbers, and 
melons, can be raised. 


You can get most things you want in Manila. The 
drug-stores are mostly in German hands, but there is one 
English one where the usual English articles can be got. 

There is an ample supply of wines, spirits, and preserved 
provisions at the grocers, and the drapers keep on hand 
any quantity of silks, muslins, and piece-goods, with all 
the necessary fixings. French and German shoes are in 

The goods in the jewellers' shops and in the fancy 
bazaars are all of a very florid style, to suit the gaudy taste 
of the wealthy Filipinos. 


Such piece-goods and haberdashery as are in common 
use are brought round to the ladies at their own houses by 
Chinese hawkers, who, having small expenses, sell remark- 
ably cheap. 

They are always very civil and attentive, and will gladly 
get you any article that they have not in stock at the 

Ladies save going about in the heat and dust by pur- 
chasing from these men. 


The amusements for ladies were limited to riding, lawn- 
tennis, boating, picnics, and frequent dances. I remember 
many delightful dances in Manila. One was given to the 
officers of the U.S.S. Brooklyn, and another to the U.S.S. 
RicJiniond. At the latter, the ladies were in traje del pais, i.e., 
dressed as natives and mestizas. And very handsome some 
of them looked. Now and again some theatrical company 
would come over, mostly from Saigon. There were a good 
many dinner parties given amongst the British community, 
and weekly receptions at most of the principal houses, during 
the time 1 lived in Manila, where you could get a little 
game of cards, dance, flirt, or take it easy, just as you 

The ladies very wisely took a rest from two to four, to 
be fresh for the evening. The proper hour for calling was 
at 9 P.M. or 10 A.M. on Sundays after High Mass. 

I knew several ladies, English and American, who look 
back upon a term of years spent in Manila as the happiest 
in their lives. 

Children born in Manila can remain there without 
damage to their health till ten or twelve years old, and 
after having spent a few years at home are indistinguishable 
from children born and brought up in England. 

The principal thing lacking in Manila is means of access 
to the hills where people could go occasionally for a change 
and during the hot season. I have little doubt that the 
Americans will provide this before long. 

Manila was not without its frivolous element ; but there 
was one period of the year when all frivolities were sus- 
pended, and religious observances monopolised the people's 
time. That was in Lent, and the ceremonies culminated 
on Good Friday. 


The Very Noble and always Loyal City of Manila cele- 
brates the greatest day of the Christian year very devoutly. 
On foot, and robed in black, its inhabitants high and low 
throng the churches and attend the procession. 

All shops are closed, vehicular traffic is suspended, the 
ensigns hang at half-mast, the yards of ships are crossed in 
saltire ; not a sound is heard. 

The capital and the whole of the civilised Philippines 
mark the crucifixion of our Saviour by two days of devo- 
tion, of solemn calm. Under Spanish rule a stately pro- 
cession, attended by the highest and the humblest, filed 
slowly through the silent streets, the Civil Government, 
the Law, the Army, the Navy, the Municipality and the 
Religious Orders, being represented by deputations in full 
dress, who followed bare-headed the emblems of the faith 
in the presence of an immense crowd of natives, who bent 
the knee and bowed the head in homage to the crucified 

I never failed to witness this imposing spectacle when 
in Manila, and it was mortifying to me to remember that 
Good Friday in London is nothing but a vulgar holiday, 
and that probably not one person out of a hundred in its 
vast population realises in the least degree the event that 
solemn fast is intended to commemorate. 

The death-like stillness of Good Friday remained un- 
broken till High Mass was over on Saturday morning, when 
the cathedral bells rang out a joyous peal, soon taken up 
by the bells of the numerous churches in the city and all 
over the provinces. 

The ensigns were run up to the staff or peak, the yards 
were squared, and royal salutes thundered out over land 
and sea, whilst clouds of white smoke enveloped the moss- 
grown ramparts of the saluting battery, and the useless, 
lumbering masts and spars of the flagship. Then steam- 
whistles and sirens commenced their hideous din, the great 
doors of the houses were thrown open, and hundreds of 
bare-backed ponies, with half-naked grooms, issued at full 
gallop to the sea or river. 

Then Manila resumed its every-day life till the next 
Holy Thursday came round. 





The Jockey Club — Training — The races — An archbishop presiding — 
The Totalisator or Pari Mutuel — The Manila Club — Boating 
club — Rifle clubs— Shooting — Snipe — Wild duck — Plover — Quail 
— Pigeons — Tabon— Labuyao, or jungle cock — Pheasants — Deer 
— "Wild pig — No sport in fishing. 

Manila was not so badly off for sport as might be 
thought. The pony-races, conducted under the auspices 
of the Jockey Club, excited the greatest interest amongst 
all classes. 

The ponies underwent their training at the race-course 
in Santa Mesa, and their owners and other members of the 
club were provided with early breakfast there. The native 
grooms took as much interest in the success of the pony 
they attended as the owner, and they backed their favourite 
for all they were worth. 

Only members were allowed to ride, and the weights 
were remarkably heavy for such small ponies. When the 
races came off, business was almost suspended for three 
days, and all Manila appeared at the race-course. There 
were sometimes two thousand vehicles and immense crowds 
on foot. 

The ladies in their most resplendent toilettes were 
received by the stewards, presented with elegantly-bound 
programmes, and conducted to their places on the grand 

Presently a military band would strike up the " Marcha 
Real," as the Governor-General's equipage entered the 
enclosure, and that exalted personage, dressed in black 
frock coat and silk hat, white trousers and waistcoat, with 
the crimson silk sash of a general, just peeping from under 
his waistcoat, was conducted to his box, followed by his 
suite and the favoured persons invited to join his party. 


The highest authority in the country presided and 
handed the prizes to the winning jockeys, who were 
brought up to him by the vice-president of the club. But 
on an occasion when the Governor-General and Segundo 
Cabo were absent, I witnessed the races which were pre- 
sided over by no less a personage than His Grace the 
Archbishop of Manila, Fray Pedro Payo, in his archiepis- 
copal garments, and smoking a big Havana cigar. The old 
gentleman enjoyed the sport and most graciously presented 
the handsome prizes to the winners. 

Betting was conducted by the totalisator, or pari-mutuel, 
the bet being five dollars, repeated as often as you liked. 
As I presume my readers understand this system, I shall 
not describe it. The natives bet amongst themselves to a 
considerable amount. 

Pavilions were erected by different clubs or bodies, and 
a profuse hospitality characterised each day. Winners of 
large silver cups usually filled them with champagne and 
passed them round. Bets were made with the ladies as an 
excuse for giving them presents. Dinner-parties were given 
in the evenings at private houses, and there were dinners 
at the clubs. There were two race-meetings in the year. 
No doubt this sport, temporarily interrupted by insur- 
rection and war, will again flourish when tranquillity 

There was a boating-club in connection with the British 
Club at Nagtajan, now removed to Ermita, and some very 
good skiffs and boats were available. There was a regatta 
and illuminated procession of boats each year. 

Polo clubs and rifle clubs had a rather precarious exist- 
ence, except that the Swiss Rifle Club was well kept up, 
and there were some excellent shots in it. There was a lawn 
tennis club, which had ladies and gentlemen as members, 
and some very good games were played there and valuable 
prizes given. 

Shooting was a favourite sport with many Englishmen 
and a few mestizos. 

Excellent snipe-shooting is to be had in all the paddy- 
fields around Manila and the lake. But at San Pedro on 
the Pasig, there is a wide expanse of rough ground with 
clumps of bushes, and it was here that the most exciting 
sport was to be had, and it took some shooting to get the 
birds as they flew across the openings between the bushes. 
Snipe-shooting began in September, when the paddy was 


high enough to give cover, and lasted to the end of 
November. The birds, when they first arrived, were thin, 
but they soon put on flesh, and by November were fat and 
in splendid condition for the table. There is no better bird 
to be eaten anywhere than a Manila snipe. Bags of eighty 
were sometimes made in a morning by two guns. 

Excellent wild-duck and teal-shooting was to be got on 
and around the lake and on the Pinag de Candaba, and 
wherever there was a sheet of water. When crossing the 
lake I have seen wild fowl resting on the surface in such 
enormous numbers that they looked like sandbanks. They 
are not easy to approach, but I have killed some by firing 
a rifle into the flock. The crested-lapwing and the golden- 
plover are in plenty, and on the seashores widgeon and 
curlew abound. Inland, on the stubbles, there are plenty 
of quail. Pigeons of all sorts, sizes, and colours, abound at 
all times, especially when the dap-dap tree opens its large 
crimson blossoms. Some kinds of brush-turkeys, such as 
the tabon, a bird {Megapodms ciini}igi) the size of a part- 
ridge, that lays an o.^^ as large as a goose o.^^ and buries 
it in a mound of gravel by the shore, are found. 

The labuyao, or jungle cock, is rare and not easy to 
shoot in a sportsmanlike way, although a poacher could 
easily shoot them on a moonlight night. 

In the Southern Islands some remarkable pheasants of 
most brilliant plumage are to be found, and whilst in 
Palawan I obtained two good specimens of the pavito real 
{Polyplcctron Napoleonis), a very handsome game bird 
with two sharp spurs on each leg. They are rather larger 
than a partridge, but their fan-shaped tails have two rows 
of eyes like a peacock's tail, there being four eyes in each 

Deer and wild-pig abound, and can be shot within four 
hours' journey of Manila by road. Round about Montalban 
is a good place for them. They are plentiful at Jala-jala, 
on the lake at Porac in Pampanga, and round about the 
Puerto Jamelo and Pico de Loro, at the mouth of Manila 
Bay. In fact, they are found wherever there is cover and 
pasture for them, The season is from December to April. 

The usual way is to go with a party of five or six guns 
and employ some thirty native beaters, each bringing one 
or two dogs. 

The guns are stationed in suitable spots and the beaters 
and their dogs, fetching a compass, extend their hne and 


drive the game up to the guns. This is rather an expensive 
amusement, as you have to pay and feed the beaters and 
their dogs ; but it is very good sport, and in proceeding and 
returning to camp from two beats in the morning and two 
in the afternoon, you got quite as much exercise as you 
want or as is good for you. The venison and wild-pig is 
very good eating, but it is difficult to get it to Manila fresh, 
whatever precautions you take. 

Taken all round, Luzon is well supplied with game, and 
may be considered satisfactory from a sportsman's point of 

There is no sport to be had in fishing ; in Luzon, so far 
as I know, there are no game fish. When living on the 
banks of the Rio Grande, near Macabebe, I noticed some 
natives taking fish at night by placing a torch on the bow 
of a canoe, which was paddled by one man slowly along 
near the bank, another man standing in the bow with 
a fish-spear of three prongs, similar to the " grains " used 
in England. As the fish came up to the h'ght he struck 
at them with his spear and managed to pick up a good 

This appeared good sport, and I arranged for a native 
to come for me in a canoe with torch, and I borrowed a 
spear. We started off, but there was some difficulty in 
standing up in a small, narrow canoe, and darting the spear. 
My first stroke was a miss the fish escaped ; my second, 
however, was all right, and I shook my catch off the spear 
into the canoe, but the native shouted out, " Masamang 
ahas p6 ! " (a poisonous snake, sir) not forgetting to be 
polite even in that somewhat urgent situation. The snake 
was wriggling towards me, but I promptly picked him up 
again on the spear and threw him overboard, much to my 
own relief and that of the Pampanga. 

It was one of those black and yellow water-snakes, 
reputed as poisonous. That was enough fishing for me, 
and I remembered that I had a particular appointment at 
home, and left fishing to professionals. 

Curiously enough, fish cannot be taken by the trawl, for 
a mestizo got out a trawling steamer with gear, and men to 
handle it, and after repeated trials in different places, had 
to give it up as a bad job. 




Irregular shape — Harbours — Bays — Mountain ranges — Blank spaces 
on maps — North-east coast unexplored — River and valley of 
Cagayan — Central valley from Bay of Lingayen to Bay of 
Manila — Rivers Agno, Chico, Grande — The Pinag of Candaba 
— Project for draining — River Pasig — Laguna de Bay— Lake of 
Taal — Scene of a cataclysm — Collapse of a volcanic cone 
8000 feet high — Black and frowning island of Mindoro — 
Worcester's pluck and endurance — Placers of Camarines — River 
Bicol— The wondrous purple cone of Mayon — Luxuriant vegeta- 

The island of Luzon is of so irregular a shape that it 
cannot be intelligibly described without the aid of a map. 

That part of it to the north and west of the isthmus of 
Tayabas lies with its longitudinal axis due north and south, 
and has a fairly even coast line, there being only two great 
indentations, the Bays of Lingayen and Manila, both on 
the west coast. There are also on that side and to the 
south the smaller bays of Subic, Balayan, Batangas, and 

On the cast coast of this northern part are the un- 
important bays of Palanan, Dilasac, Casiguran and Baler, 
besides the great bay of Lamon, sheltered by the islands 
Calbalete and Alabat. 

But in the remainder of Luzon, from the isthmus of 
Tayabas eastward and southward, the coast line is most 
irregular, and the width much reduced. A chain of 
mountains commencing at and forming the two above- 
mentioned islands and running in a south-easterly direction 
forms the peninsula of Tayabas. 

Another range, starting near the Bay of Sogod, runs a 
little south of east as far as Mount Labo (1552 metres), 
turns south-east, and runs along the southern shore of the 
fertile valley of the River Vicol, and with many a break 


and twist and turn reaches Mount Bulusan, whose slopes 
run down to the waters of the Strait of San Bernardino. 
The convolutions of this range form on the south the 
secure harbour of Sorsogon, and on the north the bays 
of Albay, Tabaco, Lagonoy and Sogod, besides a multitude 
of smaller ports and bays, for the coast line is wonderfully 
broken up by spurs of the main ranges running out into 
the sea. Luzon generally is very mountainous, and more 
especially so that part lying to the north of 16° 5', where 
the great ranges of mountains run in crooked lines but 
with general north and south direction. The range running 
parallel to the Pacific coast is called, in its most southern 
part, the Caraballos de Baler, and the rest of it, up to 
Punta Escarpada, is known as the Cordillera del Este, or 
the Sierra Madre. The central range, starting from Mount 
Caraballo in the latitude before mentioned, is called the 
Cordillera Central for about a degree of latitude, and from 
there is known as the Cordillera del Norte, terminating at 
Punta Lacatacay, in longitude 121 ° east of Greenwich. 

The mountains on the western coast are not so lofty, 
nor do they form a connected range. They are known as the 
Sierras de Ilocos. Some of these ranges are thirty or forty 
miles long. There are cuts in places where rivers find an 
outlet to the sea, such as the Rio Grande de Laoag, the 
Rio Abra, and some lesser streams. All these ranges have 
spurs or buttresses. Those of the Central Cordillera extend 
as far, and join with, the coast range on the west, covering 
the whole country and leaving no large plain anywhere, for 
the valley of the Abra though long is very narrow. There 
is a little flat land about Vigan. 

But the eastern spurs of the central range, in the part 
of Luzon under consideration, do not interlace with the 
spurs of Sierra Madre, but leave a magnificent valley more 
than two degrees of latitude in length and vaiying breadth. 
This is the only great valley of northern Luzon, and through 
it runs the Rio Grande de Cagayan and its tributaries, the 
Magat and the Rio Chico, with numerous minor streams. 

Coasting steamers with about twelve feet draught cross 
the bar of the Rio Grande and lie at Aparri. The river is 
navigable in the dry season as far as Alcala for light 
draught steamers. Alligators abound in these rivers. In 
this valley, which extends through the provinces of Cagayan 
anc^ Isabela up into Nueva Vizcaya, there is to be found a 
great extension of rich alluvial soil on which can be raised, 



besides other tropical crops, most excellent tobacco, the 
cultivation of which was for many years obligatory upon 
the inhabitants, who were forbidden to grow rice. 

Little has been done in the way of making a trigono- 
metrical survey of the Highlands of Luzon, but some 
military reconnaissance sketches have been made from 
time to time by staff or engineer officers employed in 
building forts, and from these several maps have been 
compiled. One of the most complete of these is by that 
intrepid explorer and painstaking geographer, D'Almonte. 
Another map has been published by Colonel Olleros. It 
must be admitted that these maps do not agree with each 
other, but that is not unusual in maps of the Philippines, 
and results from a custom of the Spanish engineers of 
doing too much in the office and not enough in the field. 
Colonel Olleros has, however, on his map shown the lesser 
known mountain ranges very vaguely, and has left more 
than a thousand square miles of territory quite blank. 
This tract lies between the central range and the Cagayan 
River, and is inhabited by the Apayaos, Calingas, Aripas, 
and Nabayuganes. Olleros also leaves some large blanks 
on the east coast, and he is quite right to do so, for this 
coast has hardly been visited since Salcedo sailed past it at 
the time of the Conquest, and nothing is known about that 
part of the island which remains to this day in possession 
of the savage Dumagas, a Negrito tribe. That coast is 
almost entirely destitute of shelter, and is exposed to the 
full force of the Pacific surf. It is made more dangerous 
by tidal waves which are formed either by distant cyclones 
or by submarine upheavals and occur without warning. 

The largest and richest valley in Luzon is that which 
extends without a break from the shores of the Bay of 
Lingayen to the Bay of Manila, having an area of some 
3000 square miles, and comprising the best part of the 
Provinces of Pangasinan, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, 
Bulacan and Manila. 

The town of Tarlac is situated about half-way between 
the two bays, and approximately marks the watershed. 
About half-way between Tarlac and the northern shores of 
Manila Bay there rises from the plain an isolated mountain 
of volcanic origin. Mount Arayat. The crater has been 
split through and the mountain thus shows two peaks. It 
is covered with forest to the very summit. Arayat ■I'as 
thrown up within historic times, and the Indians have a 


tradition that it was completed in one night, which is a 
most unlikely story. 

Mount Arayat is 2880 feet in height, and in fine weather 
is plainly visible from Manila and Cavite, and even from 
the mouth of the bay. 

The principal rivers of this valley are the Agno, the 
Dagupan, the Rio Grande and the Rio Chico of Pampanga. 

The Agno rises in the mountains of Lepant o, runs 
south through the province of Benguet, and S.W., W. and 
N.W. in Pangasinan into a labyrinth of creeks communi- 
cating by many mouths with the Bay of Lingayen. The 
river between Dagupan and San Isidro is navigable for 
vessels drawing seven or eight feet, and such craft could 
reach Salasa. From there to Rosales only lighters of very 
small draught could pass, and after a long spell of dry 
weather rice-boats drawing only one foot sometimes run 
aground. Its principal tributaries are the Tarlac and the 
Camiling, with dozens of smaller streams bringing the 
whole drainage of the eastern slopes of the Zambales 
mountains from Mount Iba to San Isidro. 

The Dagupan river rises in the mountains about the 
limits of Union and Benguet and runs parallel to the 
Agno to 16° N. lat., and between it and the sea. Then it 
turns to the westward, and runs past the towns of Urdaneta, 
Sta, Barbara, and Calasiao, entering the Bay of Lingayen 
at Dagupan. It has a multitude of small tributaries which 
are very differently shown on DAlmonte's and OUeros' 
maps, and undoubtedly this part has never been surveyed. 

The Pampanga river has its source on the southern 
slopes of the Caraballo, in about 16° 10' N. lat. It runs 
south in two branches, the Rio Grande and the Rio Chico ; 
the first, being the easternmost, receives the drainage from 
the western slopes of the Cordillera del Este, whilst the 
Chico receives tributaries from both sides in the flat country 
and also the overflow from the Lake of Canarem. 

These two branches unite just north of Mount Arayat, 
and continue in a southerly direction. The river is navigable 
for small craft drawing three feet as far as Candaba in the 
dry season, and in the rainy season as far as San Isidro in 
Nueva Ecija. When in flood during the rainy season, this 
river brings down a large body of water and annually over- 
flows its banks in certain places, where gaps occur. The 
escaping water spreads itself over a low plain forming an 
inundation some sixteen miles long and several miles wide, 

O 2 


called the Pinag de Candaba. This remains during the 
rainy season, and when the level of the Rio Grande has 
fallen sufficiently, the water of the Pinag commences to 
fall also, and during the middle and latter part of the dry 
season, and the beginning of the rainy season, only patches 
of water remain here and there, which are utilized for 
breeding fish, and a crop is raised on the land left dry. A 
project for draining the Pinag and reclaiming the land was 
many years ago got up by a Spanish colonel of engineers, 
and, at the request of an English company, I went up to 
investigate and report on it I found that, irrespective of 
the difficulties and expense of the proposed works, the 
vested rights of the natives of the many towns and villages 
in and around the Pinag rendered it impossible to carry out 
the scheme. 

Vast flocks of wild duck and other water-fowl frequent 
the Pinag, and good sport is to be had there. Below the 
Pinag the river spreads itself over the low country, forming 
a labyrinths of creeks mostly navigable for craft drawing 
three to four feet, but the mouths are all very shallow and 
the bars can only be crossed about high tide. The water is 
brackish or salt. An immense extent of country is inter- 
sected by these creeks, certainly 200 square miles, and 
there are said to be 120 mouths connecting with the bay. 
With the exception of two or three of the principal 
channels, this swamp has never been surveyed, and what 
is shown on the map is merely guessed at. The muddy 
soil is covered with mangrove in the low parts submerged 
at each tide, and with the Nipa palm where the banks rise 
above high water. Under the heading Pampangos will be 
found particulars of the manufacture of nipa-thatch carried 
on here, and of collecting and distilling the juice. With 
the exception of a few half-savage natives the only living 
things are wildfowl, fish in abundance, alligators, snakes, 
and blue crabs. This is indeed a great dismal swamp, 
more especially at low tide. 

It is difficult to find one's way in these creeks, and 
although I frequently traversed them, I found it necessary 
to take a swamp Indian as a guide. 

The city of Manila is situated astride the River Pasig 
on a strip of land between the Bay of Manila and a great 
sheet of freshwater called the Lake of Bay. In consequence 
of this situation, Manila can communicate by the bay, the 
lake, the creeks and rivers with the provinces of Bataan, 


Pampanga, Nueva ficija, Bulacan, Morong, Laguna, and 
Cavite. Until the opening of the Manila-Dagupan railroad 
the whole transport of the Archipelago was by water, and 
the possession of navigable rivers meant progress and 
wealth, whilst the absence of rivers meant stagnation and 
poverty. Around the city the land is quite flat, but at 
about four miles distance there is a sharp rise to a plateau 
of volcanic tuff, the surface of which is from sixty to eighty 
feet above sea level, of which more anon. The River Pasig 
is the overflow from the lake and the outlet for the River 
San Mateo, which runs into it at right angles. The lake 
serves as a receiver for the great floods that come down the 
San Mateo valley ; for the level of that river at Santolan, 
the intake of the waterworks, sometimes rises more than 
twenty feet. When this occurs, the flood on reaching the 
Pasig is divided ; part runs into the lake, and part into the 
bay. The current of the Pasig in that part between the 
junction of the San Mateo and the outlet from the lake is 
reversed. Then when the flood subsides, the water which 
has entered the lake runs out very slowly into the bay, 
for the head produced by the greatest flood becomes 
insignificant from being spread over the vast extent of 
the lake. 

Rice, sugar, cocoa-nuts, bamboos, timber, and fruits are 
the principal products of the province of La Laguna. The 
inhabitants supply the Manila markets with poultry. The 
Pasig and the lake are navigated by light draught steamers 
which ply daily to Biiian, Calamba, and Santa Cruz. There 
are also numerous native small craft, which bring down the 
produce. To the south of Manila the province of Cavite 
slopes gently up from the shores of the bay and from the 
lake to the high cliffs at the northern end of the volcanic 
lake of Taal. The valley is intersected by numerous streams 
all of which run into the bay. Part of this province, near 
Manila, is a stony and sandy desert, but other parts of it 
are extremely fertile, and large crops of rice, with some 
cofl"ee, and cacao, and fruits, are raised. The Augustinians 
and Dominicans have large estates here, and have ex- 
pended considerable sums on dams to retain water for 

The Lake of Bombon, or Taal, has in its centre an 
island containing the remains of the volcano. From the 
nature of the surrounding country it is conjectured that on 
the spot now occupied by the lake a volcanic mountain. 


some 8000 feet high, formerly stood. The great bed of 
volcanic tuff already mentioned, extending from thence up 
to Meycauayan more than sixty miles distant, is thought 
to have been ejected from that lofty volcano, leaving a vast 
hollow cone, which ultimately collapsed, causing a con- 
vulsion in the surrounding country that must have rivalled 
the iamous cataclysm of Krakatoa. This is the opinion 
of D. Jose Centeno, a mining engineer employed by the 
Spanish Government, and was fully confirmed by my 
learned friend, the late Rev, J. E. Tenison-Wood, who 
carefully examined the locality, and studied all the records. 

The province of Batangas is very rich and fertile ; it 
has some mountains, but also a considerable extension of 
sloping or flat land. In beauty it will compare with the 
best parts of Surrey, such as the view from Leith Hill, 
looking south. Sugar and coffee are the principal products, 
and the towns of Taal, Bauang, Batangas, and Lipa are 
amongst the wealthiest of Luzon. The fields are well 
cultivated, and oxen are much used, both for ploughing 
and for drawing carts. The beef in this province is 

Opposite to this beautiful and wealthy province lies the 
huge island of Mindoro. Ever black and gloomy does it 
look, its lofty mountains almost perpetually shrouded in 
rain-clouds. When I lived in Balayan I had a good view 
of this island from my windows, and can scarcely remember 
its looking otherwise than dark and forbidding. Nothing 
comes from it but timber and jungle produce. There are 
known to be some beds of lignite. Only the coast is known, 
and the jungle fever prevents exploration. The island of 
Marinduque is healthier and more advanced. It produces 
hemp of fine quality. 

The province of Tayabas is very mountainous, and is 
still mostly covered with forest ; there are no wade valleys 
of alluvial soil. Some rice is grown, also large quantities of 
cocoa-nuts, and some coffee and cacao. Timber and jungle 
produce form the principal exports. I have seen many 
specimens of minerals from this province and think it would 
be well worth prospecting. But the climate is unhealthy, 
and dangerous fevers prevail. This circumstance has been 
useful to the Spanish Government, for when a governor or 
official had made himself disliked he could be appointed to 
Tayabas with a fair prospect of getting rid of him either by 
death or by invaliding in two or three years at most. 


Camarines Norte is also mountainous, and there is not 
much cultivation, only a little rice and hemp. The popula- 
tion is very sparse, and the inhabitants are mostly employed 
(when they do anything) in washing for gold at Mambulao, 
Paracale, and other places on the Pacific coast. If they 
strike a pocket, or get a nugget, they go on the spree till 
they have spent it all and can get no more credit, and then 
unwillingly return to work. Camarines Sur possesses a 
wide expanse of fertile soil in the valley of the River Bicol, 
in which are the Lakes of Buhi and Bato, and the Pinag of 
Baao. The Bicol rises in the province of Albay and runs 
through the whole length of Camarines Sur, generally in a 
north-westerly direction, running into the great Bay of San 
Miguel. It is navigable for small vessels up to the town of 
Nueva Caceres. Alligators abound here. A gap in the 
coast range gives access to this valley from the port of 
Pasacao. The ground is level for leagues around, yet from 
this plain two extinct volcanoes rear their vast bulk, the 
Ysarog, 6500 feet high, and the Yriga, nearly 4000 feet 
high. Camarines Sur contains more than five times as 
many inhabitants as Camarines Norte, although not very 
different in area. Their principal occupation is the cultiva- 
tion of the extensive rice lands. They also produce some 
hemp and a little sugar. Large quantities of rice are ex- 
ported to Manila, to Albay, and to Bisayas. Cattle are 
raised in the island of Burias, which belongs to this province ; 
it also produces some palm sugar. This province is much 
richer than either Tayabas or Camarines Norte. 

The province of Albay is the southernmost and eastern- 
most part of Luzon, and is one of the richest and most 
beautiful regions of that splendid island. The northern 
part, which commences at Punta Gorda on the Bay of 
Lagonoy, is similar to the neighbouring Camarines Sur, as 
is also the western part, about the shores of Lake Bato. 
A little to the southward, however, the gigantic Mayon 
rears its peak 8000 feet into the sky. The symmetry of 
this wondrous cone is but feebly rendered by the photo- 
graph. Some of the most violent eruptions of this remark- 
able volcano are mentioned under another heading in the 

On this volcanic soil, with the life-giving heat of the 
sun tempered by frequent rains, the vegetable kingdom 
flourishes in the utmost luxuriance. Tree-ferns, lianas, 
orchids, palms grow vigorously. On the mountain slopes 


the Musa textilis, or abacd plant, finds its most congenial 
habitat. Little rice is grown, the inhabitants being mostly- 
engaged in the more remunerative occupation of planting 
and preparing this fibre. 

A description of the manner of its preparation, with 
photographs of the growing plants and of the apparatus for 
cleaning the fibre, will be found under the description of 
the Vicols. 

The island of Catanduanes belongs to Albay province, 
and its characteristics and productions are the same. The 
configuration of the province of Albay is most favourable 
to the production of this fibre. The plant seems to require 
a light volcanic soil, a certain height above the sea, and 
exposure to the Pacific breezes in order to flourish. 

To summarise the description of Luzon we may say 
that its agricultural wealth, present and future, lies in the 
valley of the Rio Grande of Cagayan, in the great valley 
lying between the Gulf of Lingayen and the shores of the 
Bay of Manila, in the rich lands of Cavite, Batangas, and 
Laguna, in the valley of the River Bicol, and on the slopes 
of the volcanoes of Albay. 

The production of the great northern valley is principally 
tobacco ; of the middle valley, sugar and rice ; of the southern 
valley, rice, and of the volcanic slopes, Manila hemp. The 
Sierras of Ilocos are highly mineralised, as are also the 
mountains of Tayabas, whilst as already stated washing for 
gold is the principal industry of Camarines Norte. Parts 
of this great island, as in Bulacan and Pampanga, support 
a dense population of 500 to the square mile ; whilst, in 
other parts, hundreds or even thousands of square miles 
are absolutely unknown, and are only populated by a few 
scattered and wandering savages, many of whom have 
never seen a white man. 

( 20I ) 


Descriptio7i of their appearance, dress, arms, religion, manners and 
customs, and tlie localities they inhabit, their agriculture, in- 
dustries and pursuits, with s7iggestions as to how they can be 
utilized, commercially and politically. With many unpublished 
photographs of natives, their arms, ornaments, sepulchres, and 



These people are generally considered to be the aborigines 
of the Philippines, and perhaps at one time inhabited the 
entire group. The invasion of the Malays dispossessed 
them of the littoral, and of the principal river valleys, and 
the Spanish Conquest drove them gradually back into the 
mountains. It seems strange that these irreclaimable 
savages should be able from their eyries on Mount 
Mariveles to distinguish a great city with its Royal and 
Pontifical University and yet remain unconverted, un- 
civilised, and independent of all authority, just as they were 
before Legaspi arrived. 

They are a race of negroid dwarfs of a sooty black 
colour, with woolly hair, which they wear short, strong jaws, 
thick lips, and broad flat noses. The men I have seen in 
the jungle near Porac and at Mariveles were about 4 feet 
8 inches in height, and the women about a couple of inches 
shorter. The men only wore a cord round the waist with a 
cloth passed between their legs. The women wore a piece 
of cloth around the hips, and as ornaments some strings of 
beads round their necks. However, like many other 


savages in the Philippines and elsewhere, those of them, 
both men and women, who are accustomed to traffic with 
the Christian natives, are possessed of clothes which they 
put on whenever they enter a village. Their appearance 
was not prepossessing ; the skin of a savage is rarely in 
good order or free from some scaly eruption, and the 
stomach is commonly unduly distended from devouring 
large quantities of vegetable food of an innutritious 
character. Still they were not so unpleasing as might be 
supposed, for although their figures are not good according 
to our standards, nor are their muscles well developed, 
either on arms or legs, yet there was a litheness about them 
that gave promise of extreme agility and great speed in 
running. As a matter of fact, they do run fast, and climb 
trees in a surprising way. The Tagals and other Malays 
who go barefooted use their toes to pick up an object on 
the ground rather than stoop as a European would do, but 
the toes of the Negritos are more like fingers. They come 
near the Quadrumanes in this respect. The men carried 
bows, about five feet six inches long and a quiver full of 
iron-pointed arrows — also a wood-knife, or bolo, very roughly 
made. The former they make themselves ; but the latter 
they obtain from the Tagals. I can confirm from my own 
experience a statement of various travellers, that they are 
fond of lying close to fires or in the warm ashes, for when I 
arrived at a bivouac of these people near Porac, their skins 
were covered with ashes, and I saw that they had recently 
arisen from their favourite lair, the prints of their forms 
being plainly visible. They had with them some wretched 
starveling dogs which assist them in the chase. 

It would seem that the Negritos must be descended 
from a race which formerly extended over a vast area, for 
remains of them exist in Southern India, in the mountains 
of Ceylon, and in the Andaman Islands. 

In the Malay Peninsula they are called Semang. 
From the description of them given by Hugh ClifTord, in 
his interesting book, ' In Court and Kampong,' they appear 
to be identical with the Philippine Negritos. Crauford, in 
his ' History of the Indian Archipelago,' gives the measure- 
ment of a Negrito from the hills of Kedah as four feet 
nine inches. Mr. F. V. Christian, in a paper recently read 
before the Royal Geographical Society, stated that he had 
found tombs of Negritos on P6nape one of the Caroline 


The Negritos build no houses, and are nomadic, in the 
sense of moving about within a certain district. They Hve 
in groups of twenty or thirty under a chief or elder, and take 
his advice about camping and breaking up camp, which 
they do according to the seasons, the ripening of jungle 
fruit, movements of game, etc. They seem to have great 
reverence for their dead and for their burial-grounds, and 
apparently dislike going far away from these places where 
they suppose the souls of their ancestors are wandering. 
They bury their dead, placing with them food and weapons 
for their use, and erect a rough shelter over the graves. 

It would be curious to learn the opinion of these poor 
savages on the proceedings of some learned Teuton, 
prowling around their graveyards in search of skulls 
and skeletons for the Berlin or Dresden Ethnographical 

They have no tribal organisation and even make war 
on other groups, seeking victims for the death-vengeance. 
They are therefore unable to assemble in large numbers ; 
nor is it easy to see how they could subsist if they did so. 
They put up rough sloping shelters against the sun and 
wind, consisting of a framework of saplings or canes, 
covered with coarse plaited mats of leaves which they carry 
with them when they move their camp. 

In Pampanga and Bataan, they are occasionally guilty 
of cattle stealing, and even of murdering Christians, if a 
favourable opportunity presents itself In such a case an 
expedition of the Cuadrilleros of the neighbouring towns is 
sent against them. 

If they can be found, their bows and arrows are no 
match for the muskets of the Cuadrilleros, and some of 
them are sure to be killed. After a time peace is restored. 

The trade for jungle produce is too profitable to the 
Christians for them to renounce it, whatever the authorities 
may order. 

The Negritos do not cultivate the ground but subsist 
on jungle fruits and edible roots, their great luxury is the 
wild honey which they greedily devour, and they barter the 
wax with the Christians for rice and sweet potatoes. They 
also hunt the deer and wild pigs, and as Blumentritt says, 
they eat everything that crawls, runs, swims, or flies, if they 
can get it. They chew bnyo like the Tagals and other 
Malays, and are inordinately fond of smoking. 

They are said to hold the lighted end of their cigars in 


their mouths, a thing I have seen done by the negroes on 
the Isthmus of Panama. 

They appear to have no reh'gion, but are very super- 
stitious. They celebrate dances at the time of full moon, 
the women forming a ring and the men another ring outside 
them, something like a figure in the Kitchen Lancers. 
They move round to the sound of some rude musical 
instruments in opposite directions. 

Whether this performance is intended as a mark of 
respect to the moon, or is merely held at the full for the 
convenience of the light, I cannot say. 

Several travellers have stated that they sacrifice pigs 
when it thunders. As thunder-storms are very frequent 
and often of extraordinary violence in the Philippines, 
this custom would imply the possession of a large number 
of pigs on the part of the Negritos. Those of Mariveles 
and of the Zambales mountains do not appear to possess 
any domestic animals, except dogs, and they find it difficult 
to kill the wild pigs, active as they are. Consequently, I 
think this must apply to those Negrito tribes, such as the 
Balugas and Dumdgas, of whose condition I shall speak 
later. They are also said to offer up prayers to the rain- 
bow. This offering can be made with greater ease than 
the sacrifice of a pig, but the frequency of rainbows at 
certain seasons will keep them pretty closely to their 

Ratzel, * History of Mankind,' vol. i., p. 471, says : 
Among the Negritos of Luzon, a fabulous beast with a 
horse's head which lives in trees [is venerated under the 
name of Balendik. And on p. 478 : When killing an 
animal, the Negritos fling a piece heavenwards crying out 
at the same time, " This is for thee." 

They show great respect for old age, and the British 
War Of^ce might learn something from them for they are 
reported to tend with love and care every old man of war- 
like repute. 

Their language largely consists of curious clicks and 
grunts, and those of them who trade with the Christians 
usually learn enough of the local dialect to do the necessary 

There are some varieties of the Negritos who are more 
or less mixed up with the Malays, but their origin is not 

The Malay women are very unprejudiced, perhaps there 


are no women on earth more ready to form temporary or 
permanent alliances with foreigners : they do not disdain 
even the Chinamen. They perhaps do not like them, but 
they know that John Chinaman makes a good husband, 
provides liberally for his family, and does not expect his 
wife to do any hard work. 

By some writers the Malay women, notably the Visayas, 
are accused of unbounded sensuality (Anto. de Morga. 
Sucesos de Filipinas), but anyhow the Tagal women 
draw the line at Negritos, and will have nothing to do 
with them. 

Fray Caspar de San Agustin however thought that the 
Visaya women would not be so particular. 

This being so, the hybrid races in Luzon must have 
sprung from the union of Remontados — that is to say, of 
Malays who took refuge in the hills either from a natural 
love for savage life, or as fugitives from justice — with the 
Negrito women. 

Amongst these varieties are the Bah'igas, who live in 
the eastern cordillera of Nueva Ecija, in north and south 
I locos, and in the mountains of Tayabas. Some of these 
people have advanced a step in civilisation, they build huts 
and do a little rude cultivation. 

The Djitndgas, another hybrid race, occupy the eastern 
slopes of the Sierra Madre from the northern frontier of El 
Principe district to the Bay of Palanan, where the last 
Tagal village is situated, the Tagals thinly peopling the 
shores. But from Palanan to Punta Escarpada the whole 
coast is in the undisputed possession of the Dumdgas. 

The Diimdgas keep up a friendly communication with 
the few Christian villages near them, and do a small 
trade with them. They even work on their lands and 
help in fishing for a small remuneration, generally paid in 
cotton cloth. 

They have no known religion, they marry without cere- 
mony, and are said to disregard the ties of kinship. 

Those who live far from the Christian villages are said 
to be entirely brutal and devoid of all virtue, for they 
will sell their own children for a little rice. They are 
almost irreclaimable from their savage and independent 

Some of these Dumdgas live amongst the Irayas and 
the Catalangdnes, two heathen and semi-independent tribes 
showing signs of Mongolian blood, who occupy a consider- 


able stretch of country in the province of Cagayan between 
the Rio Grande and the Sierra Madre, say about twenty 
geographical miles north and south of the 17th parallel. 
These Dumagas intermarry with the tribes they live 
amongst, and have adopted their dress, religion, and 

The Mamamias, also a hybrid race, inhabit the moun- 
tains of the north-east promontory of Mindanao. They are 
few in number. There were, in 1887, four Jesuit mission 
stations amongst them, three of which are on Lake Mainit, 
or Sapongan, as it is called on some maps. 

The Manguidnes, who are probably a hybrid Negrito- 
Visaya race, occupy almost the whole interior of Mindoro, 
up to within two leagues of the coast. There are a few in 
the mountains of Romblon and Tablas. There are three 
varieties of these people, those residing near the western 
coast are much whiter, with lighter hair and full beards. 

Those living in the centre of the island are of a darker 
colour, have sloping foreheads and less intelligence, while 
those of the southern part, by their oblique eyes, aquiline 
noses and olive colour, show signs of Chinese blood. 

They are docile and do not fly from civilised man. A 
primitive agriculture and the collection of jungle produce 
enables them to obtain from the Christians, in exchange, 
rice, knives, bells, gongs, tobacco, and buyo. They are not 
much advanced in religion, but are very superstitious. 
They believe that the spirits of their ancestors and relations 
never leave the places where they lived, but remain to 
protect their descendants and families. There is noted 
amongst these people a strong sense of morality and 
honesty, which unfortunately is not recognised by their 
Christian neighbours, who are accustomed to oppress them 
with the most exaggerated usury. 

Since these words were written. Dean C. Worcester has 
published his book on the Philippines, and amply confirms 
these remarks. He saw a good deal of the Manguidnes, 
and bears testimony to their honesty and morahty, and 
adds : " On the whole, after making somewhat extensive 
observations amongst the Philippine natives, I am inclined 
to formulate the law that their morals improve as the 
square of the distance from churches and other civilising 

He gives some particulars of their laws, and of their 
ordeals, which are common to many of the Malays. There 


are some Manguidnes in the Island of Palawan. They 
inhabit the mountains in the interior of the southern part 
of the island, and little is known about them, for the 
pirate races, or Mahometan Malays, who occupy the coasts, 
keep a strict watch to prevent their communicating with 

The few who have been seen by the Spaniards, are said 
to be industrious, and physically similar to the Tagbanuas. 
Their customs are said to be influenced by their constant 
intercourse with the Mahometans. They were thought to 
number about 4000 in 1887, by Don Felipe Canga 
Arguelles, the Governor of the Island. The Moors appear 
to oppress the Manguidnes of Palawan much as the Chris- 
tian natives do the Mangtiidnes of Mindoro. 

The illustration represents a Negrito from the Island of 
Negros, a very favourable specimen of his race. He wears 
the head-dress of a chief, and is armed with a bow and 
arrow of portentous length. His figure, though not mus- 
cular, gives promise of great agility. 

The Negritos of Palawan are few in number, and 
resemble those of Mariveles. They use a piece of cloth, 
made of the inner bark of a tree as their only garment. 
They call this the Saligan. They inhabit the upper parts 
of the mountains between Babuyan and Barbacan, say 
from 10° to 10° 20' N. latitude. They do a little agri- 
culture in a primitive fashion. The men clear the land, the 
men and women together do the planting, and the women 
alone the reaping. 

Their arms are bows and arrows, and the only education 
of the young is in archery, which is taught them by their 
mothers from their earliest infancy. 

They are said to be generous, hospitable, and inoffen- 
sive, but extremely revengeful if they are ill-treated. They 
have no religion, but perform certain ceremonies from time 
to time. Canga-Arguelles computed them to number 
about 500 in 1887. 

The only use the Negritos can be to the United 
States will be as a subject of study for the elucidation 
of problems in ethnography, and to furnish skeletons 
for the museums. 





Tagals (i).* 

The most important race in the Archipelago is the Tagal, 
or Tagalog, inhabiting Central Luzon, including the follow- 
ing provinces : — 

Batangas, Bulacan. Bataan, Camarines Norte, Cavite, 
Laguna, Manila, part of Nueva ficija and Tayabas, the 
districts of Infanta, Morong, and part of Principe, also the 
Island of Corregidor and the coast of Mindoro. They 
probably number about one million five hundred thousand 

Antonio de Morga, in his work 'Sucesos de Philipinas,' 
says (p. 126) : " The women wear the bdro and saya, and 
chains of gold upon their necks, also bracelets of the same. 
All classes are very clean in their persons and clothing, 
and of good carriage and graceful {de him ayre y gracia "). 

They are very careful of their hair, washing it with gogo 
and anointing it with ajonjoli oil f perfumed with musk. 

In the ' Relacion de las Islas Philipinas,' 1595 (?), the 
anonymous author said of the Tagals : " The people of this 
province are the best of all the Islands, more polite, and 
more truly our friends. They go more clothed than the 
others, the men as well as the women. They are light- 
coloured people of very good figures and faces, and like 
to put on many ornaments of gold, which they have in great 

In other respects, however, they seem, from the same 
author, to be less worthy of praise, for he goes on to tell 
us : When some principal man died, in vengeance of his 

* The territory occupied by each tribe is shoMH on the general 
map of Mindanao by the number on this list. 

t Ajonjoli {Sesamvn Indicum, L.). See Chap. XIX. for Gogo. 




death they cut off many heads, with which they made many 
feasts and dances. . . . They had their houses full of wood 
and stone idols, which they called Tao-tao and Lichac, for 
temples they had none. And they said that when one of 
their parents or children died the soul entered into one of 
these idols, and for this they reverenced them and begged 
of them life, health, and riches. They called these idols 
anitos, and when they were ill they drew lots to find which 
of these had given them the illness, and then made great 
sacrifices and feasts to it. 

They worshipped idols which were called Al Priapo 
Lacapati, Meilupa, but now, by the goodness of God, they 
are enlightened with the grace of the Divine Gospel and 
adore the living God in spirit. 

The old writer then remarks on the cleverness and 
sharpness of the boys, and the ease with which they learned 
to read and write, sing, play, and dance. 

This characteristic appears general to the Malay race, 
for, speaking of the Javanese, Crauford says : They have 
ears of remarkable delicacy for musical sounds, are readily 
taught to play upon any instrument the most difficult and 
complex airs. 

According to Morga, at the time of the Conquest, the 
Tagals wrote their language in the Arabic character. He 
says : They write well in these Islands ; most people both 
men and women, can write. This tends to show that the 
equality of the sexes, which I shall refer to later, has been 
customary from ancient times. 

Tomas de Comyn (18 10) says : 

The population of the capital, in consequence of its 
continual communication with the Chinese and other 
Asiatics, with the sailors of different nations, with the 
soldiers, and with the Mexican convicts who are generally 
mulattoes, and who arrive in some number every year, has 
come to be a mixture of all the bloods and features, or 
otherwise a degeneration of the primitive race. 

At Cainta, on a branch of the Pasig, the natives are 
darker, taller, and of a different type. This is accounted 
for by the fact that, in 1762-63, during the English invasion, 
a regiment of Madras Sepoys occupied the town for many 
months, long enough, in fact, to modify the native type to 
such an extent as to be plainly visible 125 years later. 

Crauford says that some Christian inhabitants of Ternate 
followed their priests (Jesuits) to Luzon when the Spaniards 



were driven out of Molucas by the Dutch in 1660. They 
were located in Marigondon. There is now a town called 
Ternatc between Marigondon and the sea, near Punta 
Restinga. But, with the exception of the capital and these 
two places, I think the Tagals have not greatly altered in 
physical characteristics since the Conquest — notwithstanding 
Ratzcl's statement that " Spanish-Tagal half-breeds in the 
Philippines may be numbered by the hundred thousand," 
which I consider erroneous. 

The fact is, that whferever a small number of male 
Europeans live amongst a native race, the effect on the 
type is smaller than may be supposed, and what there is 
becomes obliterated or disseminated in course of time. 
Colour may be a little altered, but all the other characteristics 
remain. The mestizas are not so prolific as the native 
women, and notwithstanding Jagor's assertion to the con- 
trary, they often marry natives, and especially if their 
father has died while they were young. I knew in the 
town of Balayan three handsome sisters, daughters of a 
Spaniard who had died many years before. Although they 
lived in a house which had been at one time the finest in 
the town, and still retained some remnants of its former 
grandeur, they had reverted entirely to the native customs 
and dress. They spoke only Tagal, and all three of them 
married natives. 

The tendency of the Philippine native to revert to old 
customs is well marked, and I agree with Jagor when he 
says : " Every Indian has an innate inclination to abandon 
the hamlets and retire into the solitude of the woods, 
or live isolated in the midst of his own fields," in fact to 

The Tagals are considered by Wallace as the fourth 
great tribe of the Malay race. He only mentions the 
Tagals, but in fact the population of the Archipelago, 
except the Negritos and some hybrids, belongs to the 
Malay race, although slightly mixed with Chinese and 
Spanish blood in a few localities. They are here and there 
modified by mixture with other races, and everywhere by 
their environment, for they have been Roman Catholics and 
subject to Spanish influence, if not rule, for upwards of 
three centuries. 

They difTer little in physical appearance from the Malays 
proper inhabiting the Peninsula, and although their manners 
and customs are somewhat changed, their nature remains 


the same. They retain all the inherent characteristics of 
the Malay. 

/ The Tagal possesses a great deal of self-respect, and 
his demeanour is quiet and decorous. He is polite to 
others, and expects to be treated politely himself. He is 
averse to rowdiness or horse-play of any kind, and avoids 
giving offence. 

Cliaracteristics — Fam ily L ife. 

For an inhabitant of the tropics he is fairly industrious, 
sometimes even very hard working. 

Those who have seen him poling cascos against the 
stream of the Pasig will admit this. 

He is a keen sportsman, and will readily put his money 
on his favourite horse or game-cock ; he is also addicted to 
other forms of gambling. The position taken by women 
in a community is often considered as a test of the degree 
of civilisation it has attained. Measured by this standard, 
the Tagals come out well, for amongst them the wife 
exerts great influence in the family, and the husband 
rarely completes any important business without her con- 

Crauford considers the equality of the sexes to be 
general throughout the Indian Archipelago, more particu- 
larly in the Island of Celebes, where the inhabitants are the 
most warlike of all. 

The Tagals treat their children with great kindness and 
forbearance, those who are well-off show much anxiety to 
secure a good education for their sons, and even for their 

Parental authority extends to the latest period in life. 
I have seen a man of fifty years come as respectfully as a 
child to kiss the hands of his aged parents when the vesper 
bell sounded, and this notwithstanding the presence of 
several European visitors in the house. 

Children, in return, show great respect to both parents, 
and come morning and evening to kiss their hands. I may 
remark that their manner of kissing is different to ours. 
They place the nose and lips against the cheek or hand 
of the person to be saluted, and draw in the breath 

P 2 

212 thp: inhabitants of the Philippines 

Appearance — Manners. 

The Malays in general are not, perhaps, a handsome 
race, their flat noses disfigure them in the eyes of the 
recently-arrived European or American, and it takes time 
to get accustomed to them. 

Still, their rich brown skin often covers a symmetrical, 
lithe and agile figure, the small hands and feet denoting 
their Turanian origin. 

The youth of both sexes up to the age of puberty are 
not seldom of striking beauty, and their appearance is not 
belied by their behaviour. They are trained in good 
manners from their earliest youth, both by precept and 

Palgrave says of them : " Nowhere are family bonds 
closer drawn, family affections more enduring, than amongst 
the Malay races. ... His family is a pleasing sight, much 
subordination and little restraint, unison in gradation, liberty 
not license. Orderly children, respected parents, women 
subject, but not suppressed, men ruling, but not despotic, 
reverence with kindness, obedience in affection, these form 
a lovable picture, nor by any means a rare one in the 
villages of the Eastern Isles." 

It may here be interesting to note the very contradictory 
opinions that have been expressed upon this subject. 

John Foreman. W. G. Palgrave. 

The Philippine Islands,' p. 194. ' Malay Life in the Philip- 

'^^ > r 7T pines,' p. 146. 

" Home discipline and training Children early trained by pre- 
of manners are quite ignored, cept and example to good man- 
even in the well-to-do families. ners, show less disposition to 
Children are left without control, noise and mischief than is ordi- 
and allowed to do just as they nary elsewhere at their age. 
please, hence they become ill- 
behaved and boorish. 

As will be seen in my text, my own experience rather 
confirms Palgrave's opinion, and I should say that even the 
children of the peasantry would compare favourably both 
in manners and intelligence with the children at the 
Board Schools in London, and to say nothing of Glasgow 
or Liverpool. 

Amongst the Tagals, it is customary when speaking of 


or to a man to use the prefix Si — thus Si Jose, Mr. Joseph 
whilst a woman is spoken of or to as Aling Maria, Miss 
Mary. The word Po is used for Sir. Thus : Oo-po — Yes, 
sir ; Hindi'-po — No, sir ; Uala-po — There is none, sir ; May- 
ro6m-po — There is some, sir. 


The sense of personal dignity and self-respect, the 

dominant feeling in the Malay nature, is shown in the 

Tagals by a general cleanliness in their persons and 

clothing. They usually live near water, and nearly all 

^f^them can swim. 

The heat of the climate makes bathing a pleasure, and 
as the temperature of the sea or river is commonly 83° F., 
a prolonged immersion causes no inconvenience. 

On the morning of a feast-day the number of bathers 
is increased, and at the time of high tide, a very large 
proportion of the population seems to be in the water, both 
sexes and all ages mixing indiscriminately, the adults 
decently covered and all behaving themselves as decorously 
as the bathers at Brighton, Newport, or Atlantic City. 

They have not yet arrived at that precise stage of 
civilisation that develops the Rough, the Larrikin, or the 
Hooligan. Palgrave says : A Malay may be a profligate, 
a gambler, a thief, a robber, or a murderer, he is never 
a cad. 

Palgrave had not great opportunities of knowing the 
Tagals, but I confirm the above opinion, although I do 
not agree with the views on the future of the Philippines, 
and what is best for them, expressed in his fantastic and 
hyphen-infested verbiage, all seemingly written for effect. 


The Tagal is extremely superstitious, and like his 
kinsman, the Dayak, he is a believer in omens, although 
he has not reduced them so completely to a system, and 
three centuries of Christianity have diverted his superstitions 
into other channels. 

In his mind, each cave, each ravine, each mountain, each 
pool, each stream, has its guardian spirit, to offend or to 
startle which may be dangerous. These are the jinni of 
Southern Arabia and Socotra. 


The Balete tree {Fictis Urostigima — Sp.) corresponds 
to our Witch Elm, and certainly at night has a most 
uncanny appearance. Each of these great trees has its 
guardian spirit or Tic-balan. 

Daring, indeed, would be the Indian who would pass 
such a tree, enter a cave, ascend a mountain, or plunge into 
a pool without bowing and uttering the Pasing tabi sa 
nono [By your leave, my Lord] that may appease the 
spirit's wrath, just as the Bedouin of Dhofar cry, "Aleik 
Soubera — aleik soubera," to propitiate the jinni. 

His mental attitude in this respect reminds me of a 
story told me many years ago by a lady residing in Hamp- 
shire. A lady neighbour of hers inquired from her whether 
she taught her children to bow when the Devil's name was 
mentioned. My informant replied in the negative, where- 
upon the lady remarked, " I do, I think it is safer." This 
is the way with the Tagal, he bows because he thinks it is 
safer. If that prudent lady is still alive and may chance to 
read this, she may be pleased to learn that her opinion is 
shared by the whole Malay race. 

Child-birth has its anxieties everywhere, and the more 
artificial the life the woman has led, the more she suffers 
at that critical time. The Tagal woman whose naturally 
supple frame has never been subjected to tight-lacing, nor 
compressed within a tailor-made costume, has a far easier 
time of it than her European sister, but superstition and 
quackery combine to terrify and ill-use her. 

The Patianac, an evil spirit, profits by the occasion, and 
his great delight is to obstruct the birth, or to kill and 
devour the infant. The patianac might be busy elsewhere, 
but from the ridge-pole of the house a bird of ill-omen, 
the dreadful Tic-tic, raises a warning cry, for its office and 
delight is to call the attention of the evil spirit to the 
opportunity of doing mischief Instantly every door and 
window is closed and every chink stopped to prevent its 
entrance, whilst the anxious father and his kinsmen, naked 
as they were born, walk around and underneath the house, 
slashing the air with sticks or bolos to frighten away the 
spirit. Sometimes a man will get up on the ridge-pole to 
drive away the Tic-tic. 

Meanwhile, in the stifling room, it is too often the case 
that violent means are used to expedite the birth, so violent 
indeed, that they sometimes result in the permanent injury 
or in the death of the woman. 


Some years ago the Government instituted an examina- 
tion for midvvives, and only those were allowed the practice 
who had been properly instructed, so that these absurdities 
and cruelties are on the wane, except amongst the poorest 
or in outlying districts. 

The Asiian is merely a cannibal ghost, but the Tagal 
ghost throws stones, a thing I have not heard of a ghost 
doing in Europe. 

All sorts of stories are told about the Asuan, similar to 
ghost stories in other lands. 

About 1 89 1 a house in Malate was stoned night after 
night, and although every effort was made to find out the 
authors, they were never discovered, and the natives stead- 
fastly believed it to be the doing of the Asiiau. 

There is another superstitious idea firmly rooted in the 
minds of the Tagals and other natives, of which the 
following is an instance : A villainous-looking native had 
been captured with some property stolen from my house, 
and was sent to the lock-up at the police station, from 
whence he promptly escaped, but was recaptured later. 
My coachman, a most meritorious servant who had been 
with me for years, assured me in an impressive manner, 
and with an air of conviction, that the culprit was one of 
those wizards who are able to pass through a keyhole by 
drawing themselves out into the thinness of a piece of 
string, and my other servants accepted this view implicitly. 

The famous Tidisanes or bandits, thoroughly believe in 
the power of the Antin-Antin or amulet to render them 
invulnerable to bullets. It is, indeed, remarkable that not- 
withstanding the numbers of these criminals who have been 
shot by the Guardia Civil with their Antin-Antin upon 
them, this absurd belief should flourish, but there is no 
doubt it does. These charms consist of any sort of necro- 
mancers' rubbish, or are sometimes writings in invocations, 
usually worn round the neck under the clothing. 

The profession of the Roman Catholic religion has 
perhaps helped this superstition to linger on, for the 
wearing of scapularies is common, especially amongst the 
women. These articles are manufactured for the priests and 
some are sent out to Antipolo, to be blessed at the shrine 
of Nuestra Sefiora de Buen Viage y de la Paz, and sold to 
the pilgrims who crowd in thousands to this shrine in May 
of each year. 

A Tagal woman sometimes wears as many as three of 


these scapularies hung from silk threads round her neck 
and covered by her upper garment. They usually dispose 
two in front, where they conceive the danger is greatest, 
and one on the back, as a further precaution against an 
attack from the rear. 

Wearing these holy amulets, and having crossed herself 
and uttered a prayer before coming downstairs in the 
morning, the Tagal wife or maid feels that she has done 
all she can, and that if any backsliding should occur, during 
the day, it will not be her fault. 

She believes greatly in lucky or holy numbers — I heard 
the following story related by a native lady to a native 
priest when going to Batangas by steamer. 

The lady was telling the priest of her husband's illness 
(it appeared to have been congestion of the lungs), and she 
prepared and applied a poultice of three heads of garlic in 
honour of the Three Persons of the Blessed Trinity ; this 
not producing the desired effect, she then made a poultice 
of five heads of garlic, in honour of the Five Wounds of our 
Blessed Saviour, and successively others of seven heads, 
in honour of the Seven Pains of the Blessed Virgin ; twelve 
heads in honour of the Twelve Apostles, and last of all 
a poultice of thirty-three heads of garlic in honour of the 
Thirty-three years our Blessed Saviour remained on earth. 
The priest had nodded approval as she went on, but as she 
stopped he said : "And then .'' " To which the lady replied, 
" Then he died." 

This poor man came off easily, for in some cases people 
who suffer from fits and other diseases are thought to be 
possessed by devils, and are severely beaten to drive out 
the evil spirit. The patient does not always escape with 
his life. 

The women often dream of lucky numbers in the 
Manila Lottery and make every endeavour to purchase 
the number they have dreamt of 

Amongst the Christian superstitions may be mentioned 
the feast of San Pascual Bail6n at Obando. Those who 
attend this function are commonly the rowdier class of 
inhabitants of the Capital, and they go mostly on foot, 
making music and dancing on the way. They also dance 
in the courtyard in front of the church, not forgetting to 
refresh themselves with strong drink in the meanwhile. 

This is not at all an edifying spectacle, for the dancers 
are covered with dust and with the perspiration from their 


Vl'ofiuc p. 216. 


active exertions. I do not know the legend that gives 
occasion to this curious form of devotion. Occasionally, 
and especially during Holy Week, another form of penitence 
is practised by the natives. I remember, about 1892. seeing 
one of these penitents, a man having a mask on his face, 
the upper part of his body bare, and a long chain fastened 
to one ankle and dragging on the ground behind him. In 
one hand he bore a flagellum with which he from time to 
time lashed himself on the shoulders, which bore evident 
marks of the discipline they had received. A youth who 
followed him occasionally jerked the chain, throwing the 
penitent violently at full length upon the dusty road. This 
form of penitence is not approved, however, by the priests, 
for when I called on the parish priest, the same evening, 
I mentioned the circumstance to him, and he directed the 
penitent to be locked up, to stop what he rightly termed a 

On many occasions the natives had got up a religious 
excitement, and great gatherings have taken place at some 
spot where a miraculous appearance of the Blessed Virgin, 
or some supernatural manifestation has been alleged to 
have occurred. 

All these affairs have been somewhat sceptically in- 
quired into by the priests under a general order to this 
effect issued by the archbishop, and so far as my experience 
goes, the excessive religious ardour of the natives has 
rather been checked than stimulated. 

When writing about the Visayas I shall have more to 
say about misdirected religious zeal. The Tagals practise 
circumcision as a hygienic measure, and not as a religious 
rite. The operation is usually performed at the age of 
fourteen by a companion or friend of the patient, and a 
sharp flint or piece of volcanic glass (obsidian) is used for 
this purpose. From what I have heard, this custom is 
really maintained by the women, who refuse their favours 
to the uncircumcised of their own nation, though with 
foreigners they are more complaisant. 


In cursing, the Tagal displays a directness quite worthy 
of the Anglo-Saxon. All his remarks are very much to 
the point, and would have earned the approval of the late 
lamented and reverend author of the Ingoldsby Legends. 


Leaving out the world-wide reflections upon the virtues of 
an opponent's female ancestry, since these appear to belong 
indiscriminately to all nations, the principal Tagal curses 
are as follows : — 

1. May an evil wind blow upon you. 

2. May the earth open and swallow you up. 

3. May the lightning strike you. 

4. May the alligator eat you. 

The superiority of the Tagal style as compared with the 
French Mortbleu, Ventre bleu, must be apparent to all 
unprejudiced observers. The Tagal has drawn all his 
curses from the grand and awful operations of nature in 
his own country, except the last, where he invokes the 
dreaded saurian, the most fearsome inhabitant of the 
Philippine swamps, rivers, and coasts — formerly venerated 
by his ancestors and respectfully addressed by them as nono, 
or grandfather. 

Under American guidance and example, I think the 
Tagals quite capable of developing a startling vocabulary 
of swear-words, and in course of time rivalling their in- 
structors in profanity, with a touch of their old style to 
give a little local colour. 


Courtship is sometimes a long business amongst the 
Tagals. It is still customary in the country districts for 
the impecunious candidate for matrimony to serve the 
father of the damsel he desires to wed for a period which 
may extend to a couple of years or more. He is called a 
Catipado, and is expected to make himself generally 
useful, and to take a hand in any labour that may be 
going on, sowing or reaping, mending the roof, or patching 
the canoe. 

It is his privilege to assist the girl of his choice in her 
labours. The girls of a household are expected to husk the 
rice for the next day's use. This is done in the cool of the 
evening, out of doors, a wooden mortar and long heavy 
pestle being used. It is a well-recognised occasion for the 
lover to assist and entertain his sweetheart. 

Very pretty do the village maidens look, as, lightly 
clothed in almost diaphanous garments, they stand beside 
the mortars plying the pestle, alternately rising on tiptoe, 


stretching the lithe figure to its full height and reach, then 
bending swiftly to give force to the blow. 

No attitude could display to more advantage the 
symmetry of form which is the Tagal maiden's heritage, 
and few sights are more pleasing than a group of these 
tawny damsels husking paddy midst chat and laughter, 
while a tropical full moon pours its effulgence on their 
glistening tresses and rounded arms. 


But let us return to the Catipado. He must be very 
careful not to give cause of offence to the elders of the 
family, more especially towards the end of his term, as 
there may be a disposition amongst them to dismiss him, 
and take on another to begin a new term. In fact, many 
natives have shown themselves so unwilling to consent to 
their daughter's marriage, when no sufficient reason could 
be given for their refusal, that the Governor-General, repre- 
senting the Crown, is entrusted with a special power of 
granting the paternal consent in such cases. 

No regular marriage can be celebrated whilst the girl is 
a minor, without the father's consent. 

When this is refused, and the patience of the lovers is 
exhausted, the girl leaves her father's house and is de- 
posited in the house of the fiscal, or churchwarden, under 
the care of his wife. 

A petition on stamped paper is then prepared, reciting 
the circumstances ; this goes to the parish priest and to the 
Gobernadorcillo, who require the father to state the grounds 
of his refusal. If they are satisfied that no good reason 
exists, the petition, with their approval noted on it, goes to 
the Governor-General, and in due time a notification 
appears in the official Gazette that the Governor-General 
has been pleased to overrule the father's negative, and a 
license (on stamped paper also) for the marriage to be 
celebrated, is delivered to the priest. This procedure is 
very necessary, but it has the disadvantage of being slow 
and expensive, so that in some cases, instead of adopting 
this course, the youthful pair allow themselves some ad- 
vances of the privileges of matrimony, and perhaps there 
arrives a time when the obdurate parent finds himself 
obliged to consent to legalise an accomplished fact to avoid 
an open scandal. 


The erring damsel, however, may think herself lucky if 
she escapes a fatherly correction laid on with no grudging 
hand, before the reluctant consent is granted. 

The priest will of course require the youthful sinners to 
confess and do penance for their previousness before he will 
marry them. 

The marriage ceremony is a very simple one, and 
usually takes place after early Mass. The priest fixes 
the fee according to the means of the party ; it is often 
a substantial one. After the ceremony comes a Catapusati 
or assembly, when the relatives and friends are entertained. 
There will be music, and unless the priest disapproves of 
dancing, that will be indulged in. The Augustinians mostly 
allow dancing, but the Dominicans often object to it as an 
immoral amusement. 

The house will be hung with bright-coloured cloths and 
paper lanterns ; the table loaded with refreshments, both 
light and heavy. 

Wedding Feasts. 

Roast pig is a standing dish at these feasts, the animal 
being roasted whole, on a spit over a fire made on the 
ground. A professional roaster superintends the operation, 
and the pig is brought to a fine even colour all over. 
Sometimes there are roast turkeys or roast mutton and 
kid, possibly beef cooked in various ways, surely fish of 
different kinds, fresh, salted, or smoked ; the indispensable 
boiled rice or morisqueta, and an abundance of sweets, fruits 
in syrup, guava jelly, and Dutch cheese. There will be 
chocolate and perhaps coffee. As to drinks, besides some 
native brews, there will be Norwegian or German export 
beer, or Tennant's beer in stone bottles, square-face gin, 
and Spanish red wine (Vino Tinto). 

Unlimited Buyo, cigarettes and cigars are provided. All 
these things are hospitably pressed upon all comers, espe- 
cially upon any European present. If his politeness 
prevents his refusing this miscellaneous assortment, unless 
he is favoured with the digestion of an ostrich, he will rue 
it next day, and perhaps for several days. The worthy 
priest is naturally in the place of honour, and like the wise 
man he mostly is, he perhaps brings, slung under his habit, 
or sends beforehand, a capacious leather bottle, with a 


supply of generous wine direct from some convent vineyard 
on the peninsula, a pure natural wine, undefiled and un- 
fortified by German industrial spirit. A tall and portly 
Augustine monk, in his spotless and ample iwhite robes, 
presents a very imposing and apostolic appearance, and 
looks quite in his place at the head of the table. The host 
seldom sits down with his guests, but busies himself 
attending to their wants. 




The houses of the well-to-do natives are large and airy, 
and are kept scrupulously clean under the vigilant eye of 
the mistress. 

Hospitality is a characteristic of the Tagal. According 
to his means he keeps open house on religious feast-days 
or on family festivals, and readily invites to his table at any 
time travellers who may be passing through the town. 
Having enjoyed their hospitality on many occasions, I can 
testify to their kindness and liberality. They placed at 
my disposal their riding-ponies, vehicles or canoes, and did 
all in their power to show me anything remarkable in their 

The Tagals make good soldiers, and can march long 
distances barefooted. Morga remarks how quickly they 
learned to use the arquebus or musket in the wars of the 
conquest. They gave proofs of their pluck and endurance 
when assisting the French in Tonquin. If well led they 
will advance regardless of danger ; when once engaged 
they become frenzied and blood-thirsty, most difficult to 
restrain. They are not improved by being made to wear 
gloves, boots, helmets, and European uniforms. 

In this they are not singular, for the Ceylon Rifle 
Regiment (a Malay corps) was utterly ruined, and never 
did any good after being put into boots and gloves by 
some narrow-minded martinet. 

As sailors they are unsurpassed in the East. They 
navigate their schooners and lorchas with much skill, 
although the rigging and outfit is seldom kept in thorough 
good order unless they have a Spanish captain. 

They serve both as sailors and firemen in the fine 
flotilla of coasting-steamers belonging to Manila, and they 


manned all the smaller vessels of the Spanish Navy in the 

Most of the British and foreign steamers in the far East 
carry four Manila men as quarter-masters. They are con- 
sidered to be the most skilful helmsmen. Their ability as 
mechanics is remarkable. They bear out entirely Morga's 
description of them : " Of good talent for anything they 

They will, without any European supervision, heave 
down wooden sailing-vessels up to about looo tons, and 
repair the keel, or strip, caulk, and re-copper the bottom. 
I have often seen this done. They build from the excellent 
hard wood of the country, brigantines, schooners, lorchas, 
also cascos, and other craft for inland navigation and shallow 
waters. These latter vessels are most ingeniously con- 
trived, and admirably adapted to the conditions under 
which they are to be used, and although not decked, carry 
their cargoes dry, and in good order, in the wettest weather. 
They make the most graceful canoes, and paddle or punt 
them with remarkable dexterity. 

In Manila and Cavite are to be found a fair number of 
native engine-fitters, turners, smiths and boiler-makers. 

There must be some 400 steam sugar-mills in the 
islands (besides 6000 cattle-mills). The engine-drivers and 
firemen are all natives, and mostly Tagals. 

There are also in the capital large numbers of native 
house-carpenters, quarrymen, stone-masons, and some brick- 
layers and brick-makers. 

Curiously enough, foundry work is not much done by 
Tagals, although when Legaspi arrived in Luzon he not 
only found cannon mounted at Manila, but there was a 
cannon-foundry there, and another at Tondo. 

There are foundries at the latter place to this day 
belonging to Chinese half-castes, but church bells are more 
to their way now than cannon. They, however, cast small 
brass mortars with handles like quart pots, which are used 
for firing salutes at the feasts of the church. But I think 
most of the workmen were then, and are now, Chinese. 

They make their own gunpowder, and fireworks of all 
kinds. They are inordinately fond of these, and get up 
very creditable displays. They are careless in handling 
them, and I was eye-witness of an explosion of fireworks 
during a waiter fete, on the passing in front of the governor's 
palace at Malacafian, when a number of people were killed. 


I never learned how many had perished, and the news- 
papers were forbidden to enlarge upon it. 

Excellent carriages are built in Manila entirely by 
native labour, the carromatas, or two-wheeled vehicles 
used for travelling, being made in the suburbs, or in 

Carriage-building is an important trade, for an incredible 
number of vehicles of all sorts are used in Manila. 

Of an evening, in the Luneta, some hundreds may be 
seen, and on one occasion, at the races of the Jockey Club 
in Santa Mesa, two thousand vehicles were reported to be 

Painting and decorating is executed by Manila men in 
excellent style. This art was taught them by Alberoni, 
and other Italians. Their pupils have covered the walls of 
many buildings with frescoes in the Italian style, very fairly 
done. There is much scope for their art in decorating 
altars and shrines. 

The Tagals also show some talent for sculpture, as any 
visitor to Manila can see for himself by inspecting the 
Jesuit Church, which is a marvel of patient artistic labour, 
having taken eleven years to construct. Some of the 
carving there, however, is so delicate and minutely detailed, 
that it appears more suitable for a show case in a museum 
than for the adornment of a place of worship. Of course, 
every detail of design is due to the Jesuits themselves, 
amongst whom talented men of every profession can be 

As a fisherman, the Tagal excels, and the broad expanse 
of Manila Bay, some 700 square miles in area, gives ample 
scope for his ingenuity. He practises every kind of fishing 
Corrales de Pesca, or fish-stakes within the five-fathom line, 
casting nets and seines in the shallow water, huge sinking 
nets attached to bamboo shear-legs mounted on rafts in the 
estuaries, drift nets and line-fishing in the deeper parts of 
the bay. 

From Tondo, from Paranaque, Las Pinas, Bacoor, and 
Cavite Viejo, and from dozens of other villages, go hundreds 
of large canoes, crowded with men, and heaped up with 
nets, to fish near the San Nicolas Bank, or about Corregidor 
Island, and they often return with large catches. Some 
fish by night, with torch and spear ; in fact, they seem to 
be quite at home at any kind of fishing. 

The nets and sails of the canoes, and the clothes of the 


fishermen, are all tanned by them with the bark of the 
camanchile tree. 

The salting, drying, or smoking of the fish caught in 
the bay is quite an extensive business. The smoked 
sardines, or tmapd, are very tasty, as also the pickled 
mullet roes caW&d B agon de Lisa. But the small shrimps 
fermented in a jar, and brought to a particular stage of 
putrefaction,* much appreciated by the natives, will not 
suit European or American tastes. 

The vast Bay of Manila holds fish and mammals of all 
sorts and sizes, from small fry to that huge but harmless 
monster of the deep, RJiinodo7i tipicus, with a mouth like 
the opening of a hansom cab, scooping in jelly-fish by the 

The peje-rey, like a smelt, the lenguado, or sole, the 
li'sa, or mullet, the bacoco, corbina, pampano, and others 
whose names I have forgotten, are excellent. The oysters 
are good, but very small. Prawns are excellent, large and 
cheap. Crabs are good, but large ones are not plentiful. 
Clawless lobsters are caught amongst the rocks of Corre- 
gidor and Mariveles. The largest turtle I have ever seen 
was caught off Malabon. It can be seen in the Jesuits' 
Museum, Manila. 

Sharks of all sorts, enormous saw-fish, f hideous devil- 
fish,:!: and monstrous conger eels, as well as poisonous black 
and yellow sea-snakes, abound, so that the fisherman does 
not have everything his own way. Amongst these men 
are to be found some excellent divers. I have found them 
quite able to go down to the keel of a large ship and report 
whether any damage has been done. Where a sheet of 
copper has been torn off, they have nailed on a new sheet, 
getting in two or three nails every time they went down. I 
enquired from one of these men who had frequently dived 
for me, when a European diver with diving-gear could not 
be obtained, if he was not afraid of sharks .'' He answered, 
" No es hora del tiburon " — it is not the sharks' time — and 
I found he considered that he was very fairly safe from the 
sharks between ten and four. Before ten and after four 
was a dangerous time, as the sharks were on the look-out 
for a meal. I cannot say that I should like to trust to this, 
especially as I have seen sharks about at other times, and 
one afternoon, in the bay, had to keep off a hammer- 

* The Blachang of the Malays. f Pristiophoridce. 

X Raiida;. 


headed-shark from coming near a British diver who was 
examining the rudder of a steamer, by firing at it from the 
stern. Some sharks are heavy and slow-moving creatures, 
but the hammer-headed kind are endowed with a surprising 
activity, and twist and turn like an eel. 

My native diver informed me that he was much more 
afraid of the Manta than of any shark, and that once when 
he was diving for some purpose — I do not recollect when — 
at the bottom a shade fell on him, and, on looking up, he 
beheld an enormous manta right above him — in his words, 
" as big as a lighter." However, it passed on, and he was 
able to regain the surface. 

Perhaps- the most remarkable talent possessed by the 
Tagal is his gift for instmmental music. 

Each parish has its brass band supplied with European 
instruments, the musicians generally wearing a quasi- 
military uniform. If the village is a rich one, there is 
usually a string band as well. They play excellently, as 
do the military bands. Each infantry battalion had its 
band, whilst that of the Peninsular Artillery, of ninety 
performers, under a band-master holding the rank of 
lieutenant, was one of the finest bands I have ever heard. 
There were few countries where more music could be heard 
gratis than in the Philippines, and for private dances these 
bands could be hired at moderate rates. 

The Tagal is also a good agriculturist. According to 
his lights, he cultivates paddy with great care. It is all 
raised in seed-plots, the soil of which is carefully prepared, 
and fenced about. The fields are ploughed and harrowed 
whilst covered with water, so that the surface is reduced to 
soft mud. When the ground is ready for planting, the 
whole population turns out, and, being supplied with the 
young shoots in bundles, of which tally is kept, proceed to 
plant each individual shoot of paddy by hand. 

Ankle-deep in the soft mud of the paddy-fields stand 
long rows of bare-legged men, women and children, each 
in a stooping position, holding against the body with the 
left hand a large bundle of rice-plants, incessantly and 
rapidly seizing a shoot with the right hand, and plunging 
it into the black slime with the forefinger extended. 

Hour after hour the patient toil goes on, and day after 
day, in all the glare of the burning sun, reflected and 
intensified from the surface of the black water, till the whole 
vast surface has been planted. The inatandang-sa-7iayay 

-w^ '■ 


5?&i'%. * . ft- v^r^' ^ta 


or village elder, then announces how many millions of rice 
shoots have been put in. The labour is most exhausting, 
from the stooping position, which is obligatory, and because 
the eyes become inflamed from the reflection of the sun on 
the black water. As the paddy is planted during the rainy 
season, it often happens that the work is done under a 
tropical downpour instead of a blazing sun. 

When driving along a road through paddy-fields in 
October, it seems incredible that every blade of that 
luxuriant crop has been transplanted by hand. Yet the 
people who do this are branded as lazy. I think that they 
are quite ready to work for a sufficient inducement. When- 
ever I had works to execute I never experienced any 
difficulty in obtaining men. I made it a rule to pay every 
man with my own hands every Saturday his full wages 
without deductions. On Monday morning, if I wanted 
300 men, there would be 500 to pick and choose from. I 
should like to see some of their depreciators try an hour's 
work planting paddy, or poling a casco up stream. 

The undulating nature of the ground renders it neces- 
sary to divide paddy land into small plots of irregular 
outline at varying levels, divided from each other by ridges 
of earth called pildpiles, so as to retain the rain or irrigation 
water, allowing it to descend slowly from level to level till 
it reaches its outlet at the lowest point. The Tagals fully 
justify their Turanian origin by the skill and care which 
they show in irrigation. About Manila, the sacdte, or 
meadow-grass, which is the principal food of the thousands 
of ponies in the city, is cultivated on lands which are exactly 
at a level to be flooded by the spring-tides. 

The mango-tree is carefully cultivated, and the fruit is, 
to some extent, forced by lighting fires of leaves and twigs 
under these trees every evening in the early part of the 
year to drive off insects, and give additional warmth. 

In Batangas and La Luguna, and, to some extent, in 
Bulacan, the Tagals cultivate the sugar-cane successfully. 

But where they really shine, where all their care is 
lavished, where nothing is too much trouble, is in the 
cultivation of the buyo (Piper betel). This is a climbing 
plant, and is grown on sticks like hops. There were many 
plantations of this near Pineda, which I frequently visited. 
It is grown in small fields, enclosed by hedges or by rows 
of trees to keep off" the wind. 

The soil is carefully prepared, and all weeds removed. 

Q 2 


As the tendrils grow up, the sticks are placed for them. 
The plants arc watered by hand, and leaf by leaf carefully 
examined every morning to remove all caterpillars or other 
insects. The plants are protected from the glare of the sun 
by mat-shades supported on bamboos. 

The ripe leaves are gathered fresh every morning, and 
taken to market, where they find a ready sale at remunera- 
tive prices for chewing with the areca nut, and a pinch of 
slaked shell lime. 

Whenever I have had Tagal hunters with me deer- 
shooting, I have been struck with their knowledge of the 
natural history of their locality. They thoroughly under- 
stood the habits of the game, and almost always foretold 
correctly the direction from which the deer would approach 
the guns. 

They have names for every animal and bird, and for 
the different ages or conditions, or size of antlers, of the 

Even insects and reptiles are named by them ; they 
could give details of their habits, and knew whether they 
were poisonous or dangerous. 

They always showed themselves greatly interested in 
sport, and much appreciated a good shot. They spoke of 
a gun that killed well as a hot gun (baril mai'nit). If they 
were trusted with a gun they were very reluctant to spend 
a cartridge unless for a dead certainty. If two cartridges 
are given to a hunter, he will bring in two deer or pigs, 
otherwise he will apologise for wasting a cartridge, and 
explain how it happened. 

Their usual way of taking game is to set strong nets of 
abaca in the woods in the form of a V, then the beaters and 
dogs drive the game towards the hunters, who are concealed 
near the apex, and who kill the deer or wild pigs with their 
lances whilst entangled in the nets. 

I have found the Tagals very satisfactory as domestic 
servants, although not so hard-working as the Ilocanos. 
Some of them could clean glass or plate as well as an 
English butler, and could lay the table for a dinner party 
and ornament tastefully with flowers and ferns, folding the 
napkins like a Parisian waiter. 

They could also write out the in^tiu (their orthography 
having been previously corrected), and serve the dinner and 
wines in due sequence without requiring any directions 
durinsr the meal. 

[ /'() /ace p. 229. 


Some of them remained in my service the whole time I 
was in the Philippines ; one of them, Paulino Morillo, came 
to England with me in charge of my two sons, and after- 
wards made three voyages to Cuba with me. I gratefully 
acknowledge his faithful service. His portrait is appended. 

I did not find them sufficiently punctual and regular as 
cooks, nor did they make their purchases in the market to 
as much advantage as the Chinese cooks, who never bid 
one against another to raise the price. 

As clerks and store-keepers I found the Tagals honest, 
assiduous, and well-behaved. As draughtsmen they were 
fairly skilful in drawing from hand sketches, and excelled 
in copying or tracing, but were quite untrustworthy in 
taking out quantities and computing. Some of them could 
write beautiful headings, or design ornamental title-pages. 
I have by me some of their work that could not be done 
better even in Germany or France. But the more skilful 
they were the more irregular was their attendance, and the 
more they had learned the worse they behaved. 

When doing business with the Tagals, I found that the 
elder men could be trusted. If I gave them credit, which 
was often the case, for one or two years, I could depend 
upon the money being paid when due, unless some calamity 
such as a flood or a conflagration had rendered it absolutely 
impossible for them to find the cash. In such a case (which 
seldom happened) they would advise me beforehand, and 
perhaps bring a portion of the money, giving a pagart\ 
bearing interest, for the remainder, and never by any 
possibility denying the debt. I never made a bad debt 
amongst them, and gladly testify to their punctilious honesty. 
This idea of the sacredness of an obligation seems to prevail 
amongst many of the Malay races, even among the pagan 
savages, as I had occasion to observe when I visited the 
Tagbaniias in Palawan (Paragua). They certainly did not 
learn this from the Spaniards. 

The More Instrnction the less Honesty. 

When dealing with the younger men who had been 
educated in Manila, in Hong Kong, or even in Europe, I 
found that this idea had been eradicated from them, and 
that no sufficient sense of honour had been implanted in 
its stead. 

In fact, I may say that, whilst the unlettered agri- 


culturist, with his old-fashioned dress, and quiet, dignified 
manner, inspired me with the respect due to an honest and 
worthy man, the feeling evolved from a discussion with the 
younger and educated men, dressed in European clothes, 
who had been pupils in the Ateneo Municipal, or in Santo 
Tomas, was less favourable, and it became evident to mc 
that, although they might be more instructed than their 
fathers, they were morally below them. Either their 
moral training had been deficient, or their natures are 
not improved by education, I usually preferred to do 
business with them on a cash basis, 

Uftsuitable Training. 

Dare I, at the tail-end of the nineteenth century, in the 
days of Board Schools, County Councils, conscientious ob- 
jectors, and Hooligans, venture to recall to mind a saying 
of that grand old Conservative, the Peruvian Solomon, 
Tupac Inca Yupanqui ? " Science should only be taught 
to those of generous blood, for the meaner sort are only 
puffed up, and rendered vain and arrogant by it. Neither 
should such mingle in the affairs of state, for by that means 
high offices are brought into disrepute," * 

That great monarch's words exactly express my con- 
clusions about the young Tagals and other natives. 

To take a young native lad away from his parents, to 
place him in a corrupted capital like Manila, and to cram 
him with the intricacies of Spanish law, while there is 
probably, not in all those who surround him, one single 
honest and upright man he can look up to for guidance and 
example, is to deprive him of whatever principles of action 
he may once have possessed, whilst giving him no guide 
for his future conduct. 

He acquires the European vices without the virtues ; 
loses his native modesty and self-respect, and develops too 
often into a contemptible //V^r-//^//^, or pettifogger, instead 
of becoming an honest farmer. 

The more educated Tagals are fond of litigation, and 
with the assistance of native or half-caste lawyers will carry 
on the most frivolous and vexatious lawsuit with every 
artifice that cunning and utter unscrupulousness can suggest. 
The corrupt nature of the Spanish courts is a mainstay to 

* ' Comentarios Rdales.' Garcilasso Inca de la Vega. 


such people. Although they may be possessed of ample 
means litigants often obtain from the court permission to 
sue a foreigner m. forma pauperis. 

They are unscrupulous about evidence, and many will 
perjure themselves or bring false witnesses without shame. 
It is said that blank stamped paper of any year can be 
obtained for a sufficient price for the purpose of forging 
documents relating to the sale of land ; as there are people 
who regularly keep it for this purpose. 

The feeling of envy is strong within them, and any 
Spaniard or foreigner who appears to be succeeding in an 
industrial enterprise in the provinces, such as planting or 
mining, is sure, sooner or later, to be attacked by the petti- 
foggers or their men of straw, and he will be bled heavily 
when he comes before the courts, and perhaps have to go 
to the Court of Appeal or even to the Tribunal Supremo 
in Madrid before he can obtain a verdict in his favour. 

The credulity of the Tagal is remarkable ; he has on 
occasion given way to outbursts of ferocity, involving death 
and destruction to numbers of innocent people. 

In 1820, during an epidemic of cholera, he was led to 
believe that this strange sickness had been produced by the 
foreigners, who had poisoned the water. An indiscriminate 
massacre of foreigners was the consequence of this calumny, 
and but few escaped. The authorities, always prompt to 
repress uprisings against the Government, allowed time for 
the foreigners to be massacred before they interfered. It 
is not easy to say how many English, French, or Americans 
met their deaths at the hands of the populace, for such 
details are never allowed to be published. 

I may say, however, that one should not be too hard on 
the Tagals for this crime, since at a much later date a 
massacre of priests occurred in Madrid, on account of a 
similar belief It was started because a lad, the servant of 
a priest, was seen to throw some white powder into the 
Fuente Castellana. I have not at hand the details of this 
massacre, but the friars were slaughtered like pigs. 

In the dreadful epidemic of cholera in 1882, the natives 
behaved very well, and I must give General Primo de 
Rivera credit for keeping strict order and promptly 
organising the construction of temporary hospitals, the 
inspection of every parish of the city, the conveyance of 
the sick to hospital, and the burial of the dead. It was 
done under military direction, and with the assistance of the 


priests, the civil authorities, and the principal inhabitants. 
No disturbances occurred owing to the strong hand of 
the Governor-General, although some of the evil-disposed 
natives began to murmur about the doctors carrying about 
the disease. 

The mortality was dreadful ; I believe that some 30,000 
people lost their lives in the city and province of Manila in 
three or four months. In order to nurse the sick and bury 
the vast number of dead, it was necessary to employ the 
convicts and prisoners. All these people behaved remark- 
ably well, although many succumbed to the disease. The 
survivors were pardoned outright, or had their sentences 
reduced. If the Governor-General had shown signs of 
weakness, the horrors of 1820 might have been repeated. 

To give a better idea of the credulity of the Tagals and 
other natives, I may say that in 1868 telegrams were 
received in Manila {ind Hong Kong), which were made 
public in the islands, announcing the Spanish revolution of 
September, and the news, with stupendous exaggerations, 
reached the remotest villages and the most miserable huts. 
A general and indelible idea took possession of the minds 
of the natives that Revolution (they thought it was a new 
emperor or a great personage) had decreed that all were 
equal, that there should be no difference between Indians 
and Spaniards, that the latter had to return to Spain and 
Indians be substituted in all employments, and that the 
tribute would be greatly reduced. That there would be no 
conscription nor corvee (personal work), that the Pope would 
name several Indian bishops, and that the Spanish priests 
would return to the Peninsula. That a new captain-general 
would arrive who would marry a native lady, who would be 
made a princess, that their children would be kings and 
sovereigns of the Philippine Empire. 

All this was confirmed by prophecies, by dreams, and 
revelations, and great miracles by the Virgin of Antipolo and 
of St. Joseph, and other patrons of the Indies, not omitting 
St. Peter, for whom the native clergy profess a profound 
veneration, and who is the patron saint of a brotherhood 
which has caused much trouble in the Philippines. 

General Gandara, informed of all these absurdities by 
the friars, did not fail to apypreciate the immense importance 
of the movement which, like the teachings of the so-called 
gods of Panay and Samar who collected thousands of 
followers, might produce a general insurrection. He there- 


fore took due precautions, and invited all the Spaniards in 
the Philippines, without distinction of party, in support of 
the Government constituted in Spain. There was, however, 
much agitation and much travelling to and fro amongst the 
native clergy and the pettifogging lawyers. It was, how- 
ever, not till 1872 that the conspirators succeeded in pro- 
ducing the mutiny of Cavite, which was quickly suppressed, 
with much slaughter of the mutineers. 

The chief amusement of the Tagal is cock-fighting. I 
shall not describe this well-known sport, but will remark 
that it provides no inconsiderable revenue. The right of 
building and running the cock-pits of each province is 
farmed out to Chinese or Chinese half-breeds, and no 
combats may take place except in these places. They are 
opened after Mass on Sundays and feast-days, and on some 
other days by special leave from the authorities. The love 
of this sport and the hope of gain is so general that the 
majority of the natives of Manila are breeders of game- 
cocks, which they tend with assiduous care, and artisans 
often carry their favourite birds to their work and tether 
them in the shade, where they can keep them in view. 
Horse-fights occasionally take place. The ponies of the 
Philippines, although not usually vicious to man, will 
fight savagely with each other, and inflict severe bites. I 
remember a case where two ponies harnessed to a victoria 
began fighting and a Guardia Civil attempted to separate 
them, when one of the ponies seized him by the thigh, 
lifted him off his feet, and shook him as a terrier might 
shake a rat ; the flesh of the man's thigh was torn away 
and the bone left bare. This dreadful wound caused his 
death. The occurrence took place in front of the church of 
Binondo in Manila. Bull fights have been an utter failure 
in Manila, although many attempts have been made to 
establish them. Plying kites is a great amusement with 
young and old in the early months of the year, when the 
N.E. monsoon blows. Fights are organised : the competing 
kites have crescent-shaped pieces of steel attached to the 
tails, and the competitor who can cut the string of his 
opponent's kite by causing his own to swoop suddenly 
across it, is the winner. Betting on the result is common. 
The Tagals are also fond of the theatre, and some years 
ago there was a Tagal theatre in Binondo where comedies 
in that language were played. I have also met strolling 
players in the country towns. 


But of all kinds of shows a good circus is the one that 
fetches his last dollar out of the Tagal. Guiseppc Chiarini 
reaped a silver harvest in Manila on both occasions he 
pitched his tents there. His advance agent, Maya, a 
Chilian, paved the way for success, and the pompous 
announcement that Chiarini was born in the sacred city 
of Rome, greatly impressed the natives, who flocked in 
thousands to his circus. Chiarini considered himself able 
to tame the most vicious horse, and purchased a fine Manila 
pony that no one could manage. The beast, however, was 
not subdued by his powers, and, seizing the tamer's cheek, 
bit off a large piece. 

On feast days in the larger towns, open-air plays are 
sometimes given, and what with preparations, rehearsals, 
and performance, absorb the attention of a large number of 
the inhabitants for a couple of months. I witnessed a very 
notable performance of this kind some years ago at Balayan 
in the province of Batangas, the characters being played by 
the sons and daughters of the principal people there. The 
subject was taken from the ' Wars of Grenada.' In the 
first act we saw a Christian king and his court, also his only 
and peerless daughter. After these had had their say, an 
ambassador from the Moslem king was announced, and the 
king summoned his council to consider the communication. 
He took his seat upon the throne, with grey-bearded coun- 
cillors on each side. The Moslem envoy, and his suite and 
escort, entered on horseback and very unnecessarily galloped 
about and gave an exhibition of their horsemanship. Then 
the envoy, still on horseback, harangued the king, and 
arrogantly demanded the hand of the beauteous princess 
for his master, threatening war to the knife in case of 
refusal. He then retired to his camp. 

Next came the discussion of the demand which the 
grey-beards think it hopeless to resist. The Moslem envoy 
was sent for, and amid great grief the princess was about to 
be confided to his care, when there rushed in a young 
Christian warrior and his followers, who swore they would 
never allow a Christian princess to wed a Pa}mim, and 
dismissed the envoy with contumelious remarks. He retired 
vowing vengeance. All this occupied a long time, and I 
did not remain for the rest. I think it took two days to 
act. But from the volleys of musketry and firing of rockets 
and mortars which I heard, a sanguinary war must have 
been waged and many of the characters must have perished. 


The play was acted in a more spirited way than usual ; 
some of the male performers declaimed their parts with 
energy. Some were mounted on fine ponies, and were well 
got up and armed. 

The girls' dresses were rich, and they wore a great deal 
of jewellery. Some of the princesses were very handsome 
girls. There is a sort of a superstition that any girl per- 
forming in one of these pieces is sure to be married within 
a year. This makes them very ready to undertake a part, 
as they obtain an excellent opportunity to display their 
charms to advantage, and so help to fulfil the prediction. 
The play was witnessed by the mass of the population of 
Balayan and by numerous visitors from the neighbouring 
towns. It was considered a very successful performance, 
and it carried my memory over the wide Pacific to Peru, 
where I have seen similar plays acted by the country people 
in the Plaza of Huacho. 

Tagal Liter attire. 

Tagal literature does not amount to very much, and the 
policy of the Government of late years has been to teach 
Spanish as well as the native dialects in the schools. This 
did not meet the approval of the old school of priests ; but 
many of the younger ones have accepted the Government 
view. In the Exhibition of the Philippines, Madrid, 1887, 
Don Vicente Barrantes showed twenty volumes of grammars 
and vocabularies of the Philippine dialects, and thirty-one 
volumes of popular native poetry, besides two volumes of 
native plays. The Reverend P^ather Raimundo Lozano 
exhibited twenty-eight volumes of religious works in the 
Visayas-Panayano dialect, and the Reverend Father Fran- 
cisco Valdez a study of the roots of the Ilocan dialect in 
manuscript. Many works in the native dialects have been 
written by the Spanish priests, such as one by the Reverend 
Father Manuel Blanco, the learned author of the 'Flora 
Filipina,' of which I give the title and the first verse : — 

Tagaloc verses to assist in dying " Manga dalit na Tagalog at pag- 
well. tulong sa inamaluatay na ta- 

nang Cristiana." 

Manila, 1867, VIII., 62 pag 8"^. 

" Aba bumabasa baquin baga caya 
Tila caniuntima i nata cang bohala." 


I now give the title of a secular poem in English and 
Tagal, that the reader may compare the words and note the 
subject : — 

Story of the life of the beauteous " Salita at buhay nang marilang 

shepherdess Jacobina, a native na. pastora na si Jacobina tubo 

of Moncada, who became the sa Villa Moncada Naguing 

wife of the King, Policarpio de asdua nang Policarpio de Villar 

Villar, in the kingdom of Dal- sa caharian nang Dalmacia 

matia, and bore a son named nagga roon nang isang supligna 

Villardo. anac ang pangaia i si Villardo." 

The poem begins — 

" O maamong Ester mananalong Judit 
Mariang linanag nitong sang daigdig." 

and concludes — 

" Panang nang pupuri ang lahat nang cabig 
Sa yanang inaguling ang tinamo i sangit." 

I do not think it is necessary to quote any more, as this 
gives the reader sufficient idea of the language. 

There is much that is good in the Tagal, much to like 
and admire. Antonio de Morga, Sinibaldo de Mas, Tomas 
de Comyn, Paul de la Gironiere, Jagor, Bowring, Palgrave, 
Foreman, Stevens, Worcester — all have some good to say 
of him, and with reason. But the piratical blood is strong 
in him yet. He requires restraint and guidance from those 
who have a higher standard for their actions than he has. 
Left to himself he would infallibly relapse into savagery. 
At the same time he will not be governed by brute force, 
and under oppression or contumelious treatment he would 
abandon the plains, retire to the mountains, and lead a 
predatory life. Although not just himself nor truthful, he 
can recognise and revere truth and justice in a master or 
governor. Courageous himself, only a courageous man 
can win his respect. He is grateful,* and whoever can 
secure his reverence and gratitude will have no trouble in 
leading him. 

I have testified to the Tagal's excellence in many 
handicrafts and callings, yet I greatly doubt whether they 
have the mental and moral equipment for any of the pro- 

* Some ridiculous person has stated in a magazine article that 
they have no word in Tagal equivalent to Thank you. This is not 
true, for the word Salamat is the exact equivalent. 


fessions. I should not like to place my affairs in the hands 
of a Tagal lawyer, to trust my life in the hands of a Tagal 
doctor, nor to purchase an estate on the faith of a Tagal 
surveyor's measurement. 

I do not say that they are all untrustworthy, nor that 
they can never become fit for the higher callings, but 
they are not fit for them now, and it will take a long time, 
and a completely changed system of education, before they 
can become fit. 

What they want are examples of a high type of honour 
and morality that they could look up to and strive to 
imitate. There are such men in America. Whether 
they will be sent to the Philippines is best known to 
Mr. McKinley. 



Panipangos (2). 

The Pampangos are close neighbours of the Tagals. They 
inhabit the rich and fertile province of Pampanga and a 
large part of that of Tarlac. There are also some detached 
colonies of them in the towns of Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Pan- 
gasinan, and Zambales. The population of Pampanga is 
given in the census of 1876 as 226,000. Allowing one-half 
the population of Tarlac to belong to this race, we have to 
add 41,000, and supposing one-tenth the population of 
Bataan, Nueva Ecija, and Zambales, to be Pampangos, say 
27,000, we get 294,000 as their number in 1876. Doubtless 
they have largely increased since then. The Pampangos 
speak a different language from the Tagals, yet they can 
understand each other to some extent. Many of the better 
class speak both languages. The Pampango does not 
greatly differ from the Tagal in appearance or character, 
but his environment and his occupations are different. He 
is not so much a sailor, a fisherman, or a mechanic. He 
excels in agriculture, is a good organiser of labour, rides 
well, is a good hunter, and makes a bold and determined 
soldier. Large numbers of this war-like race have fought 
under the Spanish flag against the Mahometan princes of 
the Moluccas, of Mindanao, and Sulu, as also against the 
British and the Dutch. 

Pampangos as Cultivators. 

The towns of San Fernando, Guagua Bacolor, Mexico, 
Angeles, Candaba, and many others have been built up by 
Pampanga industry. They contain many fine houses, 
where the European traveller is sure of a hospitable 

The staple crop of Pampanga is sugar, and I shall 


explain their organisation for its cultivation and manu- 

In Luzon the land is usually cultivated under an 
arrangement known as Aparceria. 

The conditions of Aparceria vary according to the 
locality, and to established custom, since on the land near 
a town a smaller share is given to the cultivator than on 
land near the forests, where if he were not satisfied he 
might commence to clear land for himself Also the land 
near the towns is more valuable than that at a distance for 
various reasons. 

The following is an example of the terms usual in 
Pampanga. The land-owner provides : 

A. Cleared land ready for the plough. 

B. Sugar-cane points for the first planting. 

C. Sugar-mill, boiling-pans and the building for same, 

D. Money advances to keep the cultivator and his 

family, and for taking off the crop. 

E. Carts for carrjang the cane to the mill. 

The cultivator, or inquilino, provides : 

1. His labour and that of his family for ploughing, 

planting and cultivating the cane and fencing the 

2. The ploughs and implements of husbandry. 

3. The cattle (water buffaloes) for the above labours 

and for working the mill if it is a cattle mill. 

The money advanced to the cultivator by the land-owner 
is charged 20 per cent, per annum interest. 

For a daily task of 9 pilones from cattle-mills or 10 
pilones from steam-mills there are employed : 

2 Labourers to cut cane at 25 cents and food . • 50 cents. 

1 Carter ,, ,, . -25 

2 Mill attendants „ „ . '50 
Sugar boiler and fireman „ . -75 
1 Megass carrier „ . '25 

Mexican dollars . . . . 2*25 
Or 25 cents per pilon. 


Sugar Crop. 

The land-owner pays the men's wages, c nd the cultivator 
gives them three meals a day and cigars. 

The sugar-moulds (pilones) cost about \2\ cents each, 
and the cost is divided between the parties. 

In making up the account, 6\ per cent, per annum is 
charged on the value of the land, machinery and building. 

The molasses which drains from the sugar belongs to 
the land-owner. 

These pilones are supposed to contain 140 lbs. of sugar 
when filled. They are placed upon a small pot to allow the 
molasses to drain off. When delivered their weight may 
be from 112 to 120 lbs. according to the time they have 
been draining. This sugar polarises about 80 per cent, 
according to circumstances and requires to be treated at 
the farderias in Manila to bring it up to an even sample 
before it is exported. The sugar loaves are cut up, sorted, 
crushed, mixed with other sugars, sun-dried, and a certain 
quantity of sand added before being put into bags for 
export as Manila Siigar, usually No. 7 or No. 9 Dutch 
standard. It will be seen from the above figures how 
moderate the expenses are. Of course each land-owner has 
a number of cultivators, and often a number of mills. 

Notwithstanding the low price of sugar which has 
prevailed for many years, the provinces of Pampanga has 
made money out of it as the handsome houses of the land- 
owners in all their towns testify. 

The sugar crop in Pampanga has never quite reached a 
million pilones, but has exceeded nine hundred thousand, 
say from fifty to sixty thousand English tons. The cane 
is crushed in small steam or cattle mills having three 
horizontal rollers. 

These mills are mostly made in Glasgow and have now 
in Pampanga entirely superseded the Chinese mills with 
vertical rollers of granite or the native mills with vertical 
rollers of hard wood.* 

In former years I pointed out, in a report written for 
General Jovellar, what a great advantage it would be to 
Pampanga if the planters would abandon the use of pilones 

* The roller pinions in both Chinese and native mills are of 
hard wood. 


and make sugar suitable for direct export and so obviate 
the manipulation in the farderias at Manila. 

They could make a sugar similar to that produced in 
Negros and known as Ilo-ilo. 

Now that the Philippines have passed into the hands of 
the United States, I do not doubt that central sugar 
factories will be established and will turn out centrifugal 
sugars polarizing 96 per cent, similar to the Cuban sugar. 

Pampangos as Fishermen. 

There are some Pampanga fishermen on the River 
Betis, at San Jose, and amongst the labyrinth of creeks 
and mangrove swamps forming the north-western shores of 
Manila Bay. 

Their avocation is not destitute of danger, for these 
swamps a'-e the home of the alligator.* Although they are 
not as large as some I have seen in the River Paraguay or 
on the River Daule, in Ecuador, they are quite large 
enough to seize a horse or a man. I was once visiting 
Fr. Enrique Garcia, the parish priest of Macabebe, when a 
native woman came in and presented him with a dollar to 
say a Mass in thanksgiving for the escape of her husband 
from death that morning. She told us that he was pushing 
a shrimp-net in shallow water when the buaya seized him 
by the shoulder. The fisherman, however, called upon his 
patron saint, and putting out his utmost strength, with the 
aid of Saint Peter, succeeded in extricating himself from 
the reptile's jaws and in beating him off. His shoulder, 
however, was badly lacerated by the alligator's teeth. It 
was lucky for him that he was in shallow water, for the 
alligator usually holds its prey under water and drowns it. 

The Pampangos also fish on the Rio Grande, the Rio 
Chico, and in the Pinag de Candaba, This latter is an 
extensive swampy plain, partly under cultivation in the 
dry season, partly laid out as fish-ponds. 

The Nipa palm grows in abundance in the delta of the 
Betis, and small colonies of half-savage people are settled 
on dry spots amongst these swamps engaged in collecting 
the juice or the leaves of this tree. The stems are punctured 
and the juice runs into small vessels made of cane. It is 
collected daily, poured into jars and carried in small canoes 
to the distillery where it is fermented and distilled. 

* Crocodilus Porosus. 


The distilleries are constructed in a very primitive 
manner, and are worked by Chinese or Chinese half- 

The produce is called Vino de Nipa, and is retailed in 
the native stalls and restaurants. 

The leaves are doubled and sewn with rattan strips 
upon a small piece of bamboo, they are taken to market 
upon a platform laid across the gunwales of two canoes. 
This arrangement is called bangcas viancornadas, canoes 
yoked together. The nipa is sold by the thousand, and 
serves to thatch the native houses anywhere, except in 
certain parts of Manila and other towns where its use is 
forbidden on account of the great danger of its taking fire. 

From circumstances that have come under my own 
observation, I believe it to be a fact that when trade in 
nipa thatch is dull, the canoe-men set fire to the native 
houses in the suburbs of Manila to make a market. I have 
noticed more than once that houses have commenced to 
burn from the upper part of the thatched roof where they 
could not have caught fire accidentally. The Province of 
Pampanga extends to the westward, as far as the crests of 
the Zambales mountains, and the Cordillera of Mabanga is 
included within its boundaries. There is but little cultivated 
land beyond the town of Porac to the westward. Here 
the Pampangos trade with the Negritos, who inhabit 
the Zambales range, getting from them jungle produce in 
exchange for rice, tobacco, sugar, and other articles. 
Occasionally the Negritos .steal cattle from the Pampangos 
or at times murder one of them if a good opportunity 
presents itself. 

Pampangos as Hunters. 

The natives of this part of the province are good wood- 
men and hunters. 

In addition to taking game by nets and ambuscade, 
some of them hunt the deer on ponies which are trained to 
run at full speed after the game, up or down hill, and to 
get near enough for the rider to throw or use his lance. 

Being at Porac in 1879 with the late Major Deare, 
74th Highlanders (now 2nd Batt. Highland Light Infantry), 
an enthusiastic sportsman, we saw two men who had 
practised this sport for years, and were told that their arms, 
ribs, legs and collar-bones had been broken over and over 


again. We saw them gallop down a rocky and precipitous 
descent after a deer at full speed. 

We could only wonder that they were alive if that was 
a sample of their hunting. Their saddles were fitted with 
strong martingales and cruppers and with triple girths so 
that they could not shift. The saddles themselves were of 
the usual native pattern, like miniature Mexicans. The 
men were light weights. 

N.B. — If any reader of this contemplates travelling in 
the Philippines, let him take a saddle with him. It should 
be as small as he could comfortably use, and light. The 
ponies are from twelve to thirteen hands high, but are 
remarkably strong and clever. I know from experience that 
a good one will carry fourteen stone over rough ground 
with safety. 


Pampanga has produced some notable bandits or 
Tulisanes who have given the Spaniards much trouble. Of 
late years there has been a diminution in the number of 
crimes of violence, due in a great measure to the establish- 
ment of the Guardia Civil by General Gandara in 1867. 

I once built a nipa house on the banks of the Rio 
Grande, near Macabebe, and resided there for several months, 
carrying on some works. I was new to the country and 
ignorant of the customs of the people. 

There were no other Europeans in the vicinity, except 
the priests. 

I took care to treat all my native neighbours with strict 
justice, neither infringing their rights, nor allowing them to 
impose on me. 

There came to stay with me Mr. A. B. Whyte, then an 
employe, now a partner in one of the leading British firms 
in Manila, who frequently had ten thousand dollars in gold 
in his safe, and similar sums were remitted to him from 
Manila at different times for the purchase of sugar. 

One day we received a visit from an ofificer of the Civil 
Guard who came to warn us that we were in danger of an 
attack, that his post was too far off for him to protect us, 
and that the locality bore a very bad name for crimes of 
violence. We thanked him for his visit and warning, 
entertained him to lunch, and informed him that we 
intended to remain, after which he returned to his post at 

R 2 


Apalit. On making inquiry we found that some of our 
immediate neighbours were well-known bandits, but were 
thought to have retired from business. However, they 
never attacked us, and probably prevented any other 
Tulisanes from doing so lest they should get the blame. 
But had I encroached on their land or treated them 
contemptuously, or had I allowed them to impose upon 
me. I do not doubt we should have been attacked and to 
say the least we might have found ourselves in a tight 

A nipa house is no place to defend, for it can be burnt 
in a few minutes in the dry season, and a spear can be 
pushed through the sides, or up through the floor with 

In cases like this one cannot entirely depend upon the 
assistance of native servants, for they have sometimes joined 
with criminals to rob or murder their master. 

There is a curious custom amongst bandits to invite an 
outsider to join them in a particular enterprise, and it is 
considered mean and as denoting a want of courage to 
refuse, even when a servant is invited to help rob or kill 
his master. Moreover, there is much danger in refusing to 
join the bandits, for it will give dire offence to them and 
perhaps have fatal consequences. This invitation is called 
a Convite \see Chap. V.]. 

The hereditary taint of piracy in the Malay blood, and 
the low moral standard prevailing in the Archipelago, as 
well as fear of the consequences of a refusal, render it more 
difficult than a stranger can realise for a native servant to 
resist such a temptation. 

Pampanga Women. 

The women in Pampanga are smart in appearance, 
clever in business, and good at a bargain, whether buying 
or selling. The men are well aware of this and when 
selling their produce or buying a sugar-mill, they like to 
have the assistance of their wives, who are always the 
hardest customers to deal with. 

They are excellent sempstresses and good at embroidery. 
In some villages they make very durable silk handkerchiefs 
with coloured borders of blue, red or purple. Straw hats, 
mats, salacots, ci;i^ar and cigarette cases are also made by 


Their houses are kept clean, and the larger ones are 
well-suited for entertainments, as the sala and caida are 
very spacious, and have polished floors of narra, or some 
other hard close-grained wood very pleasant to dance on. 

A ball at a big Pampanga house is a sight that will be 
remembered. Capitan Joaquin Arnedo Cruz of Suli'pan, 
on the Rio Grande, a wealthy native sugar-planter, used to 
assemble in his fine house the principal people of the 
neighbourhood to meet royal or distinguished guests. One 
of his daughters is married to a distinguished lawyer, my 
friend Don Felipe Buencamino, author of the remarkable 
State paper addressed to the United States Senate, and 
published in the Congressional Record of January 9th, 1900, 
pp. 752-53-54. Capitan Joaquin possessed a magnificent 
porcelain table-service of two hundred pieces, specially 
made and marked with his monogram, sent him by a prince 
who had enjoyed his hospitality. 

He gave a ball for the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia, 
who afterwards declared that the room presented one of the 
most brilliant sights he had ever seen. 

This from a son of an Emperor might seem an 
exaggeration, but brilliant is the only word that can 
describe the effect produced on the spectator by the bright 
costumes and sparkling jewellery of the women. 

Their dress seems to exercise a fascination upon 
Europeans which the costume of any other eastern country 
fails to do. 

Monsieur Paul de la Gironi^re, in his charming book, 
' Vingt Ans aux Philippines,' says, about the Mestiza 
dress : " Nothing so charming, so coquet, so provocative as 
this costume which excites to the highest point the admira- 
tion of all strangers." 

He goes on to say that the women are well aware of 
this, and that on no account would they make a change, 
I will add my opinion that they are quite right, and may 
they ever stick to the saya, the baro, and the tapis under 
the Stars and Stripes, may they ever be as natural, as 
handsome and as prosperous as when the writer dwelt 
amongst them on the banks of the Rio Grande under 
the paternal rule of Alcalde Mayor Don Jose Feced y 



Zambaks (3). 

The Zambales are a small and unimportant tribe of the 
Malay race, with some admixture of Negrito blood. They 
inhabit part of the province of Zambales from the River 
Naja down to South Felipe, a coast village in 15° N. lati- 
tude, and in their mountains there roam a good many 
Negritos. The Zambales are subjugated and converted 
to Christianity, but some still maintain a partial indepen- 
dence amongst the mountains, paying, however, the " Re- 
conocimentio de Vassallaje." At the time of the conquest, 
these people were famous head-hunters, and otherwise mani- 
fested a bloodthirsty disposition. They lived in villages 
of thirty to forty families, quite independent of each 
other, and their chiefs possessed but little influence. When 
one of a family died the surviving male relatives put on a 
black head-cloth or turban, which they durst not remove 
until one of them had killed some one else so as to satisfy 
the death vengeance. A murder could be atoned for by a 
payment in gold or in goods, or a slave or Negrito might 
be delivered up to be sacrificed to the manes of the de- 
parted. It was customary amongst them to take with them 
to their feasts the heads or skulls they possessed. The 
heads were placed on poles and ceremonial dances were 
performed around them. They also emulated the Vikings 
by making drinking cups out of their enemies' skulls. 

Their religion was similar to that of the Tagals. Their 
principal god was called Malayari, but he had under him two 
deputy gods, Acasi and Manglobag, and a large number 
of inferior gods. Their chief priest was called Bayoc, 
and exercised great influence amongst them, They cele- 
brated baptism with the blood of a pig. Amongst them, as 
in Borneo and with many tribes of Malays who are not 
Mahometans, the pig is considered as the most acceptable 


sacrifice to the gods. For particulars about this I refer the 
reader to * Life in the Forests of the Far East,' by Spenser 
St. John. 

Now, at last, they have been brought into the Christian 
fold, though, perhaps, amongst the pine-clad mountains, 
heathen customs maintain their hold upon the wild hill- 
men. These latter trade with their Christian and partly- 
civihsed brethren, bringing them jungle produce, tobacco, 
and the small bezoar stones, so highly prized by the Chinese, 
in return for articles they require. The Zambales raise 
some rice and a little sugar. Their trade is inconsiderable, 
their exports being limited to Sapan wood, jungle produce, 
timber, fire-wood, and charcoal, all of which is shipped to 
Manila, where it finds a ready sale. The total population 
of this province was 94,551 in 1876, but only a portion of 
these were Zambales. 

Pangasinanes (4). 

The Pangasinanes inhabit the north-western part of the 
province of Pangasinan, and the northern part of the pro- 
vince of Zambales from the River Naja, which runs into the 
Bay of Bazol, round Cape Bolinao to Sual, including the 
Island of Cabarruyan and Santiago. But the southern and 
eastern part of their province is partly inhabited by Pam- 
pangos and Ilocanos. 

On the other hand, there are some Pangasinanes scat- 
tered about the northern part of Nueva Ecija amongst 
Tagals and Ilocanos, and there are a few as colonists in 

In former times the Pangasinanes occupied a wider 
extent of country. When Juan Salcedo arrived he found 
them occupying the southern part of La Union ; but they 
have been and are still being pushed back by the more 
hard working and energetic Ilocanos. 

As the limits of their province do not correspond to the 
ethnographical boundaries, it is not easy to estimate their 
numbers. I think there may be about 300,000 of them. 

The Pangasinanes were subjugated by the Spaniards in 
1572, and in 1576 they were all Christians. Their manners 
and customs are similar to those of the Pampangos and 
Tagals, but they have a rougher and more uncouth appear- 
ance. Their chief occupation is cultivating rice, and when- 
ever this is the case the people are poor and little advanced 


in civilisation. It is the lowest kind of agriculture any 
people can follow. The first sign of prosperity in an 
eastern people is given when they begin to import rice, 
as it shows that they have a more remunerative occupation 
to follow than cultivating it for themselves. Thus the 
Cagayanes who grow tobacco, the Pampangos who grow 
sugar, and the Vicols of Albay and neighbouring islands 
who grow hemp, all import rice. 

Mr. J. W. Jamieson, the Acting British Consul at 
Sumao, in a report on the trade of Yunnan, issued the 
7th of December, 1898, says: "Apart from minerals, the 
province possesses a few other resources and the inhabitants 
are lazy and unenterprising to a degree. So long as they 
can grow enough rice to feed themselves and procure 
enough cotton to make the few articles of clothing neces- 
sary in this equable climate, they are content." 

I am glad to find this confirmation of my views in this 
matter. Mr. Jamieson's remarks apply to all the rice- 
growers I have seen. 

The rice is raised in the delta of the Agno and about 
that river. Formerly, the Pangasinanes not only sent rice 
to Manila, but exported it to China, Siam, and Annan. 

For this trade they built their own vessels at Lingayen, 
and in the flourishing period, some twenty-five years ago, 
their shipwrights used to turn out eight or ten schooners in 
a year, vessels able to carry 300 to 400 tons dead weight. 
Since the introduction of steamers into the coasting trade, 
the construction of sailing vessels has greatly diminished. 
Still, they turn out two or three a year. 

In some parts of the province they make sugar, but it 
will not compare in quality with that made in Pampanga. 
It has a smaller grain and a paler colour, but less sweetening 
power. The average of thirty samples, taken as the sugar 
was ladled out of the tacho, was — 

Crystallizable sugar . . . 70*40 per cent. 
Uncrystallizable. . . . i3"oo 
Ash 1-97 

It is drained in pilones, or earthenware moulds ; but, 
unlike the Pampanga custom, the moulds are not delivered 
with the sugar, but the leaf is wrapped in the dried sheaths 
of the palm, tied about with split rattan. Most of the sugar 
is sent by sea to Manila and exported to China for direct 


consumption in one of the provinces where it finds a ready 

Indigo was formerly cultivated here and exported, and 
at one time a good deal of Sapan wood was also exported, 
but the trade in these articles has almost ceased. 

Amongst the industries of Pangasinan may be mentioned 
the manufacture of hats, hundreds of thousands of which 
were made at Calasiao from grass or nito, and sent to 
Boston or New York. There are also at Calasiao, and in 
some other towns, blacksmiths who forge excellent bolos 
or wood-knives from the iron-bands taken off bales of cotton 
cloth or sacking. 

Carrotnatas, the two-wheeled vehicles of the country, are 
constructed in Lingayen and Dagupan, and are said to be 
very well made. 

I may mention here that the ponies raised in these 
provinces are inferior to the Ilocanos or even the Albay 

The sands of the River Agno near Rosales, and of the 
streams coming down from Mount Lagsig, are washed for 
gold, principally by women who obtain but a meagre 

The civilisation of the Pangasinanes is only skin-deep, 
and one of their characteristics is a decided propensity to 
reviontar, that is, to abandon their towns or villages and 
take to the mountains, out of reach of all authority. There 
are some great land-owners in Pangasinan ; one of them, 
Don Rafael Sison, owns an estate that stretches from 
Calasiao and Santa Barbara to Urdaneta. 

Ilocanos (5). 

This hard-working and industrious race occupies the 
northern and western shores of Luzon, from Point Lacatacay 
on the 12 1st meridian, east from Greenwich, to San Fabian, 
on the Gulf of Lingayen. This includes the three pro- 
vinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and La Union. The 
Ilocanos have also pushed into the north-eastern part of 
Pangasinan, where they occupy seven towns, and they 
inhabit the town of Alcala in the province of Cagayan, 
several villages in Benguet, parts of the towns of Capas 
and O'Donnell in the provinces of Tarlac, and some towns 
in Zambales and Nueva Ecija. They are all civilised and 
have been Christians for three centuries. Amongst them 


dwell many converted Tinguianes and Igorrotes, who speak 
the Ilocan dialect. 

Blumentritt attributes the energy and activity of the 
Ilocanos to an admixture, even though it be small, of these 
brave and hardy races. In dress and appearance they are 
similar to the Tagals, and like them carry the indispensable 
bolo. They cultivate tobacco, cotton, rice, maize, indigo, 
sugar-cane, and a little cacao and coffee. They also grow 
the pita {Agave A mericana), which gives the fibre for the 
nipis textiles, ajonjoli {Sesamuju hidicum, L.), from which 
they extract oil, which is used in medicine and for the hair, 
and they even grow some wheat. They extract a black 
resin from the Antong {Canarum Pitnela), which is used as 
incense or for making torches ; another resin from the 
Bangad, which is used as a varnish, another from the Cajel 
{Citrus Aura7ttinvi), and many others used either in medi- 
cine, for torches, for varnishing, or for paying the seams of 
wooden vessels. They get gum from the Balete {Ficus 
Urostigma), and from the Lucban, or orange tree {^Citrus 
decumana, L.), oil from the Palomaria {Calopkyllum ino- 
phylluni, L.), and from a large number of other trees, some 
only known by the native name, and the use of which is 
uncertain. They obtain dyes from many trees growing 
wild in the forests, amongst others from the Tabungao 
{Jatropha Curcas, L.), the Lomboy {Eugenia Lambolana, 
Lam.), the sibucao {Coesalpinia Sappan, L.). Their cultiva- 
tion of indigo is declining, partly because the demand has 
diminished in consequence of the introduction of chemical 
substitutes, and also because the Chinese, into whose hands 
the whole produce of these provinces found its way, adulte- 
rated it so abominably as to discredit it altogether. Yet so 
great is the facility of Ilocan territory for growing indigo, 
that Gregorio Sy Quia of Vigan exhibited in Madrid in 
1887 no less than seventy-five different kinds of indigo, and 
seventy-five different seeds corresponding to the samples. 
At the same exhibition, no less than twenty-four different 
kinds of rice were exhibited from Ilocos, and this by no 
means exhausts the list. Every kind has a distinctive 
name. The textile industry flourishes amongst these in- 
dustrious people. The Local Committee of Namagpacan, 
in the province of La Union, sent to Madrid for the above- 
mentioned exhibition, no less than 145 different textiles, 
whilst other towns sent looms and other implements. 
Amongst the articles woven are quilts, cotton blankets 


(the celebrated Mantos de Ilocos), napkins and towels, 
and a great variety of material for coats, trousers, women's 
dresses and other uses. Guingon (called by sailors dun- 
garee), a blue stuff for clothing, costs from $0*50 to 
$0*31, 2s. 8d. per vara (2 feet 9 inches), a mixture of 
cotton and silk, for men's wear, $1*25 per vara, silk hand- 
kerchiefs $0*25 each. 

The Ilocans also make nets for fish, and for deer and 
pigs ; baskets of all sorts, salacots or hats. 

They grow two kinds of cotton for textiles, the white 
and the Coyote. Another kind, a tree cotton from the 
Boboy {Eriodendron anjractuoswn, D.C.), is only used for 
stuffing pillows. They extract oil from the seeds of all 
three kinds. 

Like the other civilized natives they live principally on 
rice and fish, which they capture in large quantities. 
Blumentritt mentions two kinds, the " Ipon " and the 
" Dolon," which they salt or pickle. 

They have fine cattle, which they sell to the Igorrotes. 
It will be noted that the Tinguianes, on the other hand, 
sell cattle to the Ilocanos. The ponies of Ilocos are highly 
valued in Manila, where there is a great demand for them. 
They are smaller than the ponies of other provinces, but 
are very hardy and spirited, and go at a great pace. Tuli- 
sanes formerly infested these provinces and found a ready 
refuge in the mountains, when pursued by the aiadrilleros, 
or village constables, who were only armed with bolos, 
lances, and a few old muskets. But the creation of the 
Civil Guard, formed of picked officers and men, who were 
armed with Remingtons and revolvers, and whose orders 
were, " Do not hesitate to shoot," made this business very- 
dangerous, and the three provinces suffer little from bri- 
gandage. When Juan Salcedo conquered the Ilocos, he 
found a caste of nobles amongst them who possessed all 
the riches of the country, and treated the cailanes, or serfs, 
with great rigour. Their tyranny caused several bloody 
rebellions, and although at present matters in this respect 
have improved, there is still room for complaint that the 
people who do the work do not get a fair remuneration for 
it, the rich man always endeavouring to keep the poor man in 
permanent indebtedness. In consequence of this, the Ilo- 
canos are ever ready to emigrate, and besides the places I 
have mentioned, there are thousands of them in Manila and 
other parts of the islands. They easily obtain employment 


either as servants, cultivators, or labourers, for they are 
superior in stamina to most of the civilised races, and in 
industry superior to them all. 

I have no doubt that there is a great future before this 
hardy, enterprising, and industrious people. 

Ibanags or Cagayanes (6). 

The Ibanags inhabit the Babuyanes and Batanes 
Islands and the northern coast of Luzon, from Point 
Lacaytacay to Punta Escarpada, and all the country com- 
prised between the Rio Grande and the summits of the 
Sierra Madre as far south as Balasig. 

They also hold the left bank of the river from the sea, 
right up to the confluence of the River Magat for an average 
width of some five miles. 

They are said to be the finest race and the most valiant 
men in the islands, and to have manfully resisted the 

However, they were conquered and converted to Chris- 
tianity. From the year 1781 they have been subjected to 
the worst form of slavery, the forced cultivation of tobacco. 
The detestable abuses brought into this system by the un- 
blushing rascality of the agents of the treasury, became, 
finally, so glaring, and the condition of the Ibanags so 
dreadful, that, in 1882, the Governor-General, Moriones 
(see Chapter " Spanish Government "), forced the hand of 
Canovas and the royal family, who desired to sell the 
monopoly, and this horrible slavery ceased, having lasted 
over a century, going from bad to worse. 

Since that date the condition of the Ibanags has greatly 
improved ; they have continued the cultivation of tobacco, 
and private enterprise has done much to introduce the 
finest seed and to improve the cultivation and preparatory 
operations. The " Compariia Tabacalera de Filipinas," a 
Franco-Catalan enterprise, has established the Haciendas of 
San Antonio, San Rafael, and Santa Isabel, in the district 
of Isabela. 

They have built large warehouses in Tumaiiini and have 
agents in all the principal towns. 

On the river they have a stern-wheel steamer, the 
Antonio Lopez, and a number of steel-lighters for carrying 
down tobacco. 

The tobacco is ready for transport in December and 


January. It is sent down the river to Aparri, from whence 
it is shipped to Manila. In a normal dry season (February 
to August), the river is navigable for steamers of two feet 
draught up to Alcald, the trade of which town is not im- 
portant ; but that of Tuguegarao is so, and up to that point 
the current is not strong. 

Amongst the Ibanags the distinction of noble and 
plebeian has been as strongly marked as amongst the 
Tagals, Pampangos, and Ilocanos, and the intense cupidity 
of the nobles, or rather usurers, which name better describes 
them, has led to many bloody outbreaks on the part of the 
oppressed and enslaved debtors. 

The government has steadily encouraged the Ilocanos 
and others to settle in Cagayan and plant tobacco, giving 
them free passages and advances of money in the days of 
the monopoly. 

On the other hand, the discontent of the Ibanags has 
led them to migrate to other provinces when possible, for 
the authorities prevented them from doing so by force 
when they could. They especially endeavoured to get to 
Manila, and I remember many years ago the arrival of a 
starving and ragged band, who had tramped all the way 
from Isabela to Manila to escape from their cruel task- 

However, things are better with them now, and I hope 
means will be found under the Stars and Stripes to introduce 
a better system of finance, and to curb the greed of the 
usurer, either by legislation or by competition on a fair and 
humane basis. The Ibanag language is spreading greatly 
amongst the hill-tribes around them as a commercial 
language, just as Ilocano is spreading on the West Coast. 

Under American influence an immense development 
of the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela may be expected 
in the near future, and the Ibanags will doubtless benefit 
by this. 



Igorrotes (7). 

This is an important, and to me, the most interesting of 
the independent or partly subdued races of the Phihppines. 
They are a fine, hardy, industrious, and warlike race, well 
worth a great and patient effort to bring them within the 
pale of Christianity, and to advance the civilisation they 
have already attained. They are of a dark bronze colour, 
with straight black and abundant hair, large dark eyes set 
rather obliquely as amongst Chinese. Their faces are 
broad with high cheek-bones, the nose aquiline and the 
head large. The features in general have a Mongolian cast, 
and a certain nasal twang in their speech resembles that 
of the Southern Chinese. The men have capacious chests, 
showing good lung-power, their muscles well developed 
indicating great strength and ability to resist fatigue. The 
women have also well-marked figures and rounded limbs. 
The fashions vary with different tribes, but it is common 
to find both sexes wearing their hair cut in a fringe over 
the forehead, but reaching down to the eyebrows, long enough 
at the sides to cover the ears, left long at the back of the 
head, where it is gathered up into a knot. 

The Igorrotes of Lepanto wear beards, some of them 
are as thick as a Spaniard's, but the tribes farther South 
pull out, not only their beards, but all the hair on their 
bodies, except that of the head. Their dress varies from 
a mere apron (Bahaque) when at work in the fields, to an 
ornamental jacket very smartly cut and elaborate sword- 
belt when at war or on any full-dress occasion. These 
jackets are very handsome and have stripes of blue, crimson 
and white. They wear a variety of head-dresses, turban, 
Salacot or a kind of cocked-hat and feathers. Both men 
and women wear cloaks or plaids of bright colours made 
of cotton. Although the word Igorrote has come to be 


almost a generic name for the heathen Highlanders of 
North Luzon, it is here limited to those who dwell on the 
Western part of the Cordillera Central, comprising the 
whole of the districts of Benguet and Lepanto, part of 
Bontoc and parts of the Provinces of La Union and I locos 
Sur. The sub-tribes Buriks and Busaos are included. 

Tattooing is very general amongst them. In some dis- 
tricts you can hardly find a man or woman who has not a 
figure of the sun tattooed in blue on the back of the hand, 
for in Central Benguet they worship the sun. S^me o 
them tattoo the breast and arms in patterns of straight and 
curved lines pricked in with a needle in indigo blue. The 
Busao Igorrotes, who live in the North of Lepanto, tattoo 
flowers on their arms, and in war-dress wear a cylindical 
shako made of wood or plaited rattan, and large copper 
pendants in their ears. These people do not use the 
Talibon, and prefer the spear. The Burik Igorrotes tattoo 
the body in a curious manner, giving them the appearance 
of wearing a coat of mail. But this custom is probably 
now becoming obsolete, for at least those of the Igorrotes 
who live near the Christian natives are gradually adopting 
their dress and customs. 

White is the colour of mourning, as amongst the Moros 
of Mindanao and Sulu. Both sexes arc fond of personal 
ornaments, such as ear-rings, collars, arm-rings, bangles, 
leg-rings and belts. Collars of crocodiles' teeth are highly 
esteemed. In the long list of their manufactures I shall 
enumerate their ornaments. Their arms are the talibon, a 
short double-edged sword ; the gayang, a javelin or assegai ; 
and the aligjia, a light axe, having a spike at the back 
opposite to the cutting edge. After throwing their javelins, 
they rush on with their drawn swords, holding their shield, 
called a calata, on the left arm. This is made of light wood 
and is long and narrow. With the exception of the shape of 
the shield their equipment is much like that of the Roman 
Legionaries twenty centuries since. The aligua appears 
to be used, not as a fighting weapon, but to decapitate 
their fallen enemies and as a means of carrying the head 
home on a spike. Great rejoicings, with feasts and dances, 
were held after a successful skirmish, and large quantities 
of liquor consumed. But the constant pressure of the 
Spanish authority has in a great measure stopped these 
petty wars. They make a kind of beer called Basi by 
fermenting cane-juice, and another liquor, something like 


the chicha of the Peruvian Coast Indians, from rice. This 
latter is called bundang. They are great smokers, and 
make their own pipes of various materials. They appear 
not to have universally adopted the Malay custom of 
chewing buyo. There is a settlement of Christian Igorrotes 
on the coast of Ilocos Sur, close to the boundary of La 
Union, which has been established many years. But in 
general the Igorrotes have steadily refused to embrace 
Christianity, and evidently do not want to go to the same 
heaven as the Spaniards. The behaviour of the troops 
led against them in 1881 by General Primo de Rivera 
doubtless confirmed them in this repugnance. The expedi- 
tion did not do much in the way of fighting, Remingtons 
and mountain-guns failed to subdue the bold mountaineers 
armed only with javelin and sword. The Spanish officers 
and men, however, are reported to have abominably mis- 
handled the Igorrote women. For this ravishing foray the 
late King Alfonso XII. bestowed the title of Vizconde de 
la Union upon Primo de Rivera, and showered promotions 
and crosses upon his staff". 

The Igorrotes live in villages with a population of 
three or four hundred souls. There is a chief to each, but 
the villages are not organised into states, each being in- 
dependent. The chief is supposed to be chosen from the 
families called Mainguel, who have distinguished them- 
selves in war. As a matter of fact, the richest man usually 
becomes chief The wealthy families vie with each other 
in the grand feasts which they give to all comers. The 
noble and the illustrious guests are personally invited to 
these feasts, but the common people assemble at beat of 
drum. The chief presides at the meeting of the Bacuajies 
or nobles in whom are vested the village lands, and who 
direct its affairs. 

The common people are in a kind of bondage to the 
nobles, and cultivate their lands for them. In Lepanto 
they are called cailianes as in Ilocos. Their houses are 
square, and similar to those of the other natives in the out- 
lying districts, being raised on posts above the ground- 
level. A framework of bamboos is supported on four 
trunks of trees, the roof is thatched with cogon (elephant 
grass) and the sides are closed in by canes, bamboos or 
pine planks. Each house stands in an enclosure of its 
own, strongly fenced with rough stones or posts. They 
are far inferior to the Christian natives in the arrangement 


of their houses. Instead of having a separate kitchen on 
dipantalan or raised platform, the fire is made in the centre 
of the house, and the smoke finds its way out through a 
hole in the roof. The rafters and inside of the thatch is 
blackened by the soot. They make no windows to their 
houses and only a small door, the ladder to which is drawn 
up when they retire to rest. They are not clean in their 
persons, and neglect to wash their clothes, or clean the 
interiors of their houses. They thus compare very un- 
favourably with the Tagals as regards cleanliness, although, 
as we shall see, in some other respects they are greatly 
above them. Each village has its Town Hall, which they 
call the Balta-oa. This is where the Town Council 
assembles to settle the affairs of the community, to hear 
requests for divorces, and to administer the law to offenders. 
Public festivities also take place here. 

They are monogamous, and have the highest respect for 
the holiness of the marriage tie. It is not absolutely 
indissoluble, but can be dissolved by the village council on 
serious grounds ; but apparently divorce is systematically 
discouraged, and the sacredness of marriage is upheld. In 
former times adulteresses were punished by beheading, but 
more lenient views now prevail, and a good whipping is 
considered sufficient to meet the case. Generally death 
only dissolves the tie, and even then only partially, as 
re-marriage is difficult ; for it is not proper for the widow 
to marry again without the consent of her late husband's 
family, which may not easily be obtained, and if she 
contracts new ties, the children of her first marriage are 
removed from her control. On the other hand, Igorrote 
respectability requires that a widower should entirely neglect 
his toilet and commune silently with his grief for several 
years before taking to himself a new wife. Like most 
heathen, they show the greatest respect and affection for 
their parents, and cherish them to their life's end. 

In sharp contrast with the license accorded to young girls 
by the Tagals and Visayas, the Igorrotes carefully guard 
the chastity of their daughters, and do not allow them to 
go about without a chaperon. The father even often 
accompanies them on their excursions. When they arrive 
at the age of puberty, the boys and girls are separated. 

In each village there are two special buildings not too 
near each other. In one of these the girls sleep under the 
watchful guard of a duenna, who looks after their morals, 



and in the other the youths under the care of an elder. 
The youth caught violating the sanctity of the damsels' 
dormitory, or the maiden who is detected in an intrigue, or 
shows signs of maternity, may expect a severe correction. 
They do not seem to raise as many difficulties about the 
marriage of their daughters as the Tagals do, and they do 
not make it a matter of a mercenary bargain. When a 
youth takes a fancy to a marriageable maiden of his own 
degree, he applies through his parents to the father of the 
girl, and if he and his daughter look with favour on the 
proposal, the young man is admitted to cohabit with the 
damsel. But if within a certain period the girl does not 
show signs of succession, the would-be bridegroom is sent 
about his business. On the other hand, if pregnancy is 
announced, the wedding takes place with all possible 
ceremony, including an invocation oi Xh.^ Anitos ox ancestral 
gods, feasts and dances, which last eight or nine days, but 
the young couple are excused from attendance. The 
Igorrotes, in fact, openly recognise a custom which is 
practised to a great extent in the agricultural districts 
of England and Scotland, with this difference, that the 
Christian youth in the latter countries often evades the 
marriage, while the heathen Igorrote carries out his engage- 
ment. I think, on the whole, the heathen comes out best. 

Although so desirous of offspring, they like to have 
them come one at a time, and they consider it to be an 
evil omen when one of their women brings forth twins. 
In such a case the last born is handed over to whoever 
desires to adopt it. This is held to avert the omen and 
straighten things out again. 

Of late years the establishment of forts with the Tagal 
or Visayas garrisons in the Igorrote territory, and closer 
contact with Christians generally, have tended to demoralise 
the heathen, and, above all, to lower somewhat their lofty 
ideal of chastity. 

Amongst the Igorrotes of Lepanto, and those farthest 
removed from Spanish influence, when a man of position 
dies, a notification is sent to all his blood-relations, even 
though they reside at a great distance, and the corpse is 
not buried until they have all arrived and have each taken 
the dead man's hand in theirs, inquiring of him tenderly 
why he has abandoned his family. All this time a great 
feast is going on outside the house, vast quantities of rice 
and meat are provided and consumed, and an unlimited 



[To face />. 258. 

[ To face /. 259. 


allowance of beer drunk by the guests. The expense is 
often out of all proportion to the means of the family and 
perhaps involves them in debt for years. 

In the Igorrote territory under Spanish influence this 
extravagance and delay of burial is discouraged. Some of 
the Igorrotes dry their dead over a fire in a similar way to 
the Tinguianes. The dead are buried in a sitting posture, 
after the manner of the Peruvian Indians, but enclosed in 
coffins, which are placed in any small cave or cleft in the 
rocks, enlarged by hand if necessary. The Igorrotes believe 
in a Supreme Being, the creator and preserver ; he is called 
Apo in Benguet, and LiL-ma-oig in Lepanto. The wife of 
Apo is called Ba?igan, the daughter Bugan and the son 
Ubban. There are two inferior gods, Cabigat and Suyan, 
these deities hold intercourse with mankind through the 
Anitos or ancestral spirits, some good, some evil, who 
reward or chastise mankind in this life. They represent 
these spirits by roughly-carved idols of wood. Some of 
these idols are male and others female. Occasionally the 
carving is of an obscene nature, and similar to some clay 
images I have seen taken from tombs in Peru. They 
practise family prayer, and the object of it is to solicit the 
favour of the Anitos. Sometimes the will of the Anitos is 
declared through an old priestess called an Asitera, who 
receives a fee for her pains. The ancestral spirits are more 
worshipped than the gods. Poultry, swine, and dogs, may 
not be slaughtered except in a sacrificial manner. There 
is a priest in every village called the Manbnnung who first 
consecrates the animal to the Anitos, and then kills it and 
returns it to the owner, reserving, however, the best piece for 
himself. In company with his first-born son he takes the 
lead at prayer-meetings, or on special occasions, such as 
illness, marriage, the commencing some important work, or 
averting some evil omen. This man makes some pretence 
at healing the sick, but rather with charms and incantations 
than by administering medicine. There is a sacred tree 
near each village, which is regarded as the seat of the 
Anitos, In the shade of this is a sacrificial stone. Some- 
times near a house may been seen a small bench for the 
Anitos to repose on. and a dish of rice or other food for 
their refreshment. The Igorrotes believe that there are 
two places where the souls of the dead travel to. One is 
an agreeable residence provided with everything necessary 
to happiness, and is for the spirits of those who have died 

S 2 


a natural death. But if they have been evil-doers, such as 
robbers or murderers, and have escaped due punishment 
on earth, they are punished here by the other souls before 
being allowed to enjoy the advantages of the place. But 
the souls of brave warriors killed in battle, and of women 
who have died in child-birth, arrive at a much more desir- 
able place, a real heaven, and reside amongst the gods. 

The Igorrotes of Cabugalan in Lepanto regard eels as 
the embodiment of their ancestors ; they will not catch 
them or do them any harm, but feed them when oppor- 
tunity offers. The Asiteras assist at feasts and make 
invocations and propose toasts which are drunk by the 
men present. The private or family feasts are called 
Biimaguil, being held in the giver's house or courtyard, 
but public entertainments or feasts of the whole village are 
called Regnas, and are held in or in front of the Balta-oa or 
Town Hall. They are preceded and followed by songs and 
dances. The songs are inharmonious and monotonous. 
The dances vary with the localities. In one dance bowing 
to the beer-mugs is a feature. As amongst other Malay 
races, ordeals are in fashion to decide disputes. One con- 
sists in a priest or chief scratching the scalps of the dispu- 
tants with a small iron fork. Whoever loses most blood 
during this operation has lost his case. The Igorrottes 
work hard at their agriculture, and their rice-farming is 
excellent. They plough the valleys with the aid of buffaloes 
and terrace the hillsides, which they cultivate by hand. 
They burn down the pine-forests to clear the hills. They 
irrigate where possible, carrying the canals over any ravine 
by means of rude aqueducts. They grow considerable 
quantities of tobacco,* which is, however, of inferior quality. 
This they sell to the civilised natives, and it is exported. I 
suppose it goes to Hamburg to make German Havana 
cigars, just as conger eels go to Paris to make fillets of 
soles. They cultivate sweet potatoes, also the ordinary 
potatoes, which grow well, and although small, are much 
prized in Manila, and meet with a ready sale. The Igor- 
rottes of Lepanto eagerly seek new seeds to plant. It is 
strange that an agricultural people like this should have 
little or no idea of breeding cattle, but instead of doing so, 
they purchase from the Ilocanos and others cattle, horses, 
and pigs for consumption, paying good prices for them. 

* They sell about 25,000 bales per annum. 

11', 'a., f. -6,. 



They even buy dogs to eat. I have been assured by 
Mr. Ernest Heald, formerly British Vice-Consul at Sual, 
that he has often seen Igorrotes returning to the hills from 
Dagupan, leading strings of dogs, which they had purchased 
for food at prices varying from twenty-five to fifty cents, 
and that the dogs seemed to have an instinctive idea what 
they were being taken away for. The cooking of the 
Igorrotes is abominable, especially their way of cooking 
meat. It would not obtain the approval of Brillat Savarin. 
They seem to have no objection to eating it putrid, and 
their robust constitutions apparently prevent their suffering 
from ptomaine poisoning. The most remarkable charac- 
teristic of the Igorrotes is their skill as smiths, miners, and 
metallurgists. Their forges are not usually in their villages, 
but are hidden away in the forest ; they use piston-blowers 
instead of bellows, and charcoal as fuel. Their lance-heads, 
swords, and other weapons are well shaped and of excellent 
quality. They worked the copper ores of Mancayen in 
Lepanto very successfully. From official documents it 
appears that from 1840 to 1855 they sold on an average 
each year about nineteen tons of copper, either in ingots or 
manufactured. Then a Spanish Company took up the 
work and ignominiously failed. Gold mining and washing 
was formerly a monopoly of the nobles, and the washing is 
so still to some extent. For centuries, and long before the 
Spanish conquest, the Igorrotes have brought down gold 
to trade with the coast natives. Such particulars as are 
known to me about Igorrote mining, smelting, and gold- 
washing, will be found under the headings Gold, Copper, 
Iron, in Chapter XVI. 

I have added to this account of them a list of such of 
their manufactures as I have seen or could learn of, and in 
most instances I have given the Igorrote name. The 
Igorrotes have several dialects, so that the names of the 
various articles may vary according to the locality. Here- 
with a list of the dialects and the places where each is 
spoken, taken from Spanish official sources. 

Dialect. Locality. 

Benguetano. The greater part of Benguet. 

Igorrote. Lepanto. 

Igorrote del Abra. Five villages of Bontoc. 

Igorrote de la Gran Cordillera. By the reduced Igorrotes and the 

independent tribes of the Cara- 

Igorrote Suflin. In fifteen villages of that Cor- 



Many of the Principales or head-men and others under 
Spanish influence speak and write Ilocano, which they find 
necessary for their trade with that people. More than 
twenty years ago there were seven schools in Lepanto regu- 
larly attended by five hundred and sixty-two children, of 
whom one hundred and ten could then read and write 
Spanish. No doubt by this time these schools have con- 
siderably increased. 

I am much impressed by the great industry of these 
people and with the great skill they show in everything 
they undertake. It is therefore disappointing to read in 
Foreman's book 'The Philippine Islands,' p. 213 : "Like all 
the races of the Philippines, they are indolent to the 
greatest degree." Foreman goes on to say, Polygamy 
seems to be permitted, murders are common, their huts 
are built bee-hive fashion, they keep a Dr. and Cr. account 
of heads with the Negritos. All this is probably in conse- 
quence of accepting idle stories as facts, and is nothing less 
than a libel on the Igorrotes. A people who believe in a 
Supreme Being, Creator of heaven and earth, in the immor- 
tality of the soul, in an upper and lower heaven, in punish- 
ment after death, if it has been evaded in life, who are 
strict monogamists, and who have a high behef in the 
sacredness of the marriage tie ; a people who guard the 
chastity of their daughters as carefully as the British or 
the Americans ; a people physically strong, brave, skilful, 
and industrious, have nothing in common with the wretches 
Foreman described under their name. These people live 
in the fairest and healthiest parts of Luzon, no fevers lurk 
amongst those pine-clad mountains, no sultry heats sap the 
vital powers. What an opportunity for a grand missionary 
enterprise ! What a noble material to work on, every 
condition seems favourable. The very fact of their rejec- 
tion of the form of Christianity presented to them, and 
their distrust of the Spaniards, may influence them in 
favour of some simpler doctrine. I shall feel well repaid 
for my labour in describing these people, if the truthful 
picture I have attempted to present of them should interest 
those who have the means and the will to inaugurate a new 
era, to help them along the Path. A perusal of what the old 
chroniclers say about them convinces me that they have 
done much themselves to improve their moral condition, 
and that many detestable customs, at all events attributed 
to them, have long since been relegated to oblivion. 



I now give a list of the Missions in the Igorrote and 
Tinguian territory that existed in 1892, 

Missions in Tinguian and Igorrote Territory. 





Rev. Father— 



P. Omia, 



J. Lopez. 

La Paz y San Gregorio. 


P. Fernandez. 

Abra . . 

1 Villavieja. 


M. Fonturbel. 



A. Perez. 



L. Vega. 



F. Franco. 


Cervantes y Cayan. 


A. Oyanguren. 

Benguet ^ . 

La Trinidad y Galiano. 


(T. Garcia. 
VR. Rivera. 


All the inhabitants of these towns and villages are 
Christians, and either they or their ancestors were baptised 
by missionaries of the Augustinian order. 

Some Manufactures of the Igorrotes. 

Native Name. 


Ligua, or Aligua . 

Calasdg or Caldta 


Sayac or Dayac . 


Alpilan or Sacupit 
Lagpi . 


Lance, for war or for killing deer. 
Short double-edged sword. 
("Axe used for decapitating the fallen 
\ enemy. 
Long narrow wooden shields. 
Wood knife. 
Sharp bamboo spikes to be set in the 

Bows and arrows (the Igorrotes possess 

these, but are not skilful archers). 
Javelins (favourite weapons of Igorrotes). 




Baot . 

Upit . 



Native Name. 



fPouch for medicine and antidote for 
\ snake bite. 

Uniform or war jackets. 

Chief's sword belt. 

I Ancient sword belts used by their an- 
cestors are preserved as heirlooms in 
the family. 




Calogdn or catloc6n 

Sarquet or Barguet 


Olei or UMs 

Cobal . 

Baag or Bahaque. 



An-nanga . 

Ampaya, Samit 

Barique or canes 


Bade . 


Hat made of rattan for head-men. 
„ for married men. 
„ „ bachelors, woven from cane. 
„ „ women. 
„ ,, chiefs. 
(■ „ made of rattan and cane used by 
\ Christian Igorrotes. 
Headcloth used by head-men. 

Cloaks or plaids. 
Loin-cloth of bark or cotton. 

„ for women. 
fSkirts used by head-men's wives or 
\ daughters. 

(Waterproof hoods to cover the head and 
the load carried on the back, e.g.^ to 
keep tobacco dry in transit. 
Waterproof capes of Anajas leaves. 
("Tapis, cloth worn by women round the 
\ hips. 

Woman's belt to hold up the tapis. 
Woman's shirt. 
Shirts made of the bark of the pacag. 


Ond . 


I A gold plate used by head-men or chiefs 
to cover their teeth at feasts or when 
they present themselves to Europeans 
of distinction. 
A coronet of rattan. 
Collar or necklace. 

A coronet of scented wood (candaroma). 
Necklace of reeds and coloured seeds. 
„ vertebrce of snakes. 

[ To fucc p. 264. 




Si quel 

Native Name. 

Garin . 
Bali . 



Tabin . 

Bit-jal or Bit-hal 

Galaong or Galang 

Onon-ipit . 

Necklace made of seed of climbing plant 
called Bugayon. 

„ „ white stones. 

„ ,, crocodiles' teeth. 

„ „ boars' tusks. 

„ „ mother-of-pearl. 

Coronet of polished mother-of-pearl. 
Bangles or bracelets of copper. 
Arm-rings, often of copper and gilt. 
(■Leg rings of nito and fibre, or of copper, 
\ used by men. 

„ of copper, used by men. 
Bracelets of boars' tusks. 
Bracelets of mother-of-pearl. 

(Necklace or collar of metal, having three 
pendants, the centre one being tweezers 
for pulling out hairs, the other two 
instruments for cleaning out the ears. 


Lodo . 
Idas . 

Latoc . 





Pidasen ) 

Tinac-dag ) 

Alat or Minuiniata 


Bigao . 

Opit-daguil . 

Opigdn or Acuba-quigan 


Tapil . 



Apisang or Sacupif 

Tang-tang . 

Ting-galon . 

Paga-blang . 
La-labayln . 

Household Goods. 

fSmall knife for peeling roots and splitting 
\ cane. 

Ladle of cocoa-nut shell for water. 

Wooden spoons. 

{Large wooden dish, with receptacles for 
sauce and salt. 
Rice dish of copper. 
Strainer of cane and rattan. 
Funnel made of a cocoa-nut shell. 
Basket used for carrying provisions. 

Baskets for domestic use. 

Small basket for collecting eggs. 

Provision basket. 

Basket for cleaning rice. 

Provision basket. 

Basket for keeping clothes in. 

Cane basket blackened by smoke. 

Small basket of cane. 

Great baskets to hold rice. 

Creels for carrying fish. 
fLarge basket used for carrying tobacco 
\ on the back. 

Large bamboos for carrying water. 

Calabashes for measuring or holding dasi. 
fGoblet of plaited cane used at feasts for 
\ drinking bast. 

Spinning wheels. 


Apparatus for holding skeins of cotton. 


Native Name. 


Ongot . 

Soled . 


(Wooden drainer for the spoons or paddles 
used for stirring up the basi when 
brewing it. 
Rack to hold spoons. 
Earthen cooking-pot. 
Drinking-cup for water. 
|Dish of plaited rattan for boiled camote 
\ (sweet potatoes). 
Dish of plaited rattan for boiled rice. 

Upit . 

Suput . 

Nupit . 
Tad . 
Apit . 

Sagay say 

Personal Effects. 

Pouches for tobacco and gold. 

Tobacco pouch plaited of rattan. 
(Purse made of cotton ornamented with 
\ copper wire. 

Pipes of wood, stone, clay, or metal. 

Tobacco boxes. 

Carved walking sticks. 


Pneumatic tinder-box, or fire squirt. 

Pocket book of cane and rattan. 

Deer-skin pouch used when travelling. 

Case with tittings for striking a light. 

Tali . 
Ratdn . 
Sipas . 
Disig . 


Tugas . 


Ropes of Alinao bark. 
Ropes of Labtang bark. 
Nets for taking deer and pigs. 
Traps for taking jungle-fowl. 
Images of the household gods. 
Foot-balls of rattan. 
Humming tops. 

(Branch of a tree used to frighten away 
Hammocks for sleeping or travelling. 
Throne for a chief and his favourite. 
I Ploughs. 
^ Coffins. 

Sulibao or "I 
Culibao J ■ 


Calalen or \ 
Bab-balasan f 

Musical Instrununts. 

Large drum, played with one stick. 

j Small drum held between the knees and 
( played with two sticks. 

Flutes played by single women. 




L7-'./acv/. 266. 



Native Name. 

Cong-gala or'i 
Tong-gala / 



Bating-ting or \ 
Palas-bating-ting / 



Flutes (nose flutes) played by men. 

! Large flat gong held in right hand, and 
played with left, vibrations stopped with 
right elbow. If a human jaw-bone, 
taken from a dead enemy, is fitted as a 
handle, the value is enhanced. 
A small gong. 

Triangles made of iron. 

Violin played by single men. 
/Guitar, the body made from cocoa-nut 
\ shell. 

I Cane instrument played by the women 
going to and coming from their work. 
Holding it in the right hand, they cover 
the oritice with the index-finger, and 
strike the other end on the left hand. 

Native names unknown 

Mining Tools, etc. 

I Crow-bars. 
Outfit for gold washing. 
Blowers for smiths' forges. 
Furnaces for smelting copper. 



Isinays (ii). 

A SMALL tribe living in the northern part of Pangasinan, 
towards Mount Caraballo del Sur. They are now merged 
in the Pangasinanes, and have lost all distinctive customs. 

Abacas (12). 

A small tribe living about Caranglan in the South 
Caraballo. They were formerly fierce and warlike, but 
have been pacified and converted to Christianity. They 
had a separate language which has died out, and their 
customs are now those of the Christian natives, 

Italones (13). 

These people live in the south-west corner of Nueva 
Vizcaya, about the head-waters of the River Magat. They 
are numerous, and occupy many towns and villages, 
amongst them Bayombong, Dupax, Bambang, and Aritas. 
They were formerly warlike head-hunters, and are said to 
have devoured the hearts and brains of their slain enemies 
in order to inherit their courage and wisdom. This is a 
Chinese idea, and is even now practised in Canton, where 
pieces of the heart and liver of a particularly hardened and 
desperate criminal are retailed by the executioner at a high 
price for the above purpose. They wear their hair long 
like the Ilongotes. Their weapons were the lance, shield, 
or wood-knife, and in their customs and religion they 
resembled the Igorrotes. They were said to ornament 
the hilts of their swords with the teeth of their slain 
enemies. All these detestable customs have now dis- 
appeared ; they have been converted to Christianity, and 


now are peaceful agriculturists and hunters. Game and 
fish abound ; a telegraph line runs through their territory 
with a station at Bayombong. This is part of the line 
from Manila to Aparri. 

Ibilaos (14). 

These savages inhabit the hilly country about the 
sources of the River Casepuan, which, according to 
D'Almonte's map, is a tributary of the River Casiguran, 
which runs into the Bay of Baler ; but, according to Olleros, 
is a tributary of the Rio Grande de Cagayan, However 
this may be, their habitat is on the borders of Nueva ficija 
and Nueva Vizcaya. Some of these people have been sub- 
jugated, but the others live a nomadic lif^e in the mountain 
forests, and resemble the Negritos. Their pleasure is to 
lie in wait and shoot the passers-by with their arrows. 
Like the Italones they are said to ornament their weapons 
with the teeth of the slain, and, like them, wear their hair 
long. The independent Ibilaos live by the chase, and on 
jungle produce, and do no cultivation. They are small of 
stature and weak. It is possible that they are a hybrid 
Negrito Malay race. Their bloodthirsty propensities make 
them a curse to their neighbours. 

Ilongotes (15). 

The Ilongotes inhabit the rocky fastnesses of the range 
of mountains on the east coast, called the Caraballo de 
l^aler, the whole length of the Distrito del Principe, the 
north-east corner of Nueva Vizcaya and a strip of the 
southern part of Isabela. 

Their neighbours on the east are the Negritos, who live 
along the sea-shore. These people are also their neighbours 
on the north, where they inhabit the mountains. 

On the west they have the Ifugaos in the northerly part 
of their boundary, and civilised Indians of mixed races in 
the southern part. Their nearest neighbours to the south 
are some scattered Tagals. 

Blumentritt describes them from a photograph lent him 
by Dr. A. B. Meyer, as having eyes long and deeply sunk, 
upper lip and chin hairy, the hair long plaited in a tail, and 
often reaching the hips. A Spanish authority describes 


them as similar to the other hillmen, but wearing long hair, 
and dirty and disagreeable in their aspect. 

Their dress is as primitive as that of the other savage 
races, the adult men wearing a band of beaten bark round 
the waist, the women wearing a tapis, and the children 
going quite naked. They wear rings or spirals of brass 
wire on their arms, necklaces, and other ornaments. But 
when the men have occasion to go into the Christian 
villages, they wear shirts and trousers. I have myself 
seen instances of this custom amongst the Tagbanuas in 

They are clever smiths and know how to temper their 
weapons. Their lances have different shaped heads, and 
the shafts are made of Palma Brava. Their swords are 
well-made and ornamented, and are carried in a wooden 
scabbard from a belt of webbing. This appears to be their 
favourite weapon. They never go unarmed, even for a few 
paces, and they sleep with their weapons beside them. 
Their shields are of light wood, carved, and painted red. 

Their domestic life is not unlike that of the Christian 
natives, for they are not polygamists ; they, however, are 
more careless and dirty. They purchase their wife from 
her parents. Tbey subsist by hunting and fishing, and by 
cultivating rice, maize, sweet potatoes, and other vegetables. 
They grow tobacco, which they exchange for other goods 
with the Christian natives. They catch the wild carabaos 
in traps. They are ineradicably addicted to head-hunting, 
and wage a continual war with all their neighbours, but if 
an interval of peace occurs, they fight one family or clan 
against another, for they must have heads. The marriage 
ceremony cannot be completed till the bridegroom has 
presented the bride with some of these grisly trophies ; heads 
of Christians for choice. 

They signify war by placing arrows in the path and 
sprinkling blood upon it. Treaties of peace, or rather 
truces, are sometimes ratified by human sacrifices, and the 
ceremony of blood-brothership is practised. 

They have few religious practices, although they believe 
in a Supreme Being, and in the ancestor-worship common 
to the country. The relatives assemble to celebrate a birth 
by a feast. On the fifth day a name is given to the infant. 
They take care of the sick and endeavour to cure them 
with herbs, to which they ascribe medicinal virtues. If the 
patient dies, the relatives devour ever>'thing in the house in 


order to mitigate their grief, and they bury the corpse 
within twenty-four hours of death, placing some provisions 
upon the grave. From a statement in a Spanish official 
publication, the Ilongote dialect is spoken in two towns 
and twenty-two rancherias of Nueva Vizcaya, and in four 
rancherias in the district of Principe. This shows that at 
least on their western border they are now somewhat held 
in check. But the poor Negritos still have to suffer their 

Mayoyaos a7id Silipanes (i6). 

These people are very numerous, and inhabit the north- 
west corner of Nueva Vizcaya. and the south-west corner 
of Isabela, between the Cordillera Central and the River 
Magat. For neighbours, they have on the east the Ifugaos, 
those deadly lasso-throwers ; on the west, the Igorrotes are 
separated from them by the Cordillera ; to the north they 
have the Gaddanes, and the Itetapanes, and to the south 
the Italones. In appearance, dress, arms and ornaments, 
they resemble the Igorrotes of Lepanto. The Ifugao 
language is spoken at the missions of Quiangan and Silipan, 
and in a large number of hamlets of these people. They 
were pacified and converted to Christianity about half a 
century ago, and are gradually improving in civilisation. 

Ifugaos (17). 

The Ifugaos, who bear a strong resemblance to the 
Japanese, inhabit a territory in central Nueva Vizcaya, 
and in the south of Isabela, mostly between the River 
Magat and the Rio Grande, but they have a great many 
hamlets on the left bank of the Magat. They cultivate 
rice, camote, and other crops, but prefer to live by robbery 
whenever possible. They are persistent head-hunters, 
frequently at war with the neighbouring tribes, or amongst 

One notable peculiarity must be mentioned. Besides 
the lance, knife, and bow and arrows, they use the lasso, 
which they throw with great dexterity. Lurking near a 
trail, they cast the fatal coil over some unwary traveller, 
and promptly decapitate him, to add his skull to their 
collection, and decorate their hut. 

It is their custom to wear as many rings in their ears a"^ 
they have taken heads. 


Major Galvez, after a skirmish with these people, found 
the corpse of one of their warriors who wore thirty-two 
death-rings in his ears. 

Their religion is said to be after the style of the Igor- 
rotes, and some other hill-tribes of Luzon. Their chief god 
Cabunian had two sons, Sumabit and Cabigat, and two 
daughters, Buingan and Daunguen, who married amongst 
themselves, and from them the human race is descended. 
Ancestor-worship is also practised. The Spaniards built 
and garrisoned a chain of forts in the Ifugao territory to 
keep them in order, and of late years their murderous 
incursions have been kept in check. It would require an 
enquiry on the spot to say whether there is any prospect 
of this tribe becoming civilised, and converted to Chris- 

Gaddanes (i8). 

The Gaddanes occupy the north-east quarter of Saltan 
and Bondoc, and their territory stretches over into Isabela 
in a south-easterly direction to the River Magat, thus 
bordering on the five-mile strip of Ibanag territory on the 
left bank of the Rio Grande. The upper part of the Rio 
Chico runs through their Saltan territory, and the River 
Libug through their Isabela territory. 

In appearance they are darker than any other of the 
hillmen of Luzon. They are not as well built as the Igor- 
rotes. They have round eyes, and large, flat noses. They 
are very dirty. Their houses are built on lofty piles, and 
the ladder is drawn up at night, or in war time. They 
are partly converted to Christianity, and are of a milder 
disposition than their neighbours. 

Itetapanes (19). 

These people live in Bontoc, almost the centre of 
Northern Luzon. On the west they have the Busaos 
Igorrotes, on the east the Gaddanes, to the north-west they 
have the Guinanes, and to the south the Mayoyaos. They 
are more like the Gaddanes than any other neighbours, 
especially in the eyes and hair, yet in other respects they 
are something like the Negritos in appearance, and much 
more so in their dispositions and customs, for it has not 
been possible to civilise them. Their arms are the same as 



the Busaos, and, like them, they wear a cyHndrical shako, 
which they dye a brilliant red. They appear to be a 
hopeless race. 

Guinanes (20). 

These terrible neighbours of the peaceful Tinguianes 
inhabit both slopes of the Cordillera Central in Abra and 
Bontoc. They do not pass to the west of the River Abra, 
or its affluent, the Pusulguan. 

On the south the Guinanes have the warlike Busaos, 
who are well able to defend themselves, and to retaliate on 
their aggressors. Consequently, the Tinguianes are the 
principal victims ; in fact, some years back, they had no 
peace, and are not now free from danger. 

The fame and respect enjoyed by a successful head- 
hunter is the great incentive to them to persevere in their 
sanguinary forays, which they conduct with the greatest 

The return of the head-hunters to their village with 
their ghastly trophies is celebrated by prolonged and 
frantic orgies — feasting and drinking, singing war-songs, 
music and dancing. In fact, their rejoicings only differ in 
degree and intensity from those customary in Christian 
nations to celebrate the slaughter of their enemies. 

So fond are the Guinanes of getting heads, that when 
not at war with other tribes they fight amongst themselves. 

They are much like the Igorrotes, and, like them, are 
settled in towns and villages. They practise agriculture, 
and are excellent smiths, and forge specially good knives, 
which are much esteemed by the Busaos, and find a ready 
sale amongst them. 

Little is known of their manners and customs, or of 
their numbers, since few travellers care to run the risk 
of having their skulls added to the collection of some 

I cannot suggest any use this tribe could be to the 
United States, for I do not think the most enthusiastic or 
devoted missionary would hanker after being appointed to 
convert them, and even if such an one could be found, the 
probability of his success would be very small. 




Calduas, or Itaves (21). 

A SMALL tribe, living in a strip of country stretching across 
the great loop formed by the Rio Chico de Cagayan just 
before it enters the Rio Grande. They are peaceful and 
industrious cultivators, and grow rice and excellent tobacco. 
In former days, when the State monopoly was in force, 
they used to smuggle this, and were attacked, and their 
plantations laid waste in consequence. But now they are 
able to trade freely, and must have become prosperous. 
Very little is known about them. The word Calauas is 
also spelt Calaguas. 

Camuangas and Bayabo>ianes» (22). 

These people live in the southern part of the province 
of Cagayan, say about 17° 30' north latitude. On the north 
they have the Calauas, or Calaguas, and on the south the 
Dadayags. D'Almonte's map shows no hamlets in their 
territory, and the nearest t'isita is Gamuasan. Nothing is 
known about them, and Blumentritt considers it not im- 
probable that they are a branch of the Dadayags. 

Dadayags (23). 

A small tribe living in the north-west comer of Isabela, 
not far from the left bank of the Rio Grande. 

Nabayuganes (24). 

These people, who have a language of their own, live in 
two long valleys extending from the Cordillera Central 
towards the cast. According to D'Almonte's map, these 


parallel valleys lead down to the town of Malaneg, and in 
each of them there is a river. That in the northern valley 
is called the River Nabbuangan, and that in the southern 
valley the River Nabbuanguan. They join before reaching 
Malaneg, forming the River Nagalat, a tributary of the Rio 
Chico de Cagayan. Nothing is known of their religion or 
nature. On the north-east of the Nabayuganes live the 

Aripas (25). 

This tribe inhabits the hills to the west of the junction 
of the Rio Grande and Rio Chico of Cagayan. They have 
the Apayaos on the west, the Ibanags on the east, the 
Calingas on the north, and the Ilanes on the south. They 
are peaceful, and partly converted to Christianity. 

Calingas (26). 

These people inhabit the mountains to the north of the 
Aripas. On their north and east they have the Ibanags, 
and on the west the Apayaos. They are supposed to have 
a good deal of Chinese blood in their veins. They are now 
peaceful, like the Aripas. 

Tinguianes {2y). 

The Tinguianes inhabit the western half of the province 
of Abra, and their villages are thickly scattered about on 
the eastern slopes of the Ilocos mountains, and on the 
banks of the River Abra. They have also pushed their 
way to the extreme north-east corner of Abra, and they 
extend southwards and westwards along the coast as far as 
Punta Darigayos. Santiago is a Christian Tinguian town, 
and was founded in 1736. 

The Tinguianes are of a peaceful disposition, and are 
gradually becoming civilised and converted to Christianity. 
In fact, of late years, the advance of the Spaniards has been 
considerable. It is only in the more remote parts of their 
territory that some of them retain their independence, and 
their ancient laws, beliefs and customs. The constant inter- 
course they have with the Ilocanos has resulted in spreading 
that dialect amongst them, whilst their own language is 
dying out. 

In appearance the Tinguianes differ considerably from 

T 2 


the other mountain tribes of Luzon, being taller, and of a 
much lighter colour. Their noses are not flattened like 
those of the Malays, but are aquiline, and remind one of 
the features of the Cholos of the Peruvian coast. They 
are a cleanly people ; the men wear turbans, jacket and 
trousers ; the women belonging to their nobility have their 
garments beautifully embroidered. They wear arm-sheaths, 
and sometimes leg-sheaths, made of plaited fibre, and 
ornamented with beads, or with coloured stones, brought 
from the Batanes islands, which they purchase in Ilocos. 
They also wear necklaces of these stones, copper or silver 
ear-rings, and other trinkets. 

Spanish writers consider these people to have a strong 
admixture of Chinese blood, and suppose it may be from a 
remnant of the pirates under Li-ma-hon, who were defeated 
by Juan Salcedo in 1574. The learned Blumentritt, how- 
ever, dissents from this opinion, which he considers to be a 
modern invention, and gives Salcedo credit for doing his 
work veiy thoroughly, and not letting many of the pirates 
escape. He says that, although in dress and appearance 
the Tinguianes are very similar to the fishermen of the 
province of Fo-Kien, there are no Chinese words to be 
found in their dialect, and that consequently the inter- 
mixture of Chinese can only have been small. However 
this may be, the coast of Fo-Kien, which is opposite 
Formosa, is only about 500 miles from the Port of Vigan, 
the currents are favourable for the southerly voyage, and 
sailing craft can cross in either monsoon. Consequently, 
either as traders, fugitives, or castaways, Fo-Kien sailors or 
fishermen could easily have arrived on the coast. 

The Tinguianes assiduously cultivate their land, and 
irrigate their rice-fields with some skill. They breed horses 
and cattle, which they sell in the markets of Ilocos, as well 
as jungle produce, wax, skins and gold-dust. They raft 
timber down the Abra River and make for sale various 
articles of wood, such as bateas, ladles and spoons, also they 
make mats and baskets. 

Their marriages are conducted in a similar manner to 
those of other tribes, the ceremony, whether Christian or 
heathen, being followed by the usual feasts and dancing, 
and music in the intervals of eating and drinking. Their 
instruments are drums, flutes and guitars. As usual, roast 
pig is the principal dish, the animal being roasted whole on 
a spit of cane. When the feast is over the nevvl)'-married 


couple are conducted to their house by the principal chief 
or elder. A large mat being spread on the gound they lie 
down on it keeping at a distance of several feet from each 
other. A boy of six or eight years of age then lies down 
between them, and the elders retire leaving the trio together. 
The bride and bridegroom arc forbidden to indulge in any 
caresses, nor even to speak to each other till the following 
day. The healthy life led by the women enables them to 
recover very rapidly after child-birth. In fact, they return 
to their usual avocations directly after the ceremony of 
purification, which consists of washing the newly-born infant 
in running water. Divorce among the heathen is merely a 
matter of paying a fine of some thirty dollars, in money or 
in kind, to the village chief or elder, or to the Goberna- 
doreillo, if the village is under Spanish rule. Divorce 
is not allowed amongst those who are converted, and 
this must be a great hindrance to their acceptance of 

They take little care of the sick, and when hope is 
given up the patient is left alone to die. The Peruvian 
Indians have a similar custom. Amongst the Serranos, 
when a sick person does not soon show signs of recovery, a 
family meeting is called, and a fixed sum is voted for his 
cure, say twelve or twenty reals. When this amount has 
been spent, the patient is removed from his couch and laid 
upon a hide on the ground outside the house. A child is 
posted to fan him and keep off the flies, and only water is 
given him till he dies. 

The Tinguianes formerly buried their dead in pits dug 
under their houses, after subjecting the corpses to a baking 
or drying process, and on certain days in the year food was 
placed near the tombs for the souls of the dead to partake 
of Those who are converted have of course to bury their 
dead in the cemetery, and to pay a fee to the priest. 

They share the idea that seems to prevail amongst all 
Malays, that the soul is absent from the body during sleep, 
and that consequently it is dangerous and wicked to awake 
anybody suddenly. The most dreadful thing that can 
happen to anybody, therefore, is to die whilst sleeping, 
leaving his soul wandering about. Their most desperate 
curse is to wish that this may happen to an adversary. 
This seems to reach a higher level of cursing than the oaths 
of the Tagals which I have previously mentioned. The 
usual respect for ancestors is shown, and any weapons or 


ornaments which have belonged to them are carefully 
preserved as valued heirlooms. The names of an ancestor 
must, however, on no account be pronounced by his 
descendants, so that if any necessity arises to answer a 
question which involves mentioning the name of one, a 
friend not related to the person enquired about must be 
called in to answer. 

Monsieur de la Gironiere visited these people, and 
describes them as men of good stature, slightly bronzed, 
with straight hair, regular profiles, and aquiline noses. 
The women truly beautiful and graceful. They appeared 
to him to resemble the people of the South of France, 
except for their costume and language. The men wore a 
belt and a sort of turban made from the bark of the fig-tree. 
Their arms consisted of a long lance, a small axe, called 
aligua, and a shield. The women wore a belt and a narrow 
apron which came down to their knees, their heads being 
ornamented with pearls, and grains of coral and gold were 
fixed amongst their hair. The upper parts of their hands 
were painted blue, and they wore plaited sheaths orna- 
mented with beads on their fore-arms ; these sheaths 
strongly compressed the fore-arm, being put on when the 
women were young, and they prevented the development 
of the fore-arm, whilst causing the wrists and hands to 
swell. This is a beauty amongst the Tinguianes as the 
little foot is amongst the Chinese. 

They occupied seventeen villages, and each family had 
two habitations, one on the ground for use in the day, and 
one fixed on piles or on the summits of lofty trees, as much 
as sixty or eighty feet from the ground, where they sleep, 
to protect themselves from the nocturnal attacks of the 
Guinanes, their mortal and sanguinary enemies. From 
these lofty dwellings they threw down stones upon assail- 
ants. In the middle of each village there is a large shed 
which serves for meetings and public ceremonies. He 
further states that after an attack of the Guinanes had been 
repulsed from Laganguilan-y-Madalay by the Tinguianes 
he went to an assembly at that village and witnessed a 
ceremony in honour of the victory. The heads of the slain 
enemies were exhibited to the crowd, and various speeches 
were made. The skulls were then split open and the brains 
removed and given to some young girls, who worked them 
up with their hands in a quantity of basi or native beer. 
The compound was then served in cups to the chiefs, who 


partook of it with every appearance of enjoyment, and was 
afterwards handed round to all the warriors in due order. 
M. de la Gironiere and his Tagal servant also partook of 
this refreshment out of politeness to their hosts. The 
ceremony was followed by a dance and a smoking concert, 
during which copious libations of basi were consumed. 

M. de la Gironiere has omitted to mention how his hosts, 
after this drunken orgy, managed to regain their elevated 
sleeping quarters, sixty or eighty feet from the ground. 
One would think that the Tinguian coroner would have been 
busy the next morning. He, however, docs tell us that, 
being unable to sleep, he got up in the night and looked 
about him, finding a well or pit, which he descended. At 
different levels in this shaft were short galleries or niches, 
and in each of these was a dried or mummified corpse. 
This shaft was sunk inside the house where he slept. 

He learnt from the Tinguianes that they believed in the 
existence of the soul, that it leaves the body after death, 
but remains in the family. Also that they venerated any 
strange object, such as a rock or tree which resembled some 
animal. They would make a hut over or near it, and 
celebrate a feast, at which they sacrificed pigs ; they after- 
wards danced and drunk basi, then burnt down the hut and 
retired. They had, he says, only one wife, but might have 
several concubines, who, however, did not inhabit the 
conjugal domicile, but each had a hut of her own. The 
riches of a Tinguian was demonstrated by the number of 
porcelain vases he possessed. According to M. de la 
Gironiere, the Tinguianes mummified their dead by sub- 
jecting them to a long diying process. The body, propped 
up on a stool, was surrounded by braziers with charcoal or 
wood embers, and the moisture which exuded from it was 
wiped off by the women with cotton. When the body was 
well dried up it was kept above ground for fifteen days and 
then committed to the tomb. The neighbours and friends 
kept up the wake and pronounced eulogies on the defunct 
until they had consumed all the eatables and liquor in the 
house, when they took their departure. 

These people must have very greatly increased in 
numbers, as the Spanish authority has extended its protec- 
tion to them, checking the incursions of the Guinanes and 
other savages. It has been stated that in former years the 
Tinguianes were much sought after as recruits for the 
garrison of Manila. They do not appear to be a warlike 


race, yet so fine a body of men ought to be able to supply 
a battalion of infantry for the native army which the United 
States will have to raise, for nobody can suppose that 
25,000 young Americans can be permanently kept in 
garrison in the Archipelago. But this I discuss in another 

Adangs {28). 

According to D'Almonte's map in the latitude of 
Pasuquin, Province of Ilocos Notre, the Cordillera Del 
Norte bends to the eastward and throws out a spur to the 
north-west, forming a Y, and enclosing a considerable 
valley, through which runs a river called the Bate, Bucarog, 
or Admit, which falls into the Bay of Bangui. This is the 
habitat of the Adangs, a small tribe, yet a nation, for 
their language has no resemblance to that of any of 
their neighbours. Their customs are nearer those of the 
Apayaos than any other. They are civilised and have 
been Christians for generations. Their chief town is Adan 
or Adam. 

Apayaos (29). 

This race was formerly very warlike, but is now more 
civilized, and many even converted to Christianity. They 
inhabit the mountainous region round about the River 
Apayao, on the east of the Cordillera del Norte and extend 
down towards the plains of the Rio Chico. 

They pay some attention to agriculture, and besides 
growing vegetables and maize for their own use, they raise 
tobacco and cacao which they trade away to the Ilocanos in 
exchange for such articles as they require. 

Their houses compare favourably with those of the 
other hill-tribes. They are raised to a considerable height, 
being square in form with heavy hardw^ood posts at the 
corners. The floor is made of cedar planks, the roof is 
thatched with cogon or reeds, and the walls and partitions 
are of plaited palm leaves. A fire-place is arranged in one 
corner. They ornament the walls with remarkable taste, 
hanging up the ornaments and arms of their ancestors, 
which they greatly prize and will not part with for any 

They also highly value Chinese and Japanese pottery 
or porcelain. 


Needless to say that the worship of ancestors is with 
them piously performed. 

They used to be head-hunters and made the death of 
any of their chief men an excuse to lie in ambush and 
massacre any inoffensive passers-by for the purpose of 
taking the heads to place round the corpse and afterwards 
bury them with it. 

However, the steady pressure of the Spanish authority, 
during long terms of years, has nearly eradicated this 
detestable custom, and if practised at all, it is only in the 
remoter fastnesses of the mountains, where they cannot yet 
be controlled. 

The Apayaos living in the plains are mostly reduced to 
obedience, and many pay the poll-tax. 

It would seem that there is a prospect of these people 
being civilised and becoming useful cultivators. 

Catalanganes and Ir ay as (30-31). 

The Irayas live in scattered hamlets on the summits of 
the Sierra Madre, and on its western slopes righf" down to 
the Rio Grande. Their territory extends for about twenty 
geographical miles on each side of the 17th parallel. 
Amongst them live many Negritos who have renounced 
their nomadic life, and have adopted the manners and 
customs of their hosts. The tattooing of the Irayas and 
Negritos is similar. The Irayas are a Malay tribe amongst 
whom are found individuals of a Mongolian type, others 
are hybrid Negrito Malays. 

They do a little slovenly agriculture, using buffaloes for 
ploughing. They catch an abundance of fish from the four 
considerable streams running through their territory. They 
consume a large quantity of fish with their rice, and salt 
and sell the surplus to their neighbours. They are charac- 
teristically light-hearted and hospitable, and readily receive 
revwntados and other strangers. Their religion is the usual 
Anito worship. They build wretched houses, and arc very 
dirty in their habits, throwing their refuse down in front of 
the house. 

The Catalanganes take their name from the River 
Catalangan which runs into the Rio Grande near Ilagan. 
They are a branch of the Irayas, but show a more strongly 
marked Mongolian type. 


They are cleaner than the Irayas, and more industrious, 
and provident, storing up provisions against a bad harvest. 

Their fields are much better kept than those of the 
Irayas, and they employ their spare time in felling trees 
and hewing them into canoes, which find a ready sale at 

They dress much like the Christian Malays, but are 
tattooed in patterns of Chinese or Japanese origin. 

Their laws prescribe severe penalties for theft and other 
crimes. Their weapons are bows and arrows, and they are 
said to be very cowardly. Their choice of weapons con- 
firms this statement. 

They differ much from the Irayas in character, for they 
are inhospitable, avaricious and greedy, and of a gloomy 
disposition. On the other hand, they keep their houses 

They have temples for worship, and some roughly-made 
monuments. According to Semper, they have two pairs of 
gods which they specially worship in June : Tschichenan, 
with his wife Bebenaugan, and Sialo with his wife Binalinga. 
The usual ancestor-worship also prevails, and they show 
great respect for the Anitos according to seniority, providing 
special shelters and little benches near their houses for their 

Both Irayas and Catalanganes have Gobemadorcillos 
appointed by the Spanish Military Governor of Isabela. 
They pay the poll-tax, called by the Spaniards "Acknow- 
ledgment of Vassalage," but are otherwise independent and 
administer their own laws and customs. They are quite 
peaceful, and will doubtless in time advance in civilisation. 

( 283 ) 


Catubangancs (32). 

A TRIBE of savages inhabiting the mountains of Guina- 
yangan in Tayabas, from whence they raid the Christian 
villages and drive off cattle. Nothing is known about their 
origin or habits ; they have some wandering Negritos as 

Vicols (33). 

The Vicols inhabit the southern half of the province of 
Camarines Norte, the whole of Camarines Sur and Albay, 
the islands of Catanduanes, Burias, and Ticao, and the 
northern shores of Masbate. They are civilised, and have 
been Christians for centuries. 

They speak a dialect of their own, which, according to 
Jagor, is midway between Tagal and Visay, which dialect 
is spoken in its greatest purity by the inhabitants of the 
Isarog volcano and its immediate neighbourhood, and that 
thence towards the west the dialect becomes more and more 
like the Tagal, and towards the east like the Visay until by 
degrees, before reaching the ethnographical boundary, it 
merges into those kindred languages. 

In manners and customs they appear to be half-bred 
between these two races, yet, according to F. Blumentritt, 
they preceded the Tagals, and were in fact the first Malays 
to arrive in Luzon. They show signs of intermixture with 
Polynesian or Papuan stock. 

They are physically inferior to the Tagals, nor do they 
possess the proud warlike spirit of the dwellers in north 
Luzon. They are less cleanly, and live in poorer houses. 

The men dress like the Tagals, but the women wear the 
patadion instead of a saya, and a shirt oi guindra. 

Blumentritt says the men carry the Malay kris instead 


of the bolo, but I did not see a kris carried by any one when 
I visited the province. 

In fact, the regulations enforced at that time by the 
Guardia Civil were against carrying such a weapon. The 
bolo, on the other hand, is a necessary tool. 

I visited the province of Camarines Sur, going from 
Manila to Pasacao by sea, and from there travelled by road 
to an affluent of the River Vicol, and then by canoe on 
a moonlit night to Nueva Caceres, the capital of the 

Here I met a remarkable man, the late Bishop Gainza, 
and was much impressed by his keen intellect and great 
knowledge of the country. 

He was said to be a man of great ambition, and I can 
quite believe it. Originally a Dominican monk, it was 
intended that he should have been made Archbishop of 
Manila, but, somehow. Father Pedro Paya, at that time 
Procurator of the Order in Madrid, got himself nominated 
instead, and Gainza had to content himself with the 
bishopric of Nueva Caceres. 

He was a model of self-denial, living most frugally on a 
small part of his revenue, contributing a thousand dollars 
a year to the funds of the Holy Father, and spending the 
remainder in building or repairing churches and schools in 
his diocese, or in assisting undertakings he thought likely 
to benefit the province. 

Amongst other works, I remember that he had tried to 
cut a canal from the River Vicol to the Bay of Ragay. He 
had excavated a portion of it, but either on his death, or 
from the difficulties raised by the Public Works Depart- 
ment, the work was abandoned. 

The P>anciscan friars, who held the benefices in that 
province, opposed him, and annoyed him in every possible 

The present bishop, Father Arsenio Ocampo, formerly 
an Augustinian monk, is a clever and enlightened man, with 
whom I had dealings when he was Procurator-General of 
his Order. 

I have made this digression from my subject, because so 
much has been said against the clergy of the Philippines, 
that I feel impelled to bring before my readers this instance 
of a bishop who constantly endeavoured to promote the 
interests of his province. 

Nueva Caceres possessed several schools, a hospital, a 


lepers' hospital, and a training-college for school-mistresses 
had just been established by Bishop Gainza's initiative. 

The shops were mostly in the hands of Chinese, who 
did a flourishing trade in Manchester goods, patadoins, and 
coloured handkerchiefs. 

There were several Spanish and Mestizo merchants who 
dealt in hemp and rice. 

From Nueva Caceres I travelled by a good road to 
Iriga, a town near the volcano of that name, passing close 
to the Isarog on my way. From Iriga I visited the country 
round about, and Lake Bula. 

Some years after I went from Manila by sea to Tabaco, 
on the Pacific coast of Albay, getting a fine night view of 
the Mayon volcano (8272 feet) in violent eruption. 

From Tabaco I drove to Tivi and visited the celebrated 
boiling-well and hot-springs at that place, much frequented 
by the natives, and sometimes by Europeans, for the cure 
of rheumatism and other diseases. 

Now that the Stars and Stripes float over the Philippines 
it is to be hoped that a regular sanatorium will be erected 
at this beautiful and health-restoring spot, the advantages 
of which might attract sufl"erers from all the Far East. 

On these journeys I had a good opportunity of studying 
the people. The chief exports are Abaca (Manila hemp), 
and rice. In Camarines Sur the principal crop is rice, whilst 
in Albay the hemp predominates, and they import rice. 

The cultivation of rice, which I have briefly described 
when writing of the Tagals, is not an occupation calculated 
to improve the minds or bodies of those engaged in it, and 
I have noticed that wherever this is the staple crop the 
peasantry are in a distinctly lower condition than where 
cane is planted and sugar manufactured. Their lives are 
passed in alternate periods of exhausting labour and of 
utter idleness, there is nothing to strive for, nothing to 
learn, nothing to improve. The same customs go on from 
generation to generation, the same rude implements are 
used, and the husbandman paid for his labour in kind lives 
destitute of comfort in the present, and without hope for 
the future. 

Nor can the cultivation and preparation of hemp be 
considered as a much more improving occupation. 

Little care, indeed, is required by the Musa tcxtilis 
after the first planting, and the cleaning of the fibre is a 
simple matter, but very laborious. 


Several Spaniards are settled in these provinces, also a 
few agents of British houses in Manila, and some Chinese 
and Mestizos. They usually complain bitterly of the 
difficulty they experience in getting hemp delivered to 
them owing to the laziness and unpunctuality of the 

Yet, notwithstanding this, most of them live in affluence 
and some have amassed fortunes by Vicol labour. There 
is, in fact, a good deal of money in Albay, Daraga, and 
other towns in the hemp districts, and they are the happy 
hunting-ground of the Jew pedlar who there finds a good 
market for yellow diamonds and off-colour gems unsaleable 
in London or Paris. Houndsditch and Broadway will do 
well to note. 

The peasantry, however, either from improvidence or 
aversion to steady labour, seem to be rather worse off than 
the Tagals and Pampangos, more especially those amongst 
them who cultivate paddy. 

The whole of the large amount of hemp exported from 
Manila and Cebu is cleaned by hand. 

Several attempts have been made to employ machinery, 
but the inherent conditions of the industry are unfavourable 
to success in this line. 

The plants are grown principally on the eastern slopes 
of the volcanic mountains of Southern Luzon, and the 
adjacent islands where the soil is soft and friable and roads 
are unknown. 

The heavy stems of the plants cannot profitably be 
conveyed to fixed works for treatment, and no machine has 
yet been devised light enough to be carried up to the Idles 
or plantations and able to compete with hand labour. In 
a recent report to the British North Borneo Company, 
Mr. W. C. Cowie mentions his hopes that Thompson's 
Fibre Company are about to send out a trial decorticator, 
with engine and boiler to drive it, to the River Padas, in 
that company's territories, for cleaning the fibre of the 
numerous plants of the Ahisa textilis growing in that 
region. It will be interesting to learn the result. Possibly 
the conditions of transport by rail or river are more 
favourable than in the Philippines, and in that case a 
measure of success is quite possible. But few errors 
are more expensive than to unwarrantably assume that 
machinery must necessarily be cheaper than hand labour. 
Anyhow, as regards the Philippines here is a nice 





[/V/iiif />. 237. 


little problem. If the mechanics of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut cannot solve it, I do not know who can. 

The Vicol labourers proceed to the Idtes in couples, 
carrying their simple and efficient apparatus, all of which, 
except the knife, they make themselves. 

One man cuts down the plant, removes the outer 
covering, and separates the layers forming the stem, 
dividing them into strips about one and a half inches 
wide, and spreading them out to air. 

The other man standing at his bench, takes a strip and 
places the middle of it across the convex block and under 
the knife, which is held up by the spring of a sapling over- 
head. Then, placing one foot on a treadle hanging from 
the handle of the knife, he firmly presses the latter down on 
the block. It should be explained that the knife is not 
sharp enough to cut the fibres. Firmly grasping the strip 
in both hands, and throwing his body backwards, he steadily 
draws the strip towards him till all the fibre has passed the 
knife ; then, removing his foot from the treadle, the knife is 
lifted from the block by the spring, leaving the pulp and 
waste behind it. Sweeping this off, he reverses the half- 
cleaned strip, and twisting the cleaned fibre round one 
hand and wrist, and grasping it also with the other, he 
draws the part he formerly held, under the knife, pressing 
the treadle with the foot as before, and thus completes the 
cleaning of one strip. The fibre is often six feet long, and 
only requires drying in the sun to be marketable. 

A man is able to clean about twenty-five pounds of 
hemp per day, and receives one half of it for his labour. 

He usually sells his share to his employer for a trifle 
under the market price. 



Mestizos or half-breeds. 

When Legaspi founded the city of Manila, in 1571, he 
found that Chinese junks frequented the port, and carried 
on a trade with Tondo and the other native towns. 

Three years later, the Chinese pirate, Li-ma-hon, made 
an attack on the new city with a force of 2000 men in 
ninety-five small vessels, but was repulsed. 

In 1603, the Chinese in Manila, under Eng-cang, rose 
against the Spaniards, and entrenched themselves in the 
suburbs. The Spaniards failed in the first assault with 
heavy loss, but ultimately the Chinese were defeated, and 
23,000 were massacred, the few remaining being made 
galley-slaves. In 1639, another insurrection of the Chinese 
occurred and again some 23,000 were massacred. 

In 1662, in consequence of the Chinese pirate Cong- 
seng demanding tribute from the governor of the Philip- 
pines, a decree was made that all Chinese must leave. 
The Chinese, however, refused, and entrenched themselves 
in the Parian, or market-place, outside the walls. They 
were attacked, and many thousands were killed. A body 
of 2000 endeavoured to march north, but were massacred 
by the Pampangos. 

In 1762, when Manila was taken by the forces of the 
Honourable East India Company, the Chinese eagerly 
joined in the plundering. It having been rumoured that 
the Chinese intended to join the British forces, Don Simon 
de Anda condemned them all to death, and most of them 
were hung, their property passing to their executioners. 

In 1820, there occurred the fifth and last massacre of 
the Chinese, The mob of Manila took advantage of the 


abject cowardice of the acting-governor, General Folgueras, 
and of other authorities, and for hours vented their spite on 
the unhappy Chinamen, showing them no mercy, and 
carrying off their goods. 

Since that time no general massacre has taken place, 
but such is the dislike of the natives to the Chinese, that 
these latter would have been quickly exterminated if the 
Spanish Government had failed at any time to protect 

The Chinese are mostly herded together in Manila, and 
in some of the larger towns. Some few venture to keep 
stores in the villages, and others travel about at the risk of 
their lives in the sugar, hemp and tobacco districts, as 
purchasers and collectors of produce. 

I consider that they should not be allowed to do this, 
for the invariable result of their interference is to reduce 
the quality of everything they handle. Their trade is 
based upon false weights and measures, and upon adultera- 
tion, or insufficient preparation of the produce. They are 
very patient with the natives, and this gives them a very 
great advantage over a European, even if the latter is used 
to Eastern ways. An American would probably have less 
patience than any European in negotiating a purchase of 
produce from an up-country native ; the waste of time 
would exasperate him. I feel sure that most of those who 
know the Philippines will agree with me as to the evil 
results of the operations of the Chinese produce-brokers. 
Adulterated sugar, half-rotten hemp, half-cured tobacco, 
badly-prepared indigo — that is what the Chinaman brings 
in. He spoils every article he trades in, and discredits it in 
the world's markets. 

The Chinese nowhere cultivate the soil, except the 
gardens and market-gardens around Manila, and a few of 
the large towns. 

This is, perhaps, not due to their unwillingness to do so, 
but because they dare not ; the natives are too jealous of 
them, and their lives would not be safe away from the 

Their genius is commercial, and they are at home in 
shop, bazaar, or office. I think that the Chinese agri- 
culturist does not leave his home for the Philippines. 
Most of those in the islands come from Amoy, and the 
district round that port. Some few are from Macao ; they 
seem to be all townsmen, not countrymen. Each shop- 



keeper has several assistants, ranging in age from boys of 
ten or twelve upwards. On arrival, they are placed in a 
sort of school — a very practical one — to learn Spanish ; for 
instance, numbers and coins, with such terms as Muy 
barato — very cheap. As a Chinaman cannot pronounce 
the letter R, but substitutes L, this becomes Muy balato. 
Thus, also, the Roo-Kiu Islands become the Loo-Chew 
Islands, in Chinese. 

The Chinaman is an excellent shop-keeper or pedlar, 
and some years ago, the British importers of Manchester 
goods made it a practice to give credit for goods supplied 
to the Chinese ; the banks also extended some facilities to 
them. In consequence, however, of heavy losses to several 
British firms, this custom has been abandoned, or con- 
siderably restricted. 

The Chinese are good barbers, cooks and gardeners. 
As breeders of fish they are unrivalled. Besides this they 
compete successfully with the Tagal in the following 
trades : blacksmiths, boiler-makers, stokers, engine-drivers, 
ship and house carpenters, boat-builders, cabinet-makers 
and varnishers, iron and brass-founders, shoe-makers, tin- 
smiths. These artisans are very industrious, and labour 
constantly at their trades. Their great feast is at the 
Chinese New Year, which occurs in February, when they 
take about a week's holiday, and regale themselves on 
roast pig, and other delicacies, making also presents of 
sweets, fruits, and Jocchiu hams, to their patrons and 

There are Chinese apothecaries in Manila, but they are 
mostly resorted to by their own countrymen, and their 
awful concoctions are nasty beyond belief They deal 
largely in aphrodisiacs. 

Some Chinese doctors practise in Manila, and are said 
to make wonderful cures, even on patients given up by the 
orthodox medicos. They feel the pulse at the temporal 
artery, or else above the bridge of the nose. 

They used to suffer a good deal from the jealousy of 
the Spanish practitioners, and were persecuted for practising 
without a qualification. 

Large numbers of Chinese coolies are employed in 
Manila handling coal, loading and unloading ships and 
lighters, pressing hemp, drying sugar, and in other work 
too hard and too constant for the natives. 

The number of Chinese in Luzon has been variously 


estimated at from 30,000 to 60,000 men, and two or three 
hundred women. The anonymous author of ' Filipinas — 
Problema Fundamental' (Madrid, 1891), gives the number 
of Chinese in the whole Archipelago as 125,000, and he 
evidently had access to good information. The fact is 
nobody knows, and in all probability the Spanish authorities 
had an interest in understating the number. 

The Chinese were organised quite separately from the 
natives. Wherever their numbers were considerable, they 
had their own tribunal, with a Gobernadorcillo and Prin- 
cipales, the former called the Capitan-China. 

In Manila, this Capitan was a man of importance, or else 
the nominee of such a person. Certain governors-general 
received, nay, even extorted, large sums from the Capitan- 
China. Weyler is said to have been one of these offenders, 
but Jovellar caused the Capitan-China to be turned out of 
Malacaiian for offering him a present. No one who knew 
them would ever believe that Moriones or Despujols would 
condescend to accept presents from the Chinamen. One 
favourite trick of the more corrupt governors-general was 
to have some very obnoxious law made in Spain ; for 
instance, obliging the Chinese to become cabezas-de- 
barangay, or responsible tax-collectors of their own country- 
men, and then extort a ransom for not putting the law in 
force. Weyler was said to have received from the 
Chinese on this account, but some of this would have to go 
to Madrid. 

At another time it was proposed that the Chinese 
should be obliged to keep their accounts in Spanish on 
books having every leaf stamped, and that every firm 
should employ a trained accountant who had passed an 
examination in book-keeping, and obtained a diploma as a 
commercial expert. What it cost the Celestials to avoid 
this infliction I do not know. 

Amidst all this extortion from the Spaniard, and not- 
withstanding the ever-present hatred of the native, the 
Manila Chinaman is a sleek and prosperous-looking person, 
and seems cheerful and contented. If he becomes wealthy 
he may very likely become a Christian, less, perhaps, from 
any conviction or faith, but from motives of interest, and to 
facilitate his marriage to a native woman, or half-caste. 
He invariably selects an influential god-father, and dutifully 
takes him complimentary presents on his feast-day, wife's 
feast-day, etc. Baptism used to cost him a substantial fee, 

U 2 


but it brought him business, for the priests were good 
customers to him. Now, however, with freedom of religion, 
with civil marriage and the withdrawal of the friars, he 
may be able to marry without the trouble of changing his 

Whether Christian or heathen, he usually keeps a few 
sticks of incense burning before an image at the back of his 
shop, and contributes to any subscription the priest may be 

I look upon the Chinaman as a necessity in the Philip- 
pines, but consider that he must be governed by exceptional 
legislation, and not be allowed to enter indiscriminately, 
nor to engage, as a matter of course, in every calling. 

If attempts are to be made to settle them on the land, 
great care must be shown in selecting the localities, and 
great precautions taken to prevent fighting between the 
Chinese and the natives. However, there should be plenty 
of room for tens of thousands of agricultural labourers in 
Palawan and Mindanao ; but I consider women to be 
essential to the success of such colonies. The family is the 
base of any permanent settlement, and it ought to be made 
a condition that a considerable number of women should 
come over with the men. 

Mestizos, or Half-Breeds. 

From the intercourse of Spanish and other Europeans 
with the native women, there has sprung a race called 
Mestizo, or Mestizo-Espanol. Similarly, the Chinese, by 
their alliance with native women, have produced the 
Mestizo-Chino, or Sangley. 

It is very difficult to say how many there are of these 
people, for opinions differ widely. The anonymous author 
of a pamphlet called ' Filipinas ' (Madrid, 1891), gives the 
number of Spanish Mestizos in the Archipelago, in 1890, 
as 75,000, whilst he estimates the number of Chinese 
Mestizos at no less than half a million. The Spanish 
Mestizos vary much in appearance, character and education, 
according to whether they have come under the influence 
of their father or their mother. Many of them are people 
of considerable property, and have been educated in Spain, 
Germany or England, or at the university in Manila. 
Others have relapsed into the ordinary native life. As a 
class they are possessed of much influence. Both in Manila 


and in the country towns they own large houses, and much 
landed property. Their superior intelligence and education 
enables them to prosper in business or in professions. 
Some of them are doctors of medicine, or lawyers. A very 
few have studied engineering. Again, a fair number are 
priests, and of these, some are men of great learning. 

The Mestizos are the capitalists, which is to say the 
usurers of the country. They have not personally partici- 
pated much in the revolts against the Spaniards, nor yet in 
the fighting against the Americans, though they may have 
given small sums to assist the movement. They will be 
there, though, when offices are to be distributed, and will 
make hard masters, more oppressive, in fact, than any 
European or American. 

This is what M. Andr6, Belgian Consul-General, says of 
them : " This class is composed entirely of usurers and 
pawnees. All the pawn-shops and gambling-houses belong 
to the principal Mestizo famihes. There is not one family 
free from that stigma. In the plantations belonging to the 
rich families of Mestizos or Indians, the workmen are 
treated very inhumanly." 

There can be no doubt that the Spanish Mestizos are 
very unpopular amongst the natives, and that an uncomfort' 
able time would await them should the islands become 
independent. They are perfectly aware of this, and in their 
hearts long for the protection of one of the Great Powers. 
At the same time, they are anxious to get the lion's share 
of the loaves and fishes. 

The Chinese Mestizos differ both in appearance and 
character from the Spanish Mestizos, owning less land, and 
being more addicted to commercial pursuits, for which both 
sexes show a remarkable aptitude. It is customary for the 
daughters, even of wealthy families, to trade on their own 
account from an early age. A case was mentioned to me 
where five dollars was given to a young girl to begin 
trading. With this she purchased a pilon of sugar, and 
sending out some of her father's servants to the woods, 
collected a large quantity of guavas. She then caused the 
cook to make the material into guava jelly, which she 
packed in tins or jars collected for the purpose. Then 
another servant took the jelly out for sale, and disposed of 
it all. The capital was soon doubled, and invested in sayas 
and handkerchiefs bought at wholesale prices, which were 
then hawked round by a servant. Some years aftenvards, 


I made the acquaintance of this young lady, and found that 
she was then dealing in diamond and pearl jewellery, and 
had a large iron safe in which she kept her stock, which 
was then worth several thousand dollars, all made by her 

Chinese Mestizos are owners of cascos and lorchas for 
loading or unloading vessels, also of farderias, or establish- 
ments for mixing and drying sugar. 

In Manila, the Sangleyes, as they are called by the 
Spaniards and natives, have a gobernadorcillo and tribunal 
of their own. In Santa Cruz they are very numerous, and 
amongst them are to be found jewellers, silversmiths, watch- 
makers, or rather repairers, sculptors, gilders and painters, 
besides one or two dentists of good renown. 

( 295 ) 





Area and population — Panay — Negros — Cebu — Bohol — 
Leyte — Samar. 

This name is given to the group of six considerable islands 
lying between Luzon and Mindanao, and also to the race 
inhabiting them. Beginning at the west, these islands are 
Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, and Samar. There 
are also a number of smaller islands. 

Many of the larger as well as the smaller islands are 
thickly populated, and an extensive emigration takes place 
to the great and fertile island of Mindanao, where any 
amount of rich land waits the coming of the husbandmen. 
I can find no later records of population than the census of 
1877. This may seem strange to an American, but to 
those who know the ignorance and ineptitude of the 
Spanish administration, it will seem a matter of course. 
Such data of the population as the Government Offices 
possess, are mostly due to the priests and the archbishop. 

Since 1877 there has undoubtedly been a great increase 
of population amongst the Visayas, and in 1887 the 
population of Panay was considered to be more than a 

The Visayas Islands contain fewer heathen than any 
other part of the Philippines. In Panay there are a few 
Negritos and Mundos ; in Negros some Negritos and 
Carolanos. The illustration opposite p. 207 is a full-length 
photograph of Tek Taita, a Negrito from this island. In 


Cebii a few Mundos live around the peak of Danao. In 
Bohol, Leyte, and Samar there are no heathen savages. 

It may be said that the heathen in these islands would 
have died out before now but that they arc reinforced con- 
tinually by renwntados, or fugitives from justice, also by 
people whose inclination for a savage life, or whose love of 
rapine renders the humdrum life of their village insupport- 
able to them. 

The following Table gives the area of each !of the six 
larger islands, and the population in 1877. 

Area in square 

according to 


Census of 1877. 

Panay (divided into three! 

j Capiz. 

provinces — Capiz, An-> 
tique, Ilo-ilo) . . ) 



< Antique. 

I Ilo-ilo. 

Negros .... 




Cebu .... 




Bohol .... 




Leyte .... 




Samar . . ■ . 

5, 182 




* The above was the Christian Visayas population, and is exclusive of Negritos, Mundos, 
and other heathen savages and remontados. The area is taken from a Spanish official 

Panay. — This island is approximately an equilateral 
triangle, with the western edge nearly north and south, 
having one apex pointing south. A chain of mountains 
extends in a curved line from the northern to the southern 
point, enclosing an irregular strip of land which forms the 
province of Antique. The rivers in this part of the island 
are naturally short and unimportant. The northern part of 
the island is the province of Capiz, the principal river is the 
Panay, which, rising in the centre of the island, runs in a 
northerly direction for over thirty miles, entering the sea at 
the Bay of Sapian. The eastern and southern part of the 
island is the province of Ilo-ilo. The principal river is the 
Talana, which, rising quite near the source of the River 
Panay, runs in a southerly and south-easterly direction into 
the channel between Negros and Panay to the north of the 
island of Guimaras. There are many spurs to the prin- 
cipal range of mountains, but between them is a consider- 
able extent of land under cultivation. The province of 


Ilo-ilo is one of the richest and most densely-populated in 
the Philippines. It now contains at least half a million 

Ilo-ilo is open to foreign commerce, and vice-consuls of 
many nations reside there. Yet the port has neither 
wharves, cranes, moorings or lights. The coasting steamers 
drawing up to 13 feet enter a muddy creek and discharge 
their cargo on the banks as best they can, whilst the ocean- 
going ships lie out in the bay and receive their cargoes of 
sugar and other produce from lighters, upon each of which 
pilotage used to be charged for the benefit of an unnecessary 
number of pilots, and of the captain of the port, who received 
a share of the pilotage and strenuously resisted a reform of 
this abuse. 

Under American protection, Ilo-ilo may be expected to 
become a flourishing port, provided with every convenience 
for discharging, loading, and repairing ships, as becomes 
the importance of its trade. The town of Ilo-ilo contained 
many large buildings, some of them owned by British 
subjects. During the fighting last year, however, several 
buildings were burnt. 

During the Spanish rule the streets were entirely un- 
cared for, being a series of mud-holes in the rainy season, 
and thick with dust and garbage in the dry season. 

The town and port together arc notorious examples of 
all the worst characteristics of Spanish rule. 

The principal towns of this wealthy province are Pototan, 
Santa Barbara, Janiuay, and Cabatuan, each of which has 
more than 20,000 inhabitants. 

The industries and productions of this and the other 
islands are treated of under Visayas when describing the 

Negros. — A long island of irregular shape, lying between 
Panay and Cebu. Its axis is nearly north and south, and 
a chain of mountains runs up it, but nearer to the east than 
to the west coast. 

A little to the north of the centre of this chain, the 
celebrated volcano Canlaon raises its peak over 8300 feet. 
It is frequently in active eruption, and can be perceived at 
an immense distance when the atmosphere is clear. I have 
seen it and its long plume of vapour from a steamer when 
passing the north of the island. 

In the Sierra de Dumaguete, a range occupying the 
centre of the southern promontory of the island, and about 


the centre of the range, there is the volcano of Bacon, about 
which httle is known. 

Cebu is a long and narrow island something in the shape 
of an alligator, looked at from above, with the snout 
pointing to the southward and westward. It is opposite 
to Ncgros, and separated from that island by the Strait of 
Tanon. It is, in fact, a range of mountains rising out of 
the sea, and is very narrow, being nowhere more than 
22 miles wide. There being a large population of Visayas, 
and the mountains not being very high, the wandering 
heathen have to a great extent been weeded out, and only 
a remnant of wretched Mundos remain about the crests of 
the Cordillera. 

The capital city, Cebii, was the first in the Archipelago 
to possess a municipality, and was, in fact, until 1571, the 
capital of the PhiHppines. 

It possesses some fine buildings ; is the seat of a bishop, 
and formerly of the Governor-General of Visayas. It is 
open to foreign commerce, and vice-consuls of the principal 
nations reside there. 

There can be no rivers in an island of this configuration, 
for the water runs away as from the roof of a house. The 
crops and industries have been spoken of under the head 
of Visayas. 

There are considerable beds of lignite near Compostela, 
and various efforts have been made to work them, so far, 
I fear, without much success. Remarkable shells, and 
some pearls are obtained round about Cebu and the 
adjacent islands, 

Bohol lies off the southern half of the eastern coast of 
Cebu, and is only half the size of that island, but it has 
more than half the population. It is hilly, and the towns 
and villages are situated on the coast. Only the southern 
and eastern coast is visited by coasting vessels, the navi- 
gation to the north and west being impeded by a labyrinth 
of coral reefs. The soil of this island is not rich, and 
the more enterprising of the natives emigrate to Mindanao. 

Leyte is an island of very irregular shape — something 
like a hide pegged out on the ground — and lies between the 
northern half of Cebu and the southern part of Samar, from 
which it is only separated by a very narrow passage called 
the Janabatas Channel, and the Strait of San Juanico. The 
southern extremity of I.eyte approaches the northern pro- 
montory of Mindanao, and forms the Straits of Surigao, the 


second entrance from the Pacific to the seas of the Archi- 
pelago. The island is mountainous, and has two lakes, one 
called Bito is at the narrowest part, and one called Jaro, 
near the town of that name. There are several good ports. 
The exports, which go to Manila, are hemp and sulphur of 
great purity. 

Smnar. — This is the largest of the Visayas, and yet has 
fewest inhabitants. It lies to the eastward of all the other 
islands, and consequently its east coast, like that of Luzon 
and Mindanao, is exposed to the full fury of the north-east 
monsoon, and to the ravages of the heavy rollers of the 
Pacific that burst without warning on its rocky coast. 

Its chief port, Catbalogan, is situated on the western 
coast, and is well-sheltered. From the coast many lofty 
peaks are visible, but the interior of this island is little 
known. The exports are hemp and cocoa-nut oil. The 
northern point of Samar approaches the southern extremity 
of Luzon, and forms the historic Strait of San Bernardino, 
one of the entrances to the Philippine Archipelago from 
the Pacific. It was by this Strait that the annual galleon 
from Acapulco entered, and here also the British privateers 
lay in wait for their silver-laden prey. 




Appearance — Dress — -Look upon Tagals as foreigners — Favourable 
opinion of Tomas de Comyn — Old Christians — Constant wars 
with the Moro pirates and Sea Dayaks — Secret heathen rites — 
Accusation of indolence unfounded — Exports of hemp and sugar 
— Ilo-ilo sugar — Cebii sugar — Textiles — A promising race. 

The most numerous and, after the Tagals, the most im- 
portant race in the Philippines is the Visaya, formerly 
called Pintados, or painted men, from the blue painting or 
tattooing which was prevalent at the time of the conquest. 
They form the mass of the inhabitants of the islands called 
Visayas and of some others. 

They occupy the south coast of Masbate, the islands 
of Romblon, Bohol, Sibuyan, Samar, and Leyte, Tablas, 
Panay, Negros, and Cebu, all the lesser islands of the 
Visayas group and the greater part of the coast of the 
great island of Mindanao. In that island the Caragas, a 
very warlike branch of the Visayas, occupy the coast of the 
old kingdom of Caraga on the east from Punta Cauit to 
Punta San Agustin. 

Another branch of the Visayas distinguished by a darker 
colour and by a curliness of the hair, suggesting some 
Negrito mixture, occupies the Calamianes and Cuyos 
Islands, and the northern coasts of Paragua or Palawan as 
far as Bahia Honda. 

In appearance the Visayas differ somewhat from the 
Tagals, having a greater resemblance to the Malays of 
Borneo and Malacca. The men wear their hair longer 
than the Tagals, and the women wear a patadion instead of 
a saya and tapis. 

The patadion is a piece of cloth a yard wide and over 


two yards long, the ends of which are sewn together. The 
wearer steps into it and wraps it round the figure from the 
waist downward, doubling it over in front into a wide fold, 
and tucking it in securely at the waist. The saya is a 
made skirt tied at the waist with a tape, and the tapis is a 
breadth of dark cloth, silk or satin, doubled round the 
waist over the saya. 

In disposition they arc less sociable and hospitable than 
the Tagals, and less clean in their persons and clothing. 
They have a language of their own, and there are several 
dialects of it. The basis of their food is rice, with which 
they often mix maize. They flavour their food with red 
pepper to a greater extent than the Tagals. They are 
expert fishermen, and consume large quantities of fish. In 
smoking and chewing betel they resemble the other races 
of the islands. They are great gamblers, and take delight 
in cock-fighting. They are fond of hunting, and kill 
numbers of wild pig and deer. They cut the flesh of the 
latter into thin strips and dry it in the sun, after which it 
will keep a long time. It is useful to take as provision 
on a journey, but it requires good teeth to get through it. 

The Visayas build a number of canoes, paraos, barotos, 
and vintas, and are very confident on the water, putting to 
sea in their ill-found and badly-equipped craft with great 
assurance, and do not come to grief as often as might be 
expected. Their houses are similarly constructed to those 
of the other inhabitants of the littoral. 

Ancient writers accused the Visaya women of great 
sensuality and unbounded immorality, and gave details of 
some very curious customs, which are unsuitable for general 
publication. However, the customs I refer to have been 
long obsolete among the Visayas, although still existing 
amongst some of the wilder tribes in Borneo. The Vis;iya 
women are very prolific, many having borne a dozen chil- 
dren, but infant mortality is high, and they rear but few of 
them. The men are less sober than the Tagals — they 
manufacture and consume large quantities of strong drink. 
They are not fond of the Tagals, and a Visaya regiment 
would not hesitate to fire upon them if ordered. In fact the 
two tribes look upon each other as foreigners. When 
discovered by the Spaniards, they were to a great extent 
civilised and organised in a feudal system. Tomas de 
Comyn formed a very favourable opinion of them — he 
writes, both men and women are well-mannered and of a 


good disposition, of better condition and nobler behaviour 
than those of the Island of Luzon and others adjacent. 

They had learnt much from Arab and Bornean adven- 
turers, especially from the former, whose superior physique, 
learning, and sanctity, as coming from the country of the 
Prophet, made them acceptable suitors for the hands of the 
daughters of the Rajas or petty kings. They had brought 
with them the doctrines of Islam, which had begun to 
make some converts before the Spanish discovery. The 
old Visaya religion was not unlike that of the Tagals, they 
called their idols Dinatas instead of Anitos — their marriage 
customs were not very different from those of the Tagals. 

The ancestors of the Visayas were converted to Chris- 
tianity at, or soon after, the Spanish conquest. They have 
thus been Christians for over three centuries, and in con- 
stant war with the Mahometan pirates of Mindanao and 
Sulu, and with the Sea Dayaks of Borneo. However, in 
some localities they still show a strong hankering after 
witchcraft, and practise secret heathen rites, notwithstanding 
the vigilance of the parish priests. 

A friar of the order of Recollets who had held a benefice 
in Bohol, assured me that they have a secret heathen organi- 
sation, although every member is a professing Christian, 
taking the Sacrament on the great feasts of the Church. 
They hold a secret triennial meeting of their adherents, 
who come over from other islands to be present. The 
meeting is held in some lonely valley, or on some desert 
island, where their vessels can lie concealed, always far 
from any church or priest. All the RecoUet could tell me 
about the ceremonies was that the sacrifice of pigs formed 
an important part of it. 

The Visayas are no less credulous than the Tagals, for 
in Samar, during my recollection, there have been several 
disturbances caused by fanatics who went about in rags, 
and by prayers, incoherent speeches, and self-mortification 
acquired a great reputation for sanctity. The poor ignorant 
people, deluded by these impostors, who gave themselves 
out to be gods, and as such, impervious to bullets, and im- 
mortal, abandoned their homes and followed these false 
gods wherever they went, listening to their wild promises, 
and expecting great miracles. They soon came into colli- 
sion with the Guardia Civil ; and on one occasion, armed 
only with clubs and knives, they made a determined charge 
on a small party of this corps under the command of a 


native officer. The Guardia Civil formed across the road 
and poured several steady volleys into the advancing crowd, 
breaking them up and dispersing them with heavy loss 
and killing the false god. The native officer received the 
laurel-wreathed cross of San Fernando as a reward for his 

The Visayas are taxed with great indolence, yet they 
are almost the only working people in districts which export 
a great quantity of produce. Leyte and Samar produce a 
good many bales of excellent hemp, and it should be re- 
membered that every bale represents at least twelve days' 
hard work of one man in cleaning the fibre only, without 
counting the cultivation, conveyance to the port, pressing, 
baling, and shipping. 

In Negros and Panay the sugar estates are much larger 
than in Luzon, and mostly belong to Spaniards or mestizos. 
They are not worked by aparceria as in Luzon, but the 
labourers are paid by the day. Great troubles often occur 
as bands of labourers present themselves on the plantations 
and offer to work, but demand an advance of pay. Some- 
times, after receiving it, they work a few days and then 
depart without notice, leaving the planter in great difficulty 
and without redress. Strict laws against vagrants are 
urgently required in Visayas. On the other hand the 
planter is more free to introduce improvements and altera- 
tions than when working by aparceria when he has to 
consult the inquilino or cultivator about any change. The 
cane-mills are much larger than in Luzon, and are mostly 
worked by steam engines. 

The sugar is handled differently from the custom of 
Pampanga. Pilones are not used, and no manipulation in 
fardcrias is required to prepare it for export. The cane- 
juice is carefully clarified and skimmed, then boiled in 
open pans to a much higher point than when making pilon- 
sugar, and to get it to this point without burning or over- 
heating much care and experience is required. 

From the teache it is ladled into large wooden trays, 
always in thin layers, and is there beaten up with heavy 
spatulas until it becomes, on cooling, a pale yellow amor- 
phous mass. It is packed in mat-bags, and is then ready 
for shipment. It travels well and loses but little during a 
voyage to San Francisco or New York. None of it goes 
to England, which is now entirely supplied by the vile 
beet sugar " made in Germany," except for a few hundred 


tons of Demerara crystals imported for use by connoisseurs 

to sweeten their coffee. 

Ilo-ilo sugar is shipped under three marks, No. i, No. 2, 
No. 3. An assortment or cargo of this sugar should consist 
of i-8th No. I, 2-8ths No. 2, 5-8ths No. 3. 

A representative analysis of Ilo-ilo sugar is as follows : 

No. 1. 

No. 3. 

No. 3- 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Crystallizable sugar 

86 -60 



Glucose. .... 




Mineral matter (ash) 




Sand ..... 




In Cebd the properties are small and are mostly in the 
hands of Visayas. There are, perhaps, five or six steam- 
mills, but most of the cane is ground in cattle-mills. They 
follow the practice of negroes in making sugars direct for 
export, but the produce is of a lower quality. An analysis 
of the Cebu suerar is as follows : 

Cebu Superior. 

Cebii Current. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Crystallizable sugar .... 



Glucose ...... 



Mineral matter (ash) 



The sugar produced in the other Visayas islands is 
quite insignificant. 

Ilo-ilo and Cebu are the principal ports in the Visayas 
territory. Besides what they shipped to Manila in 1897, 
they exported directly to the United States, Great Britain, 
or other countries, the following: Ilo-ilo, 127,744 tons of 
sugar ; 51,300 piculs of Sapan wood ; Cebu, 15.^.14 tons of 
sugar ; 80,271 bales of hemp ; 46,414 piculs of Copra. And 


it must be remembered that the Visayas cultivate most of 
the rice, maize, and other food-stuffs which they consume, 
and also make their own instruments of agriculture. Besides 
this, Ilo-ilo exported to other parts of the Philippines a 
million dollars' worth of textiles of cotton, silk, and other 
fibres, made by the Visayas women in hand-looms. The 
women in Antique make the finest pina, a beautiful trans- 
parent texture of the utmost delicacy, woven from the 
fibres of the leaves of a non-fruiting pine {ananas). When 
doing the finest work they have to keep their doors and 
windows closed, for the least draught would break or dis- 
arrange the delicate filaments. The export from other 
ports in Visayas of textiles of cotton and silk is consider- 
able, and, in addition to what they sell, the Visayas women 
weave most of the material for their own clothing and for 
that of the men. 

The Visayas also export mat-bags for sugar, which are 
called bayones ; mats for sleeping on, called petates or 
esteras ; pillows stuffed with cotton, hides, mother-of-pearl 
shell, Balate {Bkhe de Mer), edible bird's-nests, gutta- 
percha, gum-dammar, wax, rattans, coffee (of indifferent 
quality), and leaf tobacco. Both the island of Panay and 
the coasts of Negros are dotted over with cane plantations. 

The Visayas extract oil from cocoa-nuts and forge 
excellent weapons from scrap iron. The bands from bales 
of Manchester goods are much esteemed for this purpose. 

If we take all these points into consideration, the Visayas 
may not appear so deplorably indolent as they have been 
said to be. When writing of the other races, I have pointed 
out that the indolence imputed to them rather goes beyond 
what is warranted by the facts. 

It will be understood that there are degrees in the 
civilisation of the Visayas, and as amongst the Tagals and 
other races, considerable differences will be found to exist 
between the dwellers in the towns and those in the outlying 
hamlets, whilst the Remontados may be considered to have 
relapsed into savagery. 

The Visayas do a certain amount of trade with the 
heathen hill-men of their islands, and as will be pointed out 
when describing these tribes, it is hard to say whether the 
Christian Visayas or the Mahometan Malays rob these poor 
savages more shamefully. 

The Visayas are a promising race, and I feel sure that 
when they have a good government that will not extort too 



heavy taxes from them, nor allow the native and half-caste 
usurers to eat them up, their agriculture and industries will 
surprisingly increase. 

It is to the Visayas that the American Government 
must look to provide a militia that will now hold in check, 
and ultimately subjugate, the piratical Moros of Mindanao 
and Paragua. The fighting qualities of this race, developed 
by centuries of combat with their Mahometan aggressors in 
defence of hearths and homes, will be found quite sufficient 
if they are well armed and led to make an end of the Moro 
power within a very few years. 

That this aspiration is one well worthy of the country- 
men of Decatur, will, I think, be admitted by all who have 
read my description of the Moros under the heading of 

( 107 ) 



The Tagbanuas — Tandulanos — Manguianes — Negritos — Moros of 
southern Palawan — Tagbanua alphabet. 

The island of Palawan, or, as it is called by the Spaniards, 
La Paragua, is situated between the parallels 8° 25' and 
11° 30' N. lat. The capital, Puerto Princesa, was founded 
in 1872, and is situated on the east coast in lat. 9^ 45', 
being 354 miles from Manila, 210 miles from North Borneo, 
and 510 miles from Singapore. Palawan is about 250 miles 
long, and from 10 to 25 wide, with an area of about 5833 
square miles, the third in size of the Philippine Islands. 
There are several good ports in the northern part, which is 
much broken up, and its coasts studded with numerous 
islets, forming secure anchorages. 

Off the western coast is a large submarine bank, with 
many coral reefs and islets. The navigation on this coast 
is very dangerous, and can only be done in daylight. 

The harbour of Puerto Princesa is an excellent one, and 
sufficiently large for all requirements. 

Limestone and other sedimentary formations predomi- 
nate. No volcanic rocks are known to exist. It is conjec- 
tured that the island has been formed by an upheaval, and 
it bears little resemblance geologically to any of the other 
Philippines. Plastic clays suitable for making bricks, tiles, 
and pottery, abound. 

Nothing is known about the mineralogy, except that rock- 
crystal is found, a magnificent specimen of great purity and 
value was sent from the island to the Madrid Exhibition 
of 1887. 

A chain of mountains, with peaks of varying elevation 
up to 6500 feet, runs lengthways of the island, much nearer 

X 2 


to the western coast than to the eastern. The descent 
from the summits to the eastern coast is, therefore, gradual, 
and on the western coast it is abrupt. Mount Staveley, 
Mount Beaufort (3740 feet), Pico Pulgar (4330 feet), and 
the Peaks of Anepalian, are in the central part of the 

The following record is taken from the observations 
made by Captain Canga-Arguelles, a former governor, 
during his residence of three years in Puerto Princesa. 


Mean Temp. 


Rainy Days. 

January .... 








March . 
















July . 



August . 






29 -88 
















. 82-83 


It will be seen that the temperature is not excessive, 
and that the distribution of the rainfall is favourable to 
agriculture and planting. The force of the monsoon is 
much spent when it arrives on the coast of Paragua, 
and the typhoons only touch the northern extremity of 
the island. 

Volcanic phenomena are unknown, and there is no 
record of earthquakes. 

From the lay of the island there is always one coast 
with calm water, whichever way the monsoon is blowing. 

The troops and civil population of Puerto Princesa 
suffer to some extent from intermittent fevers ; but the 
reports of the military, naval, and civil infirmaries, state 
that the disease is not very severe, and that it yields to 
treatment, and this assertion is confirmed by the reports of 
the French travellers, Drs. Montano and Rey and M. Alfred 

The northern part of the island has been colonised from 
the other Philippines, and the Christian inhabitants number 


about 10,000 distributed amongst several small villages. 
The southern coasts are occupied by Mahometan Malays, 
who number about 6000, and the rest of this large island, 
except Puerta Princesa, is only populated by savages, the 
principal tribes being the — 

Tagbuanas, estimated to number . . . 6,000 

Tandulanos, „ „ . . . i , 500 

Negritos, „ „ . . . 500 

Manguianes, „ „ . . . 4,000 


This gives a grand total of 28,000 inhabitants, or 5 -6 to the 
square mile. In the island of Luzon, in which extensive 
districts are uncultivated and unexplored, the mean density 
of the population in 1875, was 76*5 per square mile, and in 
the provinces of Batangan and Pasgasinan, which are, 
perhaps, the best cultivated, the density was 272 inhabitants 
to the square mile. 

The fauna has been studied to some extent, a French 
collector having resided for a considerable period on the 
island. It comprises monkeys, pigs, civets, porcupines, 
flying squirrels, pheasants, and a small leopard, this latter 
not found in any other of the Philippines, and showing a 
connection with Borneo. 

The island is covered with dense forests, which have 
been little explored. 

The Inspeccion de Montes (Department of Woods and 
Forests) gives a list of 104 different kinds of forest-trees 
known to be growing there, and states that ebony abounds 
there more than in any other province of the Philippines. 
According to Wallace, the camphor-tree is found in the 

Amongst the timbers mentioned in the Woods and 
Forests lists are ebony, camagon, teak, cedar, dungon, 
banaba, gui'jo, molave, and many others of value. The 
forest or jungle-produce will comprise : charcoal, firewood, 
bamboos, rattans, nipa (attap), orchids, wax, gums, resins, 
and camphor. Edible birds'-nests are found in various 
localities. Fish is abundant in the waters, and balate {Bkhe 
de vier) is collected on the shores and reefs. 

Puerto Princesa is visited by a mail steamer from 
Manila once in twenty-eight days. A garrison of two 
companies of infantry was kept there, and several small 
gun-boats were stationed there, which went periodically 


round the island. Piracy was completely suppressed, and 
the Mahometan Malays were kept in good order by the 
Spanish forces. 

The dense primeval forests which have existed for ages, 
untouched by the hand of man, undevastated by typhoons, 
volcanic eruptions, or earthquakes, must necessarily have 
produced an enormous quantity of decayed vegetable 
matter, rich in humus, and such a soil on a limestone 
subsoil, mixed with the detritus washed down from the 
mountains, may reasonably be expected to be of the 
highest fertility, and, perhaps, to be equal to the richest 
lands of the earth, most specially for the cultivation of 

The varied climates to be found from the sea-level to 
the tops of the mountains should allow the cultivation of 
maize, rice, sugar-cane, cotton, cacao, coffee, and hemp, each 
in the zone most favourable to its growth and fruitfulness. 
The exemption from typhoons enjoyed by this region is 
most important as regards the cultivation of the aborescent 
species, and the cocoa-nut palm would prove highly 
remunerative on land not suited for other crops. 


The Tagbanuas are said to be the most numerous of the 
inhabitants of Palawan. I understand that this word comes 
from Taga, an inhabitant, and bamia, country, and therefore 
means an original inhabitant of the country, as opposed to 
later arrivals. 

They inhabit the district between Inagahuan, on the 
east coast, and Ulugan and Apurahuan, on the west coast. 
Their numbers in 1888 were estimated at 6cxx). In 1890 
I spent ten days amongst these people, and employed a 
number of them as porters to carry my tent, provisions, and 
equipment, when travelling on foot through the forests to 
report on the value of a concession in the neighbourhood of 
Yuahit and Inagahuan. I therefore describe them from 
personal knowledge. They are of a yellowish colour, and 
generally similar to the Mahometan Malays of Mindanao. 
Those who have settled dovv^n and cultivated land have a 
robust and healthy appearance ; but those who are nomadic, 
mostly suffered from skin diseases, and some were quite 
emaciated. Their Maestro de Campo, the recognised head 
of their tribe, hved near Inagahuan, and I visited him at 


his house, and found him quite communicative through an 

Maestro de Campo is an obsolete military rank in 
Spain, and a commission granting this title and an official 
staff, is sometimes conferred by the Governor-General of 
the Philippines, or even by the King of Spain, upon the 
chiefs of heathen tribes, who have supported the Spanish 
forces against the pirates of Sulu, Mindanao, or Palawan. 
Sometimes a small pension accompanies the title. 

I also learnt much about the Tagbanuas from a soli- 
tary missionary, a member of the Order of Recollets, 
Fray Lorenzo Zapater, who had resided more than two 
years amongst them, and had built a primitive sort of 
church at Inagdhuan. 

They are sociable and pacific ; their only weapons are 
the cerbatana, or blow-pipe, with poisoned darts, and bows 
and arrows, for the knives they carry are tools and not 
weapons. They do not make war amongst themselves, but 
formerly fought sometimes to defend their possessions 
against the piratical Mahometans, who inhabit the southern 
part of the island. These heartless robbers, for centuries 
made annual raids upon them, carrying off the paddy they 
had stored for their subsistence, and everything portable 
worth taking. They seized the boys for slaves, to cultivate 
their lands, and the girls for concubines, killing the adults 
who dared to resist them. However, since the establish- 
ment of a naval station and the penal colony at Puerto 
Princesa in 1872, the coast has been patrolled by the 
Spanish gun-boats and the piratical incursions have come 
to an end. The nomadic Tagbanuas, both men and women, 
were quite naked, except for a cloth {tapa-rabo) which the 
men wore, whilst the women wore a girdle, from which hung 
strips of bark or skin reaching nearly to the knees. Round 
their necks they wore strings of coloured beads, a turquoise 
blue seemed to be the favourite kind, and on their arms 
and ankles, bangles made of brass wire. Coming out of the 
forest into a clearing where there were two small huts built 
in the usual manner, and another constructed in the fork of 
a large tree, I found a group of these people threshing 
paddy. Amongst them were two young women with 
figures of striking symmetry, who, on being called by the 
interpreter, approached my party without the slightest 
timidity or embarrassment, although wearing only the 
fringed girdle. I learnt that they had both been baptized 


but on asking the taller girl her name, instead of answer- 
ing me, she turned to her companion and said to her, 
" What is my name ? " to which the other answered, " Ur- 
sula." I then asked the shorter girl her name, and she 
also, instead of answering me, asked the other girl, " What 
is my name?" to which the taller one answered, "Mar- 
garita." These names had recently been given them 
instead of their heathen names, and I could not be sure 
whether they had forgotten their new names or whether, 
as is the case in several tribes, they must never pronounce 
their own names nor the names of their ancestors. They 
thankfully accepted a cigarette each, which they imme- 
diately lighted. 

On the following Sunday, these girls came to Mass at the 
Inagahuan Church, completely dressed like Tagal women, 
and although they passed in front of me, I did not recognize 
them until I was told, for they looked much shorter. 

When the missionary accompanied me to visit any of 
these people, I observed that as we approached a house the 
people were hurriedly putting on their clothes to receive 
us, but they were evidently more at ease in the garb of 
Adam before the fall. 

The Tagbanuas have no strong religious convictions, 
and can be easily persuaded to allow their children to be 
baptised. The population of Inagahuan and Abortan at 
the time of my visit was, according to the missionary, 1080, 
of whom 616 were baptised. But from this number many 
had been taken away by their half-caste or Chinese creditors 
to Lanugan, a visita of Trinitian, to collect wax and alma- 
ciga — the forests near Inagahuan and Yuahit being entirely 
exhausted. The heathen Tagbanuas believe in future 
rewards and punishment, and call the infernal regions hasaud. 
They believe in a Great Spirit, the creator and preserver, 
who presides over all the important acts of life. They call 
him Maguindose, and make offerings to him of rice and fish. 
Polygamy is allowed amongst them, but from what I saw 
is not much practised. When a Tagbanua proposes mar- 
riage to the object of his affections, he leaves at the door of 
her hut the fresh trunk of a banana plant. If she delays 
answering till the trunk has withered, he understands this 
as a negative, and the damsel is spared the pain of verbally 
refusing ; but if she approves of his suit, she sends him her 
answer in good time. 

The lover then conveys to the house of the bride's 


parents, where all her relations are assembled, large baskets 
of boiled rice. He takes a morsel of this and places it in 
the mouth of the girl, she then does the same to him, and 
by this symbolic act they assume the responsibilities of 
matrimony. This particular ceremony is common to many 
Philippine tribes. The remainder of the cooked rice 
furnishes the basis of the marriage feast. 

They are said to cruelly punish adultery ; on the other 
hand, divorce is easily obtained. 

When one of their number is very ill, they get up a 
concert (.') of gongs and drums with the hope of curing 
him, and during the performance nobody must approach 
the patient's couch. I could not learn whether the music 
was intended to cheer up the sick person, or to frighten 
away the evil spirit, which they look upon as the cause of 
his malady ; but I incline to the latter belief, because the 
so-called music is calculated to frighten away any living 

If, however, the patient does not improve, he is then 
consulted as to where he would like to be buried, and about 
other details of the ceremony and funeral feast. This 
reminds me that I have read of a Scotchwoman consulting 
her dying husband as to whether the scones to be made 
for his funeral should be square or round. Such, however, 
is the custom of the Tagbaniias. 

Immediately after death the relatives place by the 
corpse the weapons and effects belonging to the deceased 
and sprinkle ashes on the floor all around — then they retire 
and leave the dead alone for a time. Later on, they return 
and carefully examine the ashes to see whether the soul 
of the defunct, when abandoning the body, left any foot- 

Then, forming a circle round the dead, they chant a 
dirge in honour of the departed, after which they commit 
his body to the earth in the midst of his cleared land, 
unless he has selected some other spot, burying with him 
his arms and utensils, not forgetting the wood-knife and a 
liberal ration of cooked rice and condiments for his journey 
to the other world. They then abandon both hut and land 
and never return to it. They bury small children in jars 
called basinganis. 

I was much interested in these people, and felt a great 
pity for them. All energy and determination seemed to 
have been crushed out of them by centuries of oppression 


from their predatory neighbours, and when at Icist the 
Spanish gun-boats delivered them from these periodical 
attacks, they were held in what was practically slavery by 
their half-caste or Chinese creditors. The respectability 
of a Tagbaniia is measured by the weight of gongs he 
possesses, just as the importance of a Malay pirate-chief 
depends on the weight of brass-guns he owns. 

The half-castes, or Chinese, will supply them with a 
brass-gong worth, say $5, for which they charge them thirty 
dollars to account. This must be paid in almaciga (gum- 
dammar) at $5 per picul. Consequently the poor savage 
has to supply six piculs of almdciga. Now this gum was 
worth ^12 per picul in Singapore, and the freight was 
trifling. Consequently the savage pays the greedy half- 
caste, or avaricious Chinaman, $72 worth of gum (less 
expenses) for a $5 gong, and these rascally usurers take 
care that the savage never gets out of their debt as long 
as he lives, and makes his sons take over his debt when he 
dies. These terms are considered very moderate indeed ; 
when I come to speak of Mindanao I shall quote some 
much more striking trade figures. Many of the traders 
there would think it very bad business to get only $72 for 
goods costing $5. 

Instead, therefore, of being allowed to till their land, 
these people are hurried off to the most distant and least 
accessible forests to dig for almaciga. This gum is found 
in crevices in the earth amongst the roots of secular trees. 
I was assured that deposits had been found of 25 piculs in 
one place — more than a ton and a half, but such finds are 
rare, as the gum is now scarce. The savage has to hide 
or guard his treasure when found, and he or his family 
must transport it on their backs for twenty, thirty, or forty 
miles, as the case may be, making repeated journeys to 
deliver it to their creditor. I think this hard work, and 
want of good food, explains the emaciation I noticed 
amongst these people. Some few of them were not in 
debt. Near Inagahiian, I found a man named Amasa who 
had a small cane-field, and was at work squeezing the cane 
with a great lever-press, which reminded me of the wine- 
presses in Teneriffe. The lever was made of the trunk of 
a tree ; the fulcrum was a growing tree, whilst the pressing 
block was a tree-stump hollowed at the top. The juice 
was boiled to a thick syrup, and found a ready sale in 
the neighbourhood. Amasa was the biggest and strongest 


man I saw amongst the Tagbanuas, and stood five feet 
nine inches high. He possessed a comfortable house and 
clothes, yet he accompanied me on one of my journeys 
as a porter, but the exposure at night was too much for 
him, and he had an attack of fever when he returned. Near 
Amasa lived a Christian woman named Ignacia, a widow. 
She had lived ten years in one place, and had an abundant 
supply of paddy stored in huge baskets in her house. She 
also had a plantation of cacao trees, many of them in full 
bearing. They were rather neglected, but had grown remark- 
ably. I bought some of her produce for my own use. 

I was surprised to find that the Tagbanuas could read 
and write ; one day I observed a messenger hand to one 
of them a strip of bark with some figures scratched on it, 
which the latter proceeded to read, and on inquiring from 
the missionary, I learnt that they had an alphabet of sixteen 
or seventeen letters. I obtained a copy of this from the 
Padre Zapater, and it will be found on page 319, They 
do not use a pen, but scratch the letters with the point of 
a knife, or with a nail, or thorn. 

The Tagbanuas are very fond of music and dancing. 
On the evening of my arrival at Yuahit, a collection of 
about a dozen huts with forty inhabitants, they gave an 
open-air performance in my honour. My party consisted 
of a boat's-crew of eight Tagal sailors of the Navy, two 
servants, an interpreter, and two companions. The orchestra 
consisted of four brass gongs of varying sizes, and a tom- 
tom. Torches were stuck in the ground to illuminate the 
scene, and the whole of the inhabitants of the hamlet turned 
out and watched the proceedings with greatest interest. 
The dances were performed by men, women, and children, 
one at a time, and were perfectly modest and graceful. 
The women were dressed in shirts and bright-coloured 
patadions, and were adorned with silver rings, brass bangles, 
and armlets, some had strings of beads round their necks. 
The best dance was performed by a young woman, holding 
in each hand a piece of a branch of the bread-fruit tree, 
which they call Rima, with two of the large handsome 
leaves. These she waved about veiy gracefully in harmony 
with her movements. The spectators behaved very well, 
and were careful not to crowd round me. I rewarded the 
dancers with beads and handkerchiefs, and the musicians 
with cigars. This dancing seemed to me a very innocent 
amusement, but I was sorry to find that the missionary 


took a difTerent view. He associated the dances with 
heathen rites and forbade them, confiscating the dearly- 
bought gongs of his converts, as he said they were used 
to call up evil spirits. However, I observed that he had 
hung up the largest gong to serve as a church-bell, after 
having sprinkled it with holy water. I remembered having 
read how the Moravian missionaries in Greenland put a 
stop to the dancing which formerly enlivened the long dark 
winter of that desolate region, and I asked myself why the 
Christian missionary, whether teaching in the icy gloom of 
the Arctic circle, or in brilliant sunshine on a palm-fringed 
strand, must forbid his converts to indulge in such a 
healthful and harmless recreation, in both cases almost 
the sole possible amusement. I could see no reason why 
the heathen should have all the fun. The labours of the 
missionary were, however, very much to the benefit of 
the Tagbanuas, as inducing them to settle down, build 
houses, and raise crops for their support. 

The Spanish gun-boats had stopped the inroads of 
Moros by sea, and detachments of native troops along 
the coast stopped the raiding by land. For twenty years 
the Tagbanuas had suffered little, and for several years 
absolutely nothing from the Moros, yet they apparently 
could not realise their security, and were afraid to accu- 
mulate anything lest it should be taken from them. To 
the ravages of the pirate, there has succeeded the extortion 
of the usurer, and John Chinaman waxes fat whilst the 
wretched Tagbanua starves. 

Whilst travelling through the jungle I found some 
natives cutting canes, and my interpreter pointed out to 
me an emaciated couple, and assured me that during the 
famine of the previous season, these poor wretches had 
killed and eaten their own child to save their lives. What 
a state of things in a country where maize will grow up and 
give edible grain in forty-two days from the date of planting 
it ! I trust that the change of government may result in 
some benefit to these poor people, and that a Governor or 
Protector of Aborigines may be appointed with absolute 
power who will check the abuses of the half-caste and 
Chinese usurers, and give the poor down-trodden Tag- 
banuas, at one time I firmly believe a comparatively 
civilised people, a chance to live and thrive. 



The Tandulanos are physically similar to the Negritos, 
but less robust. They inhabit the shores of Palawan, being 
scattered along the western coast between the Bay of 
Malampaya and Caruray. They are more savage than the 
other races of the island, but they fulfil their engagements 
with rigorous exactness. They make rough canoes, and 
subsist principally on fish and shell-fish, and they do no 
cultivation. They are very skilful in the use of the harpoon 
which they employ for fishing. If they can obtain iron, 
they use it for their harpoon-points, otherwise they point 
them with the spike from the tail of a skate. 

They use a most active poison on their harpoons and 
darts, so much so, that it is said to produce almost instan- 
taneous death. 

This poison is unknown to the other tribes. They 
refuse to sell their cerbatanas, or blow-pipes, from which 
they shoot their darts. 

They are said to intermarry indiscriminately, without 
regard to kinship. Their number was computed at 1500 
in the year 1888, and they are probably not much more 
numerous now. 

These people are, like the Negritos, whom they resemble, 
a hopeless race, not capable of advancing in civilisation. 

Manguianes and Negritos of Palawan. 

These people have been described under the heading 
Aetas or Negritos, in Part I. The first-named inhabit the 
interior of that part of the island occupied by the Moros 
who jealously prevent them from holding any intercourse 
with strangers. 

Moros of Southern Palawan. — These people do not differ 
in any essential particular from the Moros of Mindanao. 
They look back with regret on the good old days before 
the advent of the steam gun-boats, and the establishment 
of the fortified posts along their shores when they could 
make their annual raids and massacre, plunder, and enslave, 
the wretched Tagbamias without interference. They will 
doubtless take full advantage of any negligence of the 
United States authorities to keep up the gun-boat flotilla, 
and to maintain the military posts. 


They now live by agriculture, all the labour being 
performed by slaves, and by trading with the savages of 
the mountains, vying with the Christians in usurious 

John Chinaman in Palawan is just the same as his 
brother in Mindanao — a remorseless usurer, and a skilful 
manipulator of false weights and measures, but no worse 
in the treatment of the unhappy aboriginal than the 
Christian native or half-caste. 

Puerto Princesa, the capital, had a population at the 
time of my visit in 1890 of about 1500, of which number 
1200 were males and 300 females. About half the males 
were soldiers and sailors, one-fourth convicts, and the 
remainder civilians. Most of the women had been deported 
from Manila as undesirable characters in that decorous city. 
Notwithstanding their unsavoury antecedents, they found 
new husbands or protectors in Puerto Princesa the moment 
they landed. Such was the competition for these very 
soiled doves, that most of them had made their new 
arrangements before leaving the jetty alongside which the 
steamer they arrived in lay. 

There was some little cultivation round about the 
capital, but as usual trading with the aborigines for gum, 
rattans, balate, green snail-shells, and other jungle produce 
was the most entrancing pursuit. 

At a short distance from the town was a Government 
Sugar Plantation, which I visited. If sugar planting could 
flourish anywhere, it surely should have done so here, for 
the land cost nothing, the convicts did all the unskilled 
labour and the machinery was paid for by the Government. 
Yet the blighting influence of the official mind succeeded 
even here in causing the place to be run at a loss. The 
sugar badly prepared was shipped to Manila to be sold at 
a reduced price, and sugar for the troops and general use 
was imported from other parts. 

The governor of the island, during the later period of 
Spanish rule, has usually been a naval officer, and as the 
communications are principally by sea, and any punitive 
operations have to be performed by the gun-boat flotilla, 
this would seem to be a precedent the United States might 
follow with advantage. 


TagbanOa Alphabet. 

Communicated to F. H. Sawyer by Fray Lorenzo Zapatcr, 
Missionary at Inagdhuan, Palawan. 

^ Ngng 

''(uJ Gg 
"tr^ Nn 

>S Mm 

O S S 

11 L or R 
^O^'vv 1 or r 

1 T 






or U 
or u 


Eor I 
e or i 














A^.^. — The Roman letters are to be pronounced as in Spanish and 
the Tagbanua correspondingly, Ah, bay, say, day, aye or ee, o or 00, 
pay, ku, etc. 

Notes by the Padre Zapater. 


I. The consonants in the Tagbanua alphabet are eleven and 
sometimes twelve, but the vowels are three, since the ia and the oa 
which are vowels, are compound letters, although strictly they may 
be considered as vowelj<, but the ia and the ua are written the same, 
as has been said. 


2. In reading the Tagbaniia alphabet, you begin from the bottom 

3. To write the consonants with their vowels, for example, ba, be, 
bi, bo, bu, you put a dash at the right or left. If on the right, it means 
be, bi, and if on the left of the consonant bo, bu. 

N.B. — Father Zapater's note 3 is somewhat obscure, or 
rather badly expressed, It perhaps ought to have been 
said that a dash right and left means ba. 

( 321 ) 





Configuration — Mountains — Rivers — Lakes— Division into districts — 
Administration — Productions — Basilan. 

MINDANAO is of a veiy irregular shape, which it is not 
easy to describe. It has some resemblance to a winged 
skate, with a long tail, one of the Raiidcs, which is common 
in Manila Bay. The head of the skate is turned to the 
east ; the peninsula of Surigao forms the northern wing, 
and Punta Panguian the tip of the southern wing, out of 
which, however, a great piece has been bitten, corresponding 
to the Gulf of Davao. The body is represented by the 
main part of the island, and the tail commences at the 
isthmus of Tucuran and stretches westward for a degree of 
longitude. This straight part is the old kingdom of Sibuguey. 
On the north of it, however, a huge excrescence appears ; 
this is the peninsula of Dapitan, and on the south, opposite 
to it, there is a similar projection, which is cut in two by 
the Gulf of Dumanquilas. 

Mt. Silingan represents the spike or hook usually found 
on the tails of these fish, and from here the tail bends 
southward and westward through an arc of 60°. This part 
represents the peninsula of Zamboanga, and the town of 
that name is situated at the tip of the tail. A continuous 
chain of mountains down the centre of the tail represents 
the vertebra. 

Beginning on the east, we find a long stretch of coast 
from Surigao to Cape San Agustin with only one or two 



anchorages for small vessels. The rest of the coast is 
exposed to the full force of the Pacific Ocean, and from 
November to April is quite open to the N.E. monsoon. It 
is also subject to tidal waves or rollers just as are the coasts 
of Peru and Chili. A destructive bore enters the river 
mouths and inlets, and heavy seas get up off all the 
headlands. In the channels between Surigao and the 
islands off the northern coasts, rapid currents are formed 
and overfalls render navigation dangerous for country- 
vessels. In fact, during the strength of the N.E. monsoon 
the east coast, from Placer to the Bay of Mayo, is hemmed 
in with surf, and without a single port. Behind point 
Taucanan, however, is found Port Balete and Port Pujada. 
This latter is the best port in the island, being well 
sheltered from the N. and N.E. The country about it is 
well watered, and produces timber trees of great size and 
fine quality. The waters contain plenty of fish, and turtle, 
also some mother-of-pearl shells. The forests give the 
best kinds of almdciga, and wax. 

The hill-men are partly independent but pacific, and 
the Visaya population is considerable in the district of 

In general, the east coast is rocky, and very foul in 
many places. The land is fertile and well-wooded. Gold 
is found in the Cordillera, and on its eastern slopes all 
the way from Surigao to Punta Tagobong. One of the 
northern towns is called Placer on this account. The 
inaccessibility of the east coast during the strength of the 
N.E. monsoon has retarded the civilisation of Surigao 
which was settled in the early years of the conquest. The 
Caraga-Visaya, who inhabit a considerable district on this 
coast, are old Christians and have always been ready to 
fight for their faith. 

Practically parallel to this coast is a chain of mountains 
which begins at Surigao and extends down to Punta San 
Agustin with hardly a break. I shall call this the eastern 
Cordillera. In this chain, near the northern end, lies Lake 
Mainit (Hot Lake), having steep sides with twenty fathoms 
close to the edge, and two hundred fathoms in the middle. 
This cavity has, no doubt, been formed by volcanic action, 
like the lake of Taal. On the slopes of the mountains 
around it are many thermal springs which run into the lake, 
and in rainy weather the summits are always shrouded in 
vapour by the evaporation of the rain. 


The lake is subject to tremendous floods. Dr. Montano, 
who visited it in December, 1880, speaks of a rise of twelve 
fathoms. He also says that a ground-swell gets up in this 
sheltered lake ; this must be from some modified volcanic 
action still going on. As usual in Philippine crater-lakes, 
this is a great breeding-place for alligators. 

The Eastern Cordillera being so near the coast, there 
are of course no navigable rivers running into the Pacific, 
but the streams become impassable torrents during the 
heavy rains which begin in June, and prevent communica- 
tion by land for many days or even weeks at a stretch. 

Approximately parallel to the Eastern Cordillera, and at 
about fifty geographical miles distance, there stands another 
range which I shall call the Central Cordillera. A line 
drawn from Punta Diuata to the middle of the Gulf of 
Sarangani, nearly due north and south, intersects Mt. 
Sinalagao, Mt. Panamoyan, the active volcano, Mt. Apo 
and Mt. Matutuan, which appear to be the loftiest peaks of 
the range. 

From Mt. Panamoyan in about 7° 50' N. Lat. a spur 
strikes eastwards at right angles to the range, reaching 
half-way across the valley. This spur then turns to the 
south parallel to the range for some twenty miles, and 
from the middle of the east and west part, another spur 
turns south for about 20 miles, thus forming a letter E 
with the points looking south. 

In the wide valley between the Eastern and Central 
Cordilleras, and taking the drainage of the whole watershed 
is the River Agusan. Rising about the 7th parallel on the 
slopes of Mt. Tagoppo, this river runs a very sinuous course 
in a general northerly direction, but inclining slightly to the 
west, receiving innumerable tributaries on either side. At 
about 8° 15' N. Lat. the Agusan expands or overflows, 
forming a series of shallow lakes, choked up with driftwood 
and vegetation, and varying in extent with the rainfall. 

Continually gathering volume, it runs into the Bay of 
Butuan about 9^ N. Lat. 

At Moncayo, in 7^ 45' N. Lat., the Agusan is one 
hundred yards wide, and is navigable for canoes even much 
higher up. 

The spur previously spoken of as striking east and 
south from Mt. Panamoyan, forms two small watersheds. 
The western one gives rise to the River Libaganon, and 
the eastern to the River Salug. Both these rivers run in a 

Y 2 


southerly direction, and unite to form the River Tagum, which 
runs for a short distance S.E. and falls into the head of the 
Gulf of Davao. 

A little way south of Mt. Panamoyan some mountain 
streams dash down the sides of the Cordillera and running 
through a gap unite to form the River Davao which flows 
in a south-easterly direction till it reaches the plain, when it 
changes its course and runs east into the Gulf of Davao. 
From Point Sipaca, in (f N. Lat., a range of mountains 
stretches in a southerly direction for about sixty miles. 
Amongt these are Mt. Sipaca, Mt. Saorag, and Mt. 
Ouimanquil. With the Central Cordillera this range forms 
a watershed, and the torrents on the steep sides of Sinalagao 
and Ouimanquil dash down and take a southerly direction 
to form the headwaters of the River Pulangui and ultimately 
become the Rio Grande. In 7° 50' N. Lat. two important 
affluents join, the River Sauaga and the River Malupati, a few 
miles lower the Calibatojan and the Kaya-Kaya bring their 
tribute, and the united flood with rapid current casts 
itself headlong into the deep Caiion of Locosocan and 
runs in this for over four miles to Salagalpon, where another 
cataract occurs. The river continues for miles a rushing 
torrent amongst huge boulders, at the bottom of this cleft, 
so narrow in places, where the rocks jut out and nearly 
meet overhead, that it seems like a tunnel. In 7° 46' 
N. Lat. there is a small volcano close to the left bank 
which, whenever, it rains, becomes active and gives off 
stifling fumes of sulphur. At Mantanil, in 7° 40' N., the 
river can be navigated on bamboo rafts, handled by skilled 
Manobo pilots, but not without much risk ; for some 
distance down there are two hichis, or sinks, where the 
water runs down into subterraneous passages through the 
river-bed, forming dangerous whirlpools. There are also 
several rapids which require great dexterity to pass safely. 
The banks are still high ; but, on approaching the confluence 
of the Kulaman river, on the left bank, the gorge is much 
lower, and on arriving at Hang the country opens out. 

South of the confluence of the River Molita, vintas can 
navigate the river, and a little lower down, at the confluence 
of the River Simuni, is the place reached by the gunboat 
Taal in 1863 on a 6-foot draught. The river now runs in a 
southerly and westerly direction, with dozens of bends till 
about 6° 45' N. Lat., when, on reaching Lake Liguasan 
(really a Pinag) a shallow and weedy expanse of water, it 


turns to the west, and then north-west. At Tumbao it 
bifurcates, and enters the Bay of I liana by two mouths 
forming a long narrow delta of deep and rich alluvial soil. 

From Tumbao to Tamontaca is the most beautiful and 
fertile part of this river. On both banks grow cocoa-palms, 
areca-palms, banana and cacao-trees, cofifee-bushes, and 
hemp plants in abundance, and amongst them arc groups 
of native houses forming a continuous village, of which the 
placid river, here fifty yards wide, forms the main street. 
These houses are mostly occupied by friendly Moros. 

Nearly parallel to the Sipaca-Soarag-Quimanquil range 
a second range stretches irregularly in a north and south 
line, ending at the coast near Cagayan. Amongst these 
mountains is Mt. Quitanglag. From Pt. Sulanan the 
western extremity of the Bay of Macajalar, a third range 
stretches south, then south-east, then south again for some 
thirty miles. Between this range and the Bay of Iligan 
there is a fourth range of hills. These four ranges form 
three valleys or watersheds, each of which has its river, with 
a general course from south to north, all three running into 
the Bay of Macajalar. 

The most easterly is the River of Tagoloan which has 
fourteen tributaries, the next is the River Cagayan with only 
three, then the River Capay with seven tributaries, all on 
the left bank. 

Proceeding westward we come to the great and deep 
Lake of Lanao, described under the heading Moros, but 
which has never been surveyed, and then to the Gulf 
of Panguil, which, on the map, looks like a forearm and 
clenched fist, which nearly cuts Mindanao in two. The 
isthmus is only fourteen miles across in a straight line. 

This was formerly a regular pirates' track, over which 
they hauled their vessels, but it was till lately guarded by 
a chain of forts connected by a military road called the 
Trocha of Tucuran. 

Two rivers running in a general direction from west to 
east and having between them a dozen tributaries, run into 
the Gulf of Panguil. The most northerly of the two is the 
Mipangi and the other is the Lintogo. 

We now arrive at the peninsula of Sibuguey which I 
have likened to the tail of the skate. Around Lake Lanao 
there is an irregular loop of hills, and from the western end 
of this starts a cordillera which stretches right down the 
centre of the peninsula of Sibuguey and Zamboanga. A 


line drawn from Punta Sicayati (in the Dapitan excrescence) 
to the eastern shore of the Gulf of Dumanquilas will inter- 
sect a range of mountains which cross the Cordillera of 
Sibugucy nearly at right angles and with equal arms north 
and south. But the end of the northern arm bifurcates and 
throws out two ranges N.E. and N.W. 

In the watershed thus formed three rivers take their 
rise, and have a general course from south to north but 
bearing a little to the westward. The easternmost of these 
is called the Dapitan, and runs into the bay of the same 
name. The next is the Dipolog, which runs into the sea 
west of Punta Sicayab ; and the last is the Lubungan, 
running in about two leagues more to the west. 

The other rivers in the peninsula are so unimportant 
that I do not enumerate them. Like those on the east 
coast they become raging torrents in the rainy season. 

On the northern and southern coasts, which are more 
protected than the eastern, sheltered anchorages are to be 
found here and there, but no such fine natural harbours 
exist as abound in Southern Luzon. There is, however, 
less need for them, as it is very rare that the typhoons, 
which are so destructive in Luzon and the Visayas, cause 
damage in Mindanao, except at its northern and eastern 
corner. But for service on these coasts, vessels of a light 
draught of water are the most useful, as they can more 
easily find sheltered anchorage. 

Mindanao is not nearly so unhealthy as is commonly 
supposed, Zamboanga and neighbourhood, Davao, Surigao, 
Talisay, and several other places, are really quite healthy 
for Europeans, if they take care of themselves. 

Earthquakes are frequent. They would sometimes be 
destructive, but there is so little in the way of buildings to 

Divisions for Administrative Pttrposes. 

Zamboanga is the chief military station and the residence 
of the commandant-general of the island. 

Mindanao is divided into five districts : — 

1st. District chief town Zamboanga (capital of the island). 

2nd. ,, „ „ Misamis (includes Lake Lanao). 

3rd. „ „ „ Surigao (includes the whole king- 

dom of Caraga, also the valley 
of the Agusan). 


4th. District chief town Davao (shores of the bay and 

peninsula of San Agustin). 

5th. „ „ „ Cotta-bato (valley of the Rio 

Grande and ancient Sultanate 
of Buhayen). 

The island of Basilan forms a sixth district under the 
commandant-general of Mindanao. 

Each of these districts was under a politico-military 
governor and other officials, as follows : — 

1st District, Major, Naval Lieutenant, Captain of Port. 

2nd „ Lieut-Colonel. 

3rd „ Lieut.-Colonel. 

4th „ Major. 

5th „ Lieut.-Colonel. 

6th „ Naval Lieutenant, Naval Station. 

Besides these politico-military governors there were the 
following officers in charge of military districts : — 

Mumungan in 2nd district (Fort Weyler and vicinity to 
look after the Moros of Lake Lanao) Major. 

Dapitan in 2nd district (To look after the Moros of 
Sindangan Bay) Major. 

Bislig in 3rd district (To look after the Mandayas and 
Manobos) Captain. 

To attend to the administration of justice there was a 
third-class judge in each district. From their decisions 
there was an appeal to the Audiencia at Cebii, and from 
there to the Supreme Court, Madrid. 

In Zamboanga where there is (or was) a custom-house, 
there resided a Treasury delegate of the second class. In 
each of the other districts there is one of the fourth class. 

The southern naval division has its headquarters at 
Isabela de Basilan. 

Productions of Mindanao. 

The climate and soil of Mindanao are suitable for 
growing almost any tropical crop to great advantage : hemp, 
sugar cane, tobacco, coffee, cacao, rice, indigo, sesame, 
maize, sweet potatoes, pepper, all flourish. But the island 
is very backward ; it is only recently that the savage races 
have been settled in the reducciones. The population is 
very sparse, and natives are more addicted to washing the 
sands for gold or seeking jungle-produce than disposed to 
apply themselves to_agriculture. 


The exports have hitherto been very small. About some 
of the northern ports a good beginning has been made in 
cultivating and preparing hemp, and several Spaniards have 
laid out plantations there. 

There is a small export of coffee and cacao, and the 
circumstance that the greater part of the island is free from 
typhoons renders it exceptionally favourable for planting 
these valuable products, or for growing unlimited quantities 
of cocoa-nut for making copra. For the same reason the 
timber in Mindanao is larger than in the best districts of 
Luzon, and some of the trees are truly magnificent. 
Mindanao, with its inhabitants busily engaged in murdering 
their neighbours and enslaving their children, can, of course, 
never prosper ; but if such outrages are repressed, and peace 
assured, the population will rapidly increase and agriculture 
will prosper. 

Amongst the forest produce gutta-percha took a leading 
place, but this product came through the hands of the 
Chinese traders, who, as their custom is, adulterated it to 
such an extent that its value became greatly depreciated in 
European and American markets, and the trade fell off. 
Some lignite is found in Mindanao, but I have no con- 
fidence in the value of Philippine coal-fields. They have 
been too much broken up by volcanic action. I have very 
little doubt that petroleum will be found in Mindanao 
when it is explored. It has been reported in Mindoro 
and Cebu. 

The early explorers of the Archipelago state that the 
natives wore little clothes, but abundance of gold ornaments. 
Now they wear more clothes but little gold. It is sur- 
prising how quickly the heathen become impoverished 
whenever they have Christian neighbours. 


The sixth district of Mindanao is formed of the Basilan 
group of some forty islands lying opposite to Zamboanga, 
having a total area of 170,000 acres. The only important 
one of the group is Basilan Island, which has an irregular 
outline, an oval with two projections opposite each other, 
east and west, the latter resembles a turtle's head and the 
former a turtle's tail, so that the shape of the island on the 
map is that of a turtle with his head to the west. The 
total length from the point of the beak to the tip of the 


tail is about thirty-two geographical miles, and the width 
across the body about twenty-one miles. The port of 
Isabela is sheltered by the Island of Malamaui, on which 
there is a Moro rancheria called Lucbalan, and a Christian 
visita, Sta. Barbara. The capital, Isabela, is situated about 
the centre of the channel, and to the east of the mouth of 
the Pasahan (now called Isabela) River. 

To the south of the town, which is situated on a stony 
slope at a short distance, the fort is placed at an elevation 
of about sixty feet above the sea. It commands both 
entrances of the channel. 

There is a barrack near the fort, a prison, military 
infirmary, school, town hall. The naval station consists of 
store-houses and workshops, marine-barracks, hospital, and 

There is a church, and missionaries' residence. The 
island is hilly but fertile in places. Some twenty to thirty 
acres are under cultivation near Isabela, and the Moros who 
form the principal population make their slaves work on 
the lands about their hamlets. There are no manufactures 
worth mentioning. 

The Christian population is as follows : — 

Town of Isabela 

Hamlet of San Pedro de Guihanan 
Hamlet of Santa Barbara . 
Reduccion of Panigayan . 
Reduccion of Tabuc . 
Scattered Christians . 
Members of the Naval Station 
Garrison of the Fort . 







, , variable. 


The Moro population is distributed in about fifty villages 
or hamlets. They can turn out about 4400 fighting-men, 
and are considered valiant and hardy. 

The Moros of Basilan, according to Father Foradada, 
have not the sanguinary instincts of those of Lake Lanao 
or of J0I6, and any outrages they commit are, he thinks, 
due to the instigations of the Moros of J0I6, who un- 
fortunately keep up a communication with them and 
corrupt them. 

Amongst the most influential Dattos of Basilan is 
Pedro Cuevas, a Tagal. He was formerly a convict, but 


escaped, and, by force of character and desperate courage, 
he became a leading man amongst the Moros. Having 
rendered some services to Spain, he received a pardon, and 
now has extensive plantations, a sugar-mill, and herds of 
cattle. He is, in fact, about the richest and most influential 
man in the island, and has become reconciled to the Church, 
and was much trusted both by the military and naval 
authorities and by the missionaries. 

The map of the island is from a report of Father 
Cavalleria who went by sea right round it in 1893. 

( 331 ) 



Vis ay as (i) [Old Christians']. 

In another part of the book I have given a description of 
the Visayas in their own islands, and have spoken of their 
enterprise and industry as manifested in the extent of their 
exports of sugar and hemp, and in their manufacture of 
textiles of the most varied kind. 

The Visayas of Mindanao have been modified by their 
environment both for good and evil. Thus they are bolder 
and more warlike than their brethren at home, having had 
for centuries to defend themselves against bloodthirsty 
Moros. The Visayas of Caraga are especially valiant and 
self-reliant, and they needed to be so, for the Spaniards, 
whenever hard pressed by English, Dutch or Portuguese, 
had a way of recalling their garrisons, and leaving their 
dependents to shift for themselves. The Visaya of 
Mindanao, therefore, though not a soldier, is a fighting- 
man, and their towns possess a rudimentary defensive 
organisation called the somaten. This, I believe is a 
Catalan word, and indicates a body of armed townsmen 
called together by the church bell to defend the place 
against attack. This service is compulsory and unpaid. 

The arms have been supplied by the Spanish Govern- 
ment, and have generally been of obsolete pattern. I have 
seen in Culion flint-lock muskets in the hands of the guards. 
Latterly, however. Remington rifles have been supplied, 
and they are very serviceable and quite suitable for these 

The Visayas have been the assistants of the mission- 
aries, and from them come most of the school-masters 


and mistresses who instruct the children of the recently- 
converted natives. 

Their language is fast extending, and their numbers are 
increasing, both naturally, and by a considerable voluntary 
immigration from the southern Visayas Islands. 

To the inhabitants of these small islands, fertile Min- 
danao, with its broad lands, free to all, is what the United 
States were a generation ago to the cotters of Cork or 
Kerry — a land of promise. 

There is, however, a demoralising tendency at work 
amongst the Visayas. The profits of bartering with the 
hill-men are so great, that they are tempted away from 
their agriculture, and from their looms, to take up this 
lucrative trade, in competition with the Chinese. 

The Visaya has one great advantage over the China- 
man ; he has the courage to go up into the hills, and find 
his cutomers in their haunts. This the Celestial could not 
do, but has to remain at his store on the coast and await 
the hill-men. 

Both traders cheat the hill-tribes most abominably. 

Dr. Montano mentions a case which happened in Butuan 
in December, 1879. 

A Visaya went into the interior taking with him some 
threads of different colours which he had purchased for 
seventy-five cents, and returned with jungle produce worth 
ten dollars. This he invested in beads, brass-wire, and 
other articles of trade, and returned to the woods. In a 
month he came back, bringing produce to the value of 
100 dollars, and 400 dollars to his credit with the natives. 

The tribes of Mindanao pay their debts with scrupulous 
exactness. If they die before paying, their sons assume 
the debt, and unless they are killed or taken as slaves by 
other races, the money is sure to be paid. Consequently, 
this rapacious usurer had sold them goods costing 10 dollars, 
75 cents, for 510 dollars, of which no dollars in cash, and 
400 dollars credit. It is satisfactory to learn that the 
commandant at Butuan made him disgorge, and freed the 
hill-men from their heavy debt. 

To sum up, the Visaya is a necessary man in Mindanao, 
and the immigration should be encouraged. All the Visaya 
towns bordering on the Moros should have their somatenes 
armed, exercised, and supplied with ammunition. Amongst 
Visayas are to be found plenty of men well suited .0 com- 
mand these bands. As they are fighting the Moros for Ufe 








and property, they may be trusted to stand up to them 

The illustration shows a party of Visayas militia 
belonging to the town of Baganga, in Caraga, under a 
native officer of gigantic stature, Lieutenant Don Prudencio 

Mamam'ias (2). 

A hybrid race between Negritos and Malays. 

They are not numerous, and live in the northern pro- 
montory of Surigao, from near the River Agusan to the 
east coast, south of Lake Mainit. They are, indeed, 
miserable wretches, wandering in the hills and forest 
without any fixed habitation, their only property a lance, 
a bolo, and some starveling curs. 

Sometimes they plant a few sweet potatoes, and at 
certain times in the year they get wild honey ; at other 
times they hunt the wild pig. They lay up no provisions, 
and wander about naked and hungry. They are difficult 
to convert, having no good qualities to work upon. They 
promise anything, but never perform, being able to give as 
a reason — some evil omen, for instance — that, on coming 
out in the morning, they have heard the cry of the turtle- 
dove {limbuciin) on the left hand. 

Notwithstanding all these difficulties, the zeal of the 
missionaries has not been wasted, and several reducciones 
of Mamanuas have been founded, and are progressing to 
some extent. 

Manohos (3). 

The Manobos are a warlike heathen race, widely ex- 
tended in Mindanao. The great River Agusan, taking its 
rise in the district of Davao, in 'j'^ N. latitude, falls into the 
Bay of Butuan about 9" N. latitude. Its general course is 
parallel to the eastern Cordillera, from which it receives 
.numerous tributaries. At almost 8^ 15' N. latitude it ex- 
pands, and forms four considerable lakes of no great depth, 
and varying in extent according to the season. They are 
partly covered by aquatic plants. These lakes are called 
Linao, Dagun, Dinagat and Cadocun ; they are quite near 
each other. The Manobos inhabit this spacious valley 
from Moncado, in 7° 45', to about 8^ 45' N. latitude on the 
right bank, where they come in contact with the Mamanuas 
and Mandayas ; but on the left bank they extend nearly to 


the sea, and up to the eastern slopes of the Central Cor- 
dillera, They even extend over the Cordillera to the head 
waters of the Rio Grande, They occupy the left bank of 
the Pulangui, and their southern frontier on the Rio Grande 
is at 7° 30' N. latitude, where one of their chiefs, called the 
Datto Capitan Manobo, lives. The river is navigable for 
vi7itas up to here, and, in 1863, the gunboat Taal, drawing 
six feet, steamed to within five miles of this point, say up 
to the River Simuni. They extend up the Pulangui to 
about 8° 15' N. latitude. In appearance they have a 
Mongolian cast of feature. Their faces are longer than 
amongst the Mandayas ; their noses are not flattened, but 
straight, and projecting, and slightly curved at the lower 
end. Their general aspect is robust ; their stature is about 
5 feet 7 inches. Their usual dress consists of short drawers 
reaching to the knee, and a sort of singlet, or short shirt. 

They live in clans under a bagani, or head-murderer 
(see Mandayas for explanation), who is usually accompanied 
by his brothers-in-law. They are polygamists ; still, the 
first wife is the head, and all the others must obey her. 
Each wife has her own house, just as the late Brigham 
Young's harem had at Salt Lake City. But they are 
satisfied with fewer than that prophet, there being none 
amongst their dattos who have nineteen wives. They are 
slaveholders, as the children taken in war become slaves^ 
and all the work of cultivation is done by the women,, 
children and slaves. 

Their houses are built on piles, as are also their 
granaries. They cultivate on a considerable scale, and 
raise quantities of rice, maize, sweet potatoes and tobacco, 
not only to supply their own wants, but to sell in boat-loads 
to the Visayas. Their arms are lances, shields, swords and 
daggers, and, in some parts, bows and arrows. They are 
said to be expert archers where they use the bow. They 
raise numbers of horses for riding. 

In valour, and in disposition to come to close quarters 
in fighting, they resemble the Igorrotes of Luzon. They 
stand up squarely to the Moros, which few other races have 
the pluck to do. Like the Igorrotes, their religion consists 
in ancestor-worship, but they call their idols Dinatas instead 
of Anitos. They are much impressed by thunder, which 
they call the voice of the lightning, and a rainbow fills 
them with awe. Like the Tagals, and some races in British 
India, they consider the crocodile a sacred animal, and 


respectfully address it as grandfather. They also, like the 
old heathen Tagals, consider rocks, caves, or balete trees, 
as residences of spirits. They celebrate a feast in honour 
of the Dinatas after the hai-vest, and make sacrifices of 

Tag-Busan is their god of war, and it is usual amongst 
them to go on the war-path after the harvest is secured ; the 
bagani, as high priest of this god, carries his talisman hung 
round his neck. 

They make ambuscades, and attack neighbours or 
enemies in the most treacherous manner, either by setting 
fire to their houses and murdering them as they attempt 
to escape from the flames, or they cut through the piles 
supporting the houses, covering themselves with their 
shields interlocked whilst doing so, and spearing the occu- 
pants when the house falls. When an enemy has been 
felled, the bagani, taking a consecrated sword, never used 
in fighting, cuts open the chest, and immerses the talisman 
of the god in the blood ; then, tearing out the heart or 
liver, he eats a piece. The Sacopes are not allowed this 
privilege, which belongs only to the chief, as the high priest 
of the god of war. The children of the slain are taken as 
slaves, and the young women for concubines. One of the 
prisoners is kept to be sacrificed in some cruel manner to 
Tag-Busan on the return of the expedition as a thank- 

The death of a relative requires to be atoned for by the 
murder of any innocent person passing by, the avenger 
concealing himself near a path, and kiUing the first stranger 
who comes. 

The Manobos are very smart in handling canoes or 
rafts on their rivers, which are very dangerous to navigate, 
and have many rapids and whirlpools ; the Pulangui even 
precipitates itself into a chasm, and runs underground for a 
league and a half. However, the terrible picture I have 
drawn of their habits is becoming year by year a thing of 
the past to thousands of Manobos, although still kept up in 
places. The intrepidity of the Jesuit missionaries is proof 
against every danger and every privation, has carried them 
up the River Agusan, on which, at short distances apart, 
they have established towns or villages, and have brought 
many thousands of Manobos within the Christian com- 

I'ather Urios, one of these missionaries, baptized 5200 


heathen in one year, and now no less than twenty Christian 
towns or villages stand on the banks of the River Agusan 
and its tributaries, populated by perhaps fifteen thousand 
Manobos, formerly heathens, who have given up their 
detestable practices and their murderous slave-raids to 
occupy themselves in cultivating the soil, whilst their 
children of both sexes are receiving instruction from Visaya 
school-masters and mistresses There is always a tendency 
to reniontar amongst them, and sometimes nearly all the 
inhabitants of a village take to the woods and hills. Yet, 
secure from attack, the number of converts steadily in- 
creases. The Baganis have become gohernadorcillos, and 
their chief vassals tenientes,jiieces de paz, and cuadrilleros. 
Some of the old Baganis who were well off were so anxious 
not to be behind the Visayas, that they sent to Manila for 
hats, black cloth coats and trousers, and patent leather 
shoes, to wear on the great feasts of the Church, and on 
the occasion of the annual village festival. 

This is a long way from human sacrifices to the Tag- 
Busan, and ceremonial cannibal rites, which these men 
formerly practised. I look on this warlike and vigorous 
race as capable of becoming valuable citizens, but they will 
require careful handling for some years to come. They 
must not be rushed, for, if alarmed by innovations, they 
may take to the woods en masse, and the labour of years 
will have been wasted. 

I look to this tribe, when trained to use fire-arms, and 
stiffened with a few Americans, to destroy the power of 
the pirate races — the murderous, slave-hunting Moros, with 
whom it is useless to make treaties, who cannot be con- 
verted till the power of their dattos is broken, and who 
must be sternly put down by force unless the nascent 
civilisation of Mindanao is to be thrown back for a 

In the beginning of June, 1892, a Bagani of the 
Manobos performed the paghuaga, or human sacrifice, on a 
hill opposite Veruela, on the River Agusan. The victim 
w^as a Christian girl whom he had bought for the purpose 
from some slave-raiders. 

Mandayas (4). 

The Mandayas live on the Eastern Cordillera of Mindanao 
which runs parallel to the coast, and their territory extends 
from the 7th to the 9th parallel. They occupy the country 


down to the River Salug. They are remarkable for their 
light colour, some having quite fair complexions. Their 
faces are wide, the cheek-bones being very prominent ; yet 
their appearance is not unpleasing, for they have large dark 
eyes shaded by long eye-lashes. 

They are much respected by other tribes as an ancient 
and aristocratic race, and the war-like Manobos eagerly seek, 
by fair means or foul, to obtain Mandaya women for wives. 

They usually shave off their beards, and also their eye- 
brows, wearing their hair long, tied in a knot at the back. 

They are powerfully built, and of good stature. The 
men wear short drawers, and on grand occasions don an 
embroidered jacket. Both men and women wear large ear- 
ornaments. The women are clad in a bodice and patadion 
with ornaments of shells, beads, or small bells. The men 
are of a bold and warlike disposition, ready to fight against 
other villages of their tribe when not at war with the 
Manobos, the Guiangas, or the Manguangas, their neigh- 
bours. They have a language of their own which has a 
great affinity to the Visaya. 

Their houses, four or five forming a village, are built 
on lofty piles thirty or forty, or even fifty feet above the 
ground. The floor is of thick planks and has a parapet all 
round pierced with loop-holes for defence. Above this 
parapet the house is open all round up to the eaves, but 
this space can be closed in by hanging shutters in bad 
weather. The construction of dwellings at such a height 
must involve an enormous amount of labour. Each group 
of houses forming a village is usually surrounded by a 
strong palisade of sharp-pointed posts, and further defended 
by pits lined with sharp stakes, which are lightly covered 
over with twigs and leaves. 

Several families live in one house, after the custom of 
the Dayaks of Borneo, to provide a garrison for defence. 
An ample supply of arms is kept in the house, bows and 
arrows, spears, swords and knives. They are liable to be 
attacked in the night, cither by the Manobos, the Moros, or 
by the sdcopes of some neighbouring datto, who shoot 
flaming arrows covered with resin into the roof to set it on 
fire, or covering themselves with their shields from the 
arrows of the defenders, make a determined attempt to cut 
down the piles so that the house will fall. The attacking 
party is most often victorious, and the defenders, driven out 
by fire, or bruised and entangled amongst the fallen timbers, 



are easily killed, the women and children, with the other 
booty, being carried off by the assailants. Under this reign 
of terror the population is diminishing. These people not 
only kill for booty, but also for the honour and glory of it. 
Each warrior is anxious to become a bagani, and to be 
allowed to wear the honourable insignia of that rank. The 
dress of a bagani indicates approximately the number of 
murders he has committed. A scarlet head-cloth shows 
that he has killed from five to ten men ; a red shirt, in 
addition, from ten to twenty, whilst a complete suit of red 
shows that he has murdered more than twenty persons, and 
is a much-desired and very honourable distinction, a sort of 
D.S.O. or K.C.B. amongst them. 

All the dattos are baganis ; they could hardly possess 
enough prestige to govern their sacopes without this title. 

The Mandayas are superstitious, and much attached to 
their own beliefs, and on this account it is difficult to 
convert them to Christianity. The devotion of the Jesuits, 
however, has not been in vain, and several pueblos on the 
east coast round about Bislig, Caraga, and Cateel-Baganga 
are now inhabited by Christian Mandayas, some of whom 
have intermarried with the Visayas, or " old Christians." 
These Mandayas are now safe from attack. They give 
their attention to cultivation, and are increasing in numbers 
and rising in the scale of civilisation. 

Ancestral-worship is their religion, and their Dinatas, or 
wooden idols, are stained red with the sap of the narra tree. 
They have priestesses whom they call Bailanes, and they 
are said to occasionally make human sacrifices. 

As amongst other tribes in Mindanao, the Limbuain, or 
turtle-dove, is a sacred bird, and rice and fruit is placed for 
its use on a small raised platform, and it is never molested. 

They are organised in a strict feudal system, the head- 
man or datto of each village is in fact the only free man 
of his clan. The others are Sacopes — that is, followers 
or vassals who, as well as the datto, possess slaves. A 
Mandaya datto can seldom raise more than fifty spears ; 
sometimes two or three federate, but expeditions on a large 
scale cannot be undertaken, for it would be impossible to 
feed several hundred men in their country, such is the 
poverty of the inhabitants. 

Sometimes a small group of Mandaya dattos recognises 
as suzerain some neighbouring datto of the piratical Moros, 
who always tries to keep them isolated and to prevent any 


intercourse or trade with the Christians, unless through 

The Mandayas have canoes and bamboo rafts on the 
streams and rivers running through their territory. They 
catch a good many fish. 

Their agriculture is on a very reduced scale, and is 
limited to small plantations of rice and sweet potatoes near 
their villages ; they keep poultry. They do not dare to 
travel far from their houses for fear they might be seized 
for slaves, or even sold to be sacrificed on the death of a 
datto. Sometimes when a man has been condemned to 
death for some crime his datto sells him to some person 
requiring a victim for the death-vengeance, if he is assured 
that it is intended to kill him. The datto thus combines 
the execution of justice with a due regard to his own profit. 

Mangiidngas (5). 

According to Blumentritt, this tribe lives in the Cordillera 
Sagat, and extends as far as the Great Lake Boayan or 
Magindanao, and an old estimate gives their number as 
5o,ooo. On his map he shows, the Lake and River Boayan 
in dotted lines, the latter is made to fall into the Rio 

On two modern maps of Mindanao which I have, one 
by Jesuits and the other from Don Jose Nieto Aguilar's 
book on this Island, neither the river nor the lake appear ; 
but, in their stead, a lofty range of mountains is shown. In 
each of these maps the Manguanga territory occupies an 
entirely different location. 

As the Jesuits have three reduccions or villages amongst 
this tribe, I accept their map as constructed according to 
the latest information. They show in their earlier maps 
the Manguanga territory at the head of the Bay of Davao, 
its southern frontier being some twelve miles from the 
sea, and about the head-waters of the River Salug and the 
River Agusan. 

The reducciones are called Gandia, Pilar, and Compostela. 
In the general Report of the Jesuit Missions of 1896, 
the mission station of Jativa is stated to consist of six 
reducciones of Manobos, Mandayas and Manguangas, with a 
total population of 1389. 

In the general report of the following year the Man- 
guangas and other tribes are not specifically mentioned, 

Z 2 


and the total population of the mission station of Jativa is 
given as 1458. 

In a later ethnographical map of Mindanao the Man- 
guanga territory appears still more circumscribed, being 
limited to a strip of land between the Rivers Julep and 
Nabo, affluents of the River Agusan ; Nieto's map, however, 
shows them extending over the Eastern Cordillera towards 
Linguit, which is situated on the coast in about 7'' 50' N. 

Dr. Montano, who went up the Rio Salug in 1880, 
passing through the Manguanga territory, says he found 
the banks deserted. 

There can be no doubt that this once numerous tribe 
has been reduced to a mere remnant, part settled in the 
before-mentioned rediicciones, and part still wandering in 

Monteses or Biiqtiidn67ies (6). 

The Spanish word Montes, means hill-man. Buquid, in 
Tagal, means arable land ; and Taga-buquid, a countryman. 
The Tagal equivalent of hill-man is Taga-bundoc, which 
corresponds to the jungle-wallah of British India. The 
word Buquidn6nes may mean cultivators, and their extensive 
plantations fully justify this designation. It is therefore 
rather a vague expression, but still designates a particular 
tribe in Mindanao, whose numbers were estimated to 
amount to 13,000 ten years ago, and who have probably 
largely increased since then. 

They occupy the valleys through which the Rivers of 
Cagayan and Tagoloan run, and the hills between them and 
on both sides. 

They hold the country of the head-waters of the 
Pulangui, and the right bank, as far south as the Manobos 
extend on the left bank, say to 7° 30' N. latitude. In the 
north they extend right up into the peninsula between the 
Bay of Macajalar and the Bay of Lunao, occupying the lofty 
mountains of Sabrac, Sinalagao, Ouimanquil, and the sacred 
Balatucan, whence the souls of the dead jump from earth 
to heaven. 

Father Clotet, from whose letters to his superiors I have 
taken these particulars, considers them to be divided into- 
three large groups. 

The first consists of those living in the hills and valleys 
of the rivers Tagoloan, Cagayan, and Iponam ; the second^ 


of those bordering on the Manobos of the Agusan between 
Gingoog and Nasipit, and the third of those who Hve on 
the right bank of the Pulangui and on some of its affluents. 

They bear some resemblance to their neighbours the 
Manobos, being of good stature, well-built, even handsome, 
and are of an affable and friendly disposition ; some of 
them are so smart and well-bred as to be not in the least 
inferior to the most civilised of the Visayas, and to judge 
by their free and open address, and the absence of all affec- 
tation when settling their business with the old Christians, 
nobody would take them for heathens. 

Father Urios said that, from the extent of their intelli- 
gence, they were fit to be kings of the Manobos, so much 
superior were they to these. 

In their dress they show a far greater idea of decorum 
and modesty than any other race in Mindanao, both men 
and women. The latter wear a white shirt, which is held 
in at the waist by a long skirt, reaching to the ankles. 
Over this they wear a very short and tight jacket, to the 
edges of which they sew strips of cloth of many colours in a 
pleasing tracery, the short wide sleeves being trimmed in 
the same way. 

They show great taste in choosing the colours and 
designs with which they ornament their dresses. On the 
left side at the waist they hang some bead ornaments, small 
bells, and bunches of scented herbs. On their legs they 
wear many loose rings of brass, copper, or silver, which 
rattle when they walk. Their manner of dressing their hair 
is singular, and characteristic. They take the bulk of the 
hair, and without plaiting it they twist and knot it in a high 
and large coil. AH round the head fall curls cut to one 
length, but on the forehead there is a fringe coming down 
almost to the eye-brows. They secure the coil with a 
handsome and showy comb, well made of metal, or precious 
metals, according to the means of the wearer, Many of 
them are loaded with bracelets from the wrists to near the 
elbows, either of metal, of tortoise-shell, or mother-of-pearl. 
In their ears they wear large ornaments called balaring, 
made of a plug of soft wood, having on each end a circular 
plate of brass, copper, silver, or of engraved gold, one larger 
than the other. The hole of the car is greatly stretched to 
allow the smaller plate to pass through ; the plug then 
remains in the hole, and is covered at each end by the 
plates. They wear also necklaces, sometimes of great 


value, These manufactures seem to be very similar to 
those of the Igorrotes, which have been detailed at length 
in the description of that interesting people. 

Father Clotet mentioned a curious necklace worn by- 
one of these women, formed of ancient silver coins, 
diminishing in size from the centre to the extremities. In 
the middle was a silver dollar of Charles III. He con- 
sidered this to be worth thirty dollars, which was quite a 
capital to a Montes in a small hamlet. 

Even when pressed by necessity they will not sell these 
ornaments, and they consequently pass from father to son 
for many generations, They wear rings of brass, silver or 
gold, not only on their fingers, but also on their toes. 

The dress of the men on ordinary occasions is quite 
simple, but on grand occasions they wear long trousers of 
European cloth, jackets of the same stuff, and fine beaver 
hats. Their shirts of fine linen are not worn outside the 
trousers as amongst the Tagals, only the front being shown, 
which is often beautifully embroidered. Those amongst 
them who, although heathens, have a frequent intercourse 
with the Christians, have their hair cut short and take great 
care of it ; but those living amongst the hills let it grow 
long, and, rolling it into a knot, tie it up in a kerchief like 
the charros of Aragon. Some of them paint their teeth 
black, and file them into points. The wealthy men and 
women cover their teeth with thin gold plates, like the 
chiefs amongst the Igorrotes, but unlike them they take 
them off to eat. It would seem to be indecent to show 
one's teeth to any person of superior rank. 

They believe in a future life, and are polytheists. They 
worship the gods of the cardinal points : the god of the 
north is called Domalongdong ; he of the south, Ongli ; of 
the east, Tagolambong ; of the west, Magbabaya. 

This last god, Magbabaya, which means Almighty, has, 
however, two other gods of equal rank : Ibabasag and 
Ipamahandi. The first is invoked for the safe delivery of 
pregnant women ; the second takes care of the horses and 
cattle, and as there is hardly a Buquidnon who does not 
possess some of these animals to assist him in his labour, 
Ipamahandi is constantly called upon to help them when 
any accident happens. 

Tagum-Banvia, the god of the fields, is prayed to for a 
good harvest, and a feast called the Caliga, corresponding 
to our harvest festival, is held in his honour. The Tao-sa- 


sulup, or men of the woods, correspond to the Tic-Balan of 
the old heathen Tagals, and inhabit the trunks of secular 
trees, especially the Balete. or rocky crags or caves, inter- 
vening in the affairs of mortals to favour them or upset 
them. Consequently they make sacrifices to these spirits 
to propitiate them and gain their favour. 

Tigbas is a much respected god, looked upon with 
special reverence as having come down from heaven. He 
is represented by stone idols on stone pedestals, only 
possessed by the principal dattos, who keep them amongst 
the heir-looms of their ancestors, and only allow their near 
relations or intimate friends to see them. 

Talian is a small idol in the figure of a monkey 
squatting, usually made from the root of the willow. This 
they carry about with them, hanging from a cord round its 
neck. When on a journey, if they fear an ambush, they 
hold out the cord with the little idol on it like a plumb- 
line, and let it spin. When it comes to rest, its face is 
turned in the direction where the enemy is concealed. 
They then carefully avoid that direction, if they have been 
following it, by turning off and taking another path. If 
one of them is ill, they submerge the idol in a cup of 
water which he immediately drinks. Otherwise, by simply 
touching the suffering part, they find relief, and even a 
radical cure. 

The Busao, an evil spirit, must be kept in good humour, 
and to this end they offer to it meat and drink, and sing 
and dance in its honour, praying to it to deliver them from 
any calamity they fear. 

The elders are charged with the duty of offering fruits 
and of sacrificing the pigs and fowls to the deities. It will 
be seen what a strong religious bias prevails amongst these 
people, who are convinced that all the affairs of life are in 
the hands of Divine Providence, and of the necessity of 
prayer and sacrifice. 

Marriages amongst them are arranged by the parents 
or by the head chief of their tribe, the Masalicampo 
(Maestro de Campo). A house is prepared for the young 
couple, and an abundant feast is made ready, including an 
ample supply of a fermented drink called pangasi, which is 
preserved in large jars. When the guests have assembled, 
and everything is ready, the bride and bridegroom exchange 
a few words, and each receives from their respective fathers 
a small morsel of cooked rice. This they hold out for a 


short time on the palms of their hands, and then each 
places the morsel in the mouth of the other, and this action 
solemnises the marriage. The Tagbanuas have the same 

Immediately an animated conversation bursts out 
amongst the guests, and a profuse and carefully-cooked 
feast is served. 

To the feast succeeds a prolonged drinking bout, the 
guests sucking up the liquor through straws or canes from 
the jars which contain it. Amongst the Monteses it is not 
considered good form to return home from a wedding 
ostentatiously sober. 

Polygamy is allowed, but little practised, only the 
dattos having two or perhaps three wives. 

Father Barrado, who was a missionary amongst them, 
remarked on the repugnance these people have to pass 
through the territory of some other datto, and Dr. Montano, 
who crossed Mindanao from Davao to Butuan, confirms this 
very fully as regards Mandayas and Manobos. In order 
that they may do this in safety, the principal dattos have 
a large and highly-ornamented lance called a qiiiap. In 
return for a small fee they lend this to any of their Sacopes 
who desire to pass through another datto's territory as a 
passport, or safe conduct. When carrying this lance, far 
from being molested, travellers are treated with considera- 
tion and deference, even in time of war. 

The principal dattos show their grandeur by having 
enormous jars, in which they preserve their heir-looms or 
rare and curious objects, or use for holding provisions. 
Gongs also are much esteemed amongst them. But their 
most precious possessions are certain wooden-boxes or 
trunks with copper coins nailed all over them in patterns, 
in which they keep their clothes and arms. In this they 
resemble the rajahs and sultans of the Malays. They use 
swords and lances, bolos, and sometimes the Malay kris with 
inscriptions and marks in Arabic, these last are got from 
the Moros. Some of their arms are beautifully made with 
carved handles of hard wood, and inlaid with silver, having 
sheaths of polished wood. Some of them have coats of 
mail, made of brass plates and wires, ornamented with 
silver. These appear to be of great antiquity, and it is 
not known where they came from originally. Others have 
quilted jackets such as Cortes found amongst the Mexicans, 
Notwithstanding their amiable characteristics, they make 


forays like the Manobos, and attack other tribes, killing 
the adults, and carrying off the children as slaves and the 
girls as concubines. 

They use the pneumatic tinder-box like the Igorrotes. 
They are fond of smoking, and raise large crops of 
excellent tobacco, selling their surplus in Cagayan de 
Misamis. They prefer to smoke their tobacco in pipes, 
which they make themselves. They also chew buyo. On 
their voyages they carry pouches to contain their be- 
longings, and a curious crescent-shaped box made of brass 
plate, which they tie on in front. 

Although able to make long journeys on foot, they 
usually ride, and are excellent horsemen, riding up and 
down the steepest paths. Their horses are adorned with 
one or two necklaces of sleigh-bells, so that they can be 
heard approaching from a distance. 

They have no calendar, but know from the appearance 
of certain constellations in the heavens, to which they give 
names of their own, that the rainy season is approaching, 
and they then set to work busily to prepare their land for 
sowing or planting. 

They use the plough, and make extensive plantations of 
maize, which is their principal article of food, and also of 
rice, they sell the surplus to the inhabitants of the coast 
towns, for articles they require, especially salt. They make 
small stone hand-mills for grinding maize, and what is 
much more curious, they have invented and manufactured 
cotton gins, having two wooden rollers geared together, 
worked by a crank on the upper one. These gins work 
with great regularity. 

In 1889 they were much interested in planting and 
preparing Abaca, and Gingoog, one of their outlets, 
exported no less than 11,000 piculs, or the equivalent of 
5500 bales in twelve months. They also take down to the 
coast-towns quantities of wax and resin. Their labour 
ought to make them wealthy, but here again we find the 
rascally Chinaman, who, intoxicating them with some vile 
spirits, deceives them in the price, cheats them in the 
weight, and sends them back sick and ill from their unac- 
customed libations, with some wretched rubbish in exchange 
for their valuable produce. By this means their industry is 
checked, and those who take down goods return in worse 
plight than they went. Any decent Government would 
prohibit the demoralisation of this interesting people, but 


the Chinaman well understands how to deal with the local 
Spanish authorities, and even subscribes largely to the 
church, for he likes to have two strings to his bow. 

The musical instruments of the Montcses are clarinets, 
flutes, guitars of three strings, and a small drum. 

At the time of the harvest, from the first peep of day to 
sunrise, before beginning to work, they sing or chant certain 
songs, the men and women taking alternate verses. 

They have courts of justice to punish robbery and other 
offences. Their laws are traditional, passing from father 
to son, and occasionally altered at the discretion of the 
principal datto, to whom they appeal if they have been 
gravely offended. The principal datto having taken his 
seat, his head is bound round with the pinditon, or head- 
cloth, with three points, and he takes the quiap (already 
mentioned) in his hand. He then invites two inferior 
dattos, who takes seats one on each side of him. The 
prisoner is then led forward by a guard, who stick their 
lances in the earth near the seats of the tribunal. The 
case is argued on both sides, the court deliberates and 
gives judgment and sentence, which is executed upon the 
spot, fine, corporal-punishment, or death. This is quite an 
ideal criminal court, and worthy of all respect. 

Amongst them it is considered as a want of education 
and good manners to mention their own names, and if a 
stranger asks, " What is your name ? " the person inter- 
rogated does not answer, but some one else replies, " His 
name is so-and-so." This actually happened to me amongst 
the Tagbanuas of Paragua, when I visited them. {See 

They believe in omens, and have many curious customs, 
too long to relate, but I shall mention one. 

If a stranger enters a house to visit those who inhabit it, 
and during the conversation a fowl should fly and pass before 
him, the people of the house instantly kill it, and cooking it 
as quickly as possible, they eat it in company with the 
visitor to allay his fright, and cause his soul to return to 
his body, for it might have left him when he was startled. 

The houses in their villages are large and well-built, 
sometimes the walls are of thick planks of hard wood tied 
together with rattan, for they use no nails. The houses in 
the country are smaller, and low in the roof, but always so 
high from the ground that the longest lance will not reach 
the floor. 


Great respect is shown to the dead. They are usually 
buried in their fields with lance, sword, and bolo laid beside 
them. They make a mound of earth over the grave, fixing 
several stakes like St. Andrew's crosses, and protecting the 
whole with the bark of a tree fastened over the stakes. 
From a high post hangs a bag of rice, that the soul of the 
defunct may sustain itself on the long journey to Mount 
Bolotucan, the highest peak of the whole region. The soul 
having arrived on this peak, gives one great jump, and 
reaches heaven, at a higher or lower level, according to the 
greater or lesser probity of its life on earth. Wherever 
it lands, there it remains to all eternity. The relations 
make great lamentations at the death, and loose their hair 
which they do not roll up for a greater or lesser period, 
according to the love they bore the dead. 

It is pleasing to be able again to state that the bravery, 
the wisdom, and the faith and charity of the Jesuits 
exercised amongst this race has had a rich reward. During 
the four years which concluded in 1889, no less than 
6600 heathen Monteses renounced their superstitions, their 
polygamy, and their slave-hunting murdering raids, and, 
accepting the doctrines of our Saviour, were baptized into 
the Christian faith. Besides the older coast towns, mostly 
occupied by Visayas, twenty-four Christian villages extend 
from the Bay of Macajalar far into the Montese country, 
now giving the hand to the military garrisons on the Rio 
Grande amongst those irreclaimable pirates the Moros. 

The Cross was triumphing over the Crescent in Min- 
danao quite as much, nay, much more, by the voices of the 
missionaries as by the Spanrsh bayonets. It will be an 
outrage on Christianity, a blot on their renown, if through 
ignorance or folly, the United States should so act as to 
put a stop to this holy and civilising work, and so give 
occasion for some future author to write another " Century 
of Dishonour." 

Atds or Ata-as (7). 

These people occupy a considerable territory from the 
River Libaganon, which falls into the Gulf of Davao round 
the northern slopes of Mount Apo, about the head-waters 
of the rivers running into Lakes Liguan and Buluan. To 
the north they have the Tagavauas and the Manobos ; to 
the south the Vilanes, and on the east the Guiangas, 


Bagobos and Calaganes. The swampy country on the 
west separates them from the Moros of Lake Liguan. 
.From the extent of their territory the Atas are probably 
very numerous. 

They appear to be a hybrid Malayo-Negrito race, but 
have advanced considerably in social organisation. They 
go decently dressed, the men wearing short drawers and 
a shirt of Chinese pattern, and the women Tipatadion and 
an embroidered bodice — with strings of beads round the 
neck for ornament. They weave stuffs similar to those 
made by the neighbouring tribes. They are said to be of 
a determined character, and to stand up to the Moros in 
defence of their families and property. 

They also attack other tribes and commit atrocious 
murders, not sparing women and children. 

A missionary passing near their territory on the River 
Libaganon in November 1892, found several households in 
great grief on account of unprovoked murders committed 
by the Atas. 

As the Atas live remote from the sea-coast and have 
no navigable rivers running through their territory, the 
missionaries have not yet been able to make much impres- 
sion on them, but they are working their way up the 
Davao River, and the reduction of Belen established in 
1 89 1 is quite on the borders of the Atas territory. Murders, 
slave-raids, and human sacrifices, are still the ordinary 
events of Atas life. 

The illustration shows two determined-looking Atas 
warriors with spear and shield, two women and two young 
girls, all carefully dressed and wearing their ornaments. 

Gtiiangas (8). 

The Guiangas live on the slopes of Mount Apo, to 
the North of the Bagobos, whom they much resemble in 
manners and customs. In view of the small territory they 
occupy, they cannot be numerous. 

They have a rather effeminate air, the men wearing 
their hair long ; but notwithstanding this, they are quite 
robust, of remarkable agility, and very adroit in the use 
of arms. 

Montano gives the average height of the man as 
5 feet 4-^ inches, and measured some up to 5 feet 7^ inches. 
The men wear short drawers and huge ear ornaments. 


Their weapons are the bow and spear. They are organised 
on the same feudal system as the other tribes being 
governed by their dattos. Their houses, as usual, are 
built on high piles. They are tolerably industrious, and 
occasionally work for the Visayas on their plantations. 
They possess horses, cattle, and poultry, and make the 
usual plantations of rice, camote, and maize. 

As regards their religion, Tighiama is the Creator, and 
Manama the governor of the world. Todlay, the god of 
love, is husband of the Virgin Todlibun, and the women 
celebrate certain rites in his honour. 

Dewata is the protector of the house, and he is said to 
love blood. It is therefore incumbent on the head of 
every household to avenge any insult in the blood of the 

As amongst other tribes, the death of a datto, or of one 
of his wives, requires a human sacrifice in number pro- 
portionate to the rank of the defunct. The victims are 
usually taken from amongst the slaves of the datto, but in 
some cases they are purchased by public subscription. 
Being securely fastened to trees so that they cannot move, 
the largest subscriber inflicts a stab — politely avoiding 
giving a mortal wound, then the others follow in accordance 
with the importance of their subscription. The cries of 
the victim, thus gradually done to death, are drowned by 
the vociferations of his executioners. These sacrifices are 
still carried on in the remoter districts, but the missionaries 
are beginning to convert the Guiangas nearest the coast, 
and have established several rediicciones in Guianga terri- 
tory, such as Garellano, Oran, Guernica, Oyanguren. In 
the parish of Davao and its missions, there were at the 
end of 1896 nearly 12,000 Christians, and the missionaries 
were actively at work and were meeting with success. If 
they are re-established, and supported, in a few years' 
time human sacrifices will only be a dread tradition of the 

The illustration shows a group of Guiangas, both men 
and women, the latter wearing many ornaments. 

Bagobos (9). 

This small tribe occupies the southern and eastern 
slopes of the Apo volcano, reaching down to the coast of 
the Bay of Davao, between the River Taumo on the north. 


and the River Digos on the south. They also have an 
outlying settlement at Piapi — now called Vera — on the 
Ensenada de Casilaran. The lower part of their territory 
is swampy, and the inhabitants of this district suffer from 
fever and ague, and present a sickly appearance. They 
resemble the Manobos in disposition and in customs, and 
their weapons are the same. Their dress consists of short 
drawers and a jacket. The women wear a shirt and 
patadion. They are moderate in eating, and cleanly in 
their persons. Dr. Montano greatly praises the beauty 
of their country, especially about the banks of the Rio 

The peculiarity of the Bagobos is that they are horse- 
Indians, everybody — men, women and children — rides in 
their country. 

They breed these horses, which are small, but endowed 
with remarkable endurance, and their saddles, although 
rude, are scientifically constructed, like miniature McClel- 
lans. They ride with very short stirrups, and the men are 
always seen spear in hand when mounted. They carefully 
preserve by tradition the genealogy of their horses, and 
give their favourite animals a ration of 4^ lbs, of paddy per 
day, as well as grass. 

The basis of their food is rice and sweet potatoes, which 
they cultivate, using the buffalo and plough, and getting 
the manual labour done by their slaves. 

They plant coffee, cacao, and bananas, but having 
assured their subsistence, they love to wander off into the 
woods to seek for jungle-produce, such as wax, honey, 
almaciga, and the coarse cinnamon of the country, all of 
which finds a ready sale on the coast. 

They are said to strictly perform all their engagements. 

They cultivate abaca, and from the filament of this 
plant their women weave the tissues called dagmays, which 
they polish by rubbing them with shells till they take a 
lustre like silk. They dye these stuffs in a primitive 
manner, but with satisfactory results. 

The men are tolerable smiths, and forge their weapons 
from old iron, which they obtain in barter. They make 
bits (for horses), and bracelets, and collars ' brass. 
Amongst them gold is said to be dearer than 1 Paris, 
although the sands about Malalag, just south >f their 
territory, yield gold. 

The Jesuits have made many converts amongst them, 


li r 


o o 

O 2 

O < 


and they were, till the Spanish-American war, under the 
spiritual care of the veteran missionary, Father Urios, and 
his assistants. In October, 1894, 400 Bagobos were bap- 
tized. I am unable to give the numbers of the Bagobos, 
even approximately, but, from the small territory they 
occupy, they cannot be numerous. 

The illustration shows the celebrated Datto Manib, one 
of the principal baganis (head-murderers) of the Bagobos, 
of the Apo, accompanied by his lance-bearers, one of whom 
holds the quiap. Behind him are some of his wives and 
children, and other followers. But not even the hard heart 
of this blood-stained wretch could withstand the persuasion 
of the Jesuits, and in 1894 he was baptized, and com- 
menced to build the town of Santillana for himself and 




Calaganes (lo). 

A SMALL tribe living on the south-eastern slopes of Mount 
Apo, about the head-waters of the River Digos, which runs 
into the Gulf of Davao, a little north of the Ensenada de 

They are reported to be of good stature, and of a dark 
colour, to understand the language of the Vilanes, but to 
speak their own tongue, which is similar to the Manobo. 
They are industrious cultivators of the soil, and store 
provisions for their use, never suffering from famine, but 
rather assisting others less careful. Their country is very 
broken, consisting of deep valleys, divided from each other 
by lofty crests. These valleys are full of people, so that 
the tribe must be numerous. 

Father Urios visited them in January of 1894, and was 
well treated. The redjicciones of Aviles and Melitta have 
been recently formed amongst them, and their conversion 
was proceeding till the war began. Their territory forms 
part of the parish and missions of Davao. 

Tagacaolos (11). 

The Tagacaolos live in the district of Davao, on the 
west coast of the gulf from Malalao as far south as Lais. 
There are also some living on the peninsula of San 
Agustin, between Cuabo and Macambol. Physically, they 
are inferior to the neighbouring tribes, not so much in 
stature as in muscular development. They are timid, and 
those who are still heathen select places for their hamlets 
that cannot easily be surprised, such as rocks, or crags 
without forest round them, although this obliges them to 
carry water from a great distance. 


A considerable number of them have been converted, 
and settled in hamlets near the coast, but the mass of them 
are still heathen. 

Their faces are long, the nose thin, and the extremity 
of it slightly curved. 

They are the victims of the Bagobos and Guiangas, 
who attack them for the purpose of carrying them off into 
slavery. They themselves prey on the Vilanes, who are 
less capable of defence, and make slaves of them. They 
also fight amongst themselves. They make human sacri- 
fices to their god Mandarangan, who lives in the crater of 
the Apo volcano, to avert his wrath, and when any noise is 
heard from the volcano, they consider that he is demanding 
a victim. 

In 1896, more than 300 Tagacaolos had been baptized, 
and were living in a civilised manner in the town of 
Malalag, now called Las Mercedes. The conversion of this 
tribe was being actively carried on by the assistants of the 
veteran missionary. Father Urios, who resided in Davao 
until the Spanish-American war. Las Mercedes was 
improving, and promised to become a town of some 

A detachment of infantry was stationed there. 

The influence of the missionaries extended beyond the 
reducciones, and had some efTect amongst the heathen in 
discouraging human sacrifices and tribal wars. It may be 
expected that, before long, these dreadful rites will be put 
an end to, if the missionaries are enabled to return. 

Dulanganes (12). 

The Dulanganes hold a territory about twenty miles 
square to the south of the Tirurayes, which extends from 
the crests of the mountains to the coast. On the east they 
have the Vilanes. I have not been able to learn anything 
whatever about this people, nor, so far as I know, are there 
any reducciones in their territory. 

Tirurayes (13). 

The Tirurayes occupy the hills to the south of the delta 
of the Rio Grande, the coast being occupied by Moros. 

They are reported to be of low type, physically, and to 
hold the chastity of their wives and daughters as of no 

2 A 


The proximity of the Moros probably accounts for this 
looseness of morals. The missionaries have been working 
amongst them for years, and in 1891 they had baptized 
109. However, the converts were not settled in towns, but 
wandered about the hills as they liked. Since then, more 
of them have been baptized, and were settled in Tamontaca, 
and several rediiccio7ies have been founded in their territory. 
In Tamontaca, during 1896, between heathen and Moros, 
there were 152 conversions and baptisms during the year, 
besides 197 baptisms of infants born of Christian parents. 
The Tagacaolos used to apply to the missionaries for 
everything they required — medicine for the sick, Spanish 
red wine for women after child-birth, or boards to make 
coffins. So the missionaries not only had to bury them 
for nothing, but had to find them the coffin into the 

On the other hand, the Tirurayes declined to cut timber 
for the chapels at their rcduccio7ies, or to haul it to place, 
or to do any kind of work unless paid for it. Their zeal 
does not lead them to do anything for the Church as 
a free offering. They find it very hard to break them- 
selves of their nomadic customs, and are particularly apt 
to remotitar. However, they treated the missionaries with 
great respect, and these could go anywhere amongst them 
without danger. 

Since the war, the missionaries have abandoned Tamon- 
taca, and the whole neighbourhood is in disorder. 

Tagabelies (14). 

The Tagabelies inhabit the hilly country between Lake 
Buluan and the Gulf of Sarangani, to the west of the 
volcanoes Magolo and Maluturin. They are reported to 
be very ferocious, and have not been visited by the 

Samales (15). 

These people inhabit the islands of Samal and Talicud, 
in the Gulf of Davao, and are not to be confounded with 
the Moros Samales of Tawi-tawi and Jolo. 

The Samales surpass both the Moros and Nisayas in 
muscular development and stature. 

Their feet and hands are large ; they have high and 
projecting cheek-bones, and a stiff beard standing out 


round the face gives it, according to Montano, something 
of a cat-like appearance. Both sexes dress like the Moros. 

They are less ferocious than their neighbours, and do 
not, like them, go about armed. 

They do not commit any aggressions, and are indus- 
trious. In character, they are superior to the Moros, and 
are not like them — cunning and deceitful. 

They have been on good terms with the Spaniards for 
a long time, but until quite lately they were very obstinate, 
and could not be persuaded to be baptized. 

They cultivate the usual crops, fish, and make salt. 
The women weave dagmays. 

They used to have slaves, whom they purchased from 
the Moros or Manobos, and treated them well. 

Formerly, they enclosed their dead in wooden coffins,, 
made in two parts, the shallower part serving as a lid.. 
Each piece was hollowed out of a solid log. They placed 
the coffins on a rude platform in a cave or niche in the 
rocks, or else built a thatched roof over it to keep off the 

They placed near the coffin buyo and bonga for 
chewing, and vases containing rice and maize. Each year 
after the harvest they went to visit the dead, and renewed 
the offerings. 

Little is known of their former religion, but they wor- 
shipped the serpent, and believed in the immortality of the 
soul, and in a place of punishment by fire, which they called 

The patience and zeal of the missionaries has, however, 
been richly rewarded, and in June, 1894, a number of 
Samales were baptized, including most of their dattos. By 
the autumn of that year there was not a heathen left in the 
islands, and the Samales are now settled in seven villages — 
San Jose, San Ramon, Alcira, Tarifa, Carmona, Cervera, 
and Pena Plata. This last was the residence of the mis- 
sionaiy, who was accompanied by a lay brother. The 
population at the beginning of 1897 was 1625. 

Vilanes (16). 

These people, the prey of every warlike tribe, and even 
of the Tagacaolos, live on the summit of the mountains of 
Buhian, to the east and west of the lake of that name. 

Some of them extend as far south as the eastern shore 

2 A 2 


of the Gulf of Sarangani, and they people the two islands of 
Sarangani and Balut. 

They are short and thickset, with little agility. 

Montano describes them as having flat, broad noses, 
underhung jaws, and receding foreheads, giving them an 
appearance of stupidity. 

Father Urios, however, writing about the Vilanes of 
Sarangani and Balut, gives a more favourable description 
of them. He says they are docile and industrious, and 
more active and intelligent than the Moros Sanguiles, who 
live on these same islands. 

He thought them easy to convert, for they have no 
religious system of their own ; but they believe in God, and 
in the immortality of the soul. 

Although living so near the Moros, they have not 
adopted any of their religious ideas. 

The Sarangani Vilanes dress like the Bagobos, and 
handle the lance and the bow, and are good shots in 
hunting game. 

Subatws (17). 

The word Subanos means dwellers by the rivers, from 
suba — a river. ^ 

This numerous tribe inhabits the western peninsula of 
Mindanao from Misamis to Zamboanga, except the coasts 
which are mostly occupied by Visayas or Moros. 

They are of a darker colour and inferior in physique to 
the Mandayas and Monteses. 

Like other races in Mindanao the Subanos are organised 
under dattos or baganis in a feudal system. It is said 
that he who has killed one enemy may wear a red head- 
cloth, whilst other tribes only concede this distinction to a 
warrior who has killed five. 

In religion, they are polytheists, and worship the 
following deities amongst others : 

Tagma-sa-dugat, or Lord of the Sea. 
Tagma-sa-yuta, or Lord of the Earth. 
Tagma-sa-manga bugund, or Lord of the Woods. 
Tagma-sa-manga Suba, or Lord of the Rivers. 
Tagma-sa-Saquit, or Lord Protector of the sick. 

But they are said not to possess wooden idols like the 
Manobos, Mandayas and Monteses. They raise rough 


altars of sticks, on which they lay out offerings to their 
deities. They call these altars Paga-paga. The offerings 
consist of rice, chickens, eggs, buyo and tobacco, also a 
large jar of pangasi, a beer brewed from rice. When 
making their offerings, they sing, dance, and pray round 
the altar to the sound of the sucaran, a rough kind of 
cymbal or gong. Amongst the Subanos only the dattos 
or rich men have more than one wife. The marriage 
ceremonies are very elaborate, and conclude with two 
great feasts or drinking bouts, one in the house of the 
bride's father, the other in the house of the bridegroom. 
Divorce can be obtained if the couple cannot agree, or if 
either quarrels with the father- or mother-in-law. It is not 
readily conceded, and the case is sometimes argued for 
days before the council of elders of the village. Children 
are only given names when four or five years old. The 
Subanos have no money in circulation, and any trading 
is effected by barter. 

They bury their dead the day after their decease, 
wrapping the body in a mat. The grave is dug about a 
yard deep, and near the house. The Balian or priest 
accompanies the bearers, and sprinkles water on the house 
and ground as he goes. Women do not accompany the 
funeral party. The body is laid on a bed of leaves, resting 
on a framework of sticks or canes at the bottom of the 
grave. The sides are protected in the same way, and over 
it another framework is constructed, carrying an earthen 
jar containing food and clothing. The weapons of the 
defunct are laid over him, and the grave is filled in with 
earth, great care being taken not to let a particle of it touch 
the body. Sacrifices are made to the god Diuata ; these 
constitute the funeral feast, which is consumed in silence. 
When it is concluded, the dishes and pots which contained 
it are turned upside down. 

On the eighth day another feast is held, when they talk 
and dance, intoxicating themselves with copious libations 
of pangasi. The priest then goes through a ceremony the 
purport of which is to hand over the soul of the defunct to 
Diuata-sa-langit, the god of heaven, he begs the soul to go 
away with the god, and to trouble them no more. They 
then renew the dancing and drinking, and thus conclude the 
period of mourning. 

The houses of the Subanos are similarly constructed to 
those of the Manobos, Monteses, and other tribes, but are 


not always raised so high from the ground, and arc more 
roughly built. Their food is similar to that of the other 
heathen tribes. The men wear their hair long, but coiled 
up on the head, and covered with a kerchief worn like a 
turban. They dress in a tight jacket and trousers, either 
white, blue, or red. Sometimes they wear a sash. The 
men do not wear ear-ornaments of any kind. The women 
wear large combs made by themselves from bamboos, but 
no head-covering. Their ornaments are ear-rings, strings 
of beads round the neck, and many bangles or bracelets of 
brass or silver. They are clothed in a short shirt, either of 
homespun or Manchester cotton, and a skirt worn tight 
round the body, and reaching below the knees. 

The weapons of the Subanos are the lance, which they 
call talanan, a round shield they call taming, a scimitar 
they call campilan, the Malay kris they call caliz, the 
machete or pes. 

Their agriculture and industries are very primitive, and 
■on a small scale. 

They have scarcely any other musical instrument than 
brass gongs called Agiim. which are played as dance music 
to their two dances, the Saldirmgan and the Sinigay. In 
the first of these dances the men stand up in a row, opposite 
a row of women. All hold a palm-branch in each hand 
with which to beat time. They jump up and down with 
eyes fixed on the ground. 

For the Sinigay, however, the partners touch each 
other's hands, but only with the points of the fingers. The 
Subano, equivalent to our Mrs. Grundy, would feel shocked 
to see gentlemen dancing with their arms round their 
partners' waists. 

The principal feast is called Birclog, and it lasts eight 
days. A large shed is built, the priests offer prayers to the 
before-mentioned gods, and sacrifice swine and poultry. 
The pigs are strangled by a rope held or jerked by all the 
priests, and are placed on the altar one at a time. Above 
the carcass is placed a live cock, which they kill by 
wounding it through the mouth and letting it bleed to 
death. They also offer tobacco, rice, and pangasi. 

The offerings are taken away to be cut up and cooked. 
They are then served, and the pangasi goes round, the 
priests being always served first and getting the best of 
everything, as seems to be the case all the world over. 

When the first lot of people have been fed, they vacate 


the shed, which is instantly filled by a fresh lot. Some- 
times in one of these feasts they consume twenty pigs and 
forty ten-gallon jars of the strong rice-beer. When in- 
toxicated, their conduct, according to Father Sanchez, S.J., 
is apt to overstep the bounds of propriety, but in this they 
are very much like more civilised people in the same 

The only vessels possessed by the Subanos are some 
canoes, or dug-outs, on the rivers. These are sometimes of 
great length, and are called by them Sacaya^i. They 
propel them with great skill, using a long double-ended 
paddle which they use standing up, and alternately on 
either side. Like many other races of the Far East, they 
consider a lunar eclipse as the precursor of great calamities, 
and make a deafening noise to frighten away the serpent or 
dragon which is swallowing the moon. They consider the 
turtle-dove, or limocon, as an omen-bird, and will halt or 
perhaps return if they hear its cry when starting on a 
journey. Also if they hear any one sneeze whilst going 
down the ladder of the house, they return, and remain 
within doors. 

Some of the Subanos bear Moro titles, such as Timuay, 
which is equivalent to third class judge. Father Vilaclara, 
S.J., a bold and enterprising missionary, visited, in 1890, 
the house of a Subano named Audos, who had recently 
succeeded his father as Timuay of the Sindangan River. 

He counted twenty-nine persons, great and small, in 
the house, but this did not include the whole family, as 
several were absent at their occupations. The house was 
built on piles, according to the universal custom, and the 
floor could not be reached from the ground by the longest 
lance. It measured eighteen yards long by ten yards wide, 
and formed one vast apartment, there being no partitions of 
any kind. The floor was made of strips of bamboo, and on 
this account it must be out of reach, for as the inhabitants 
sleep on grass mats laid on the floor, they could easily be 
speared in the night through the interstices of the canes. 

Five married couples and their children occupied this 
apartment, each having its own part of the floor, its own 
store of rice, its own pigs and poultry. Each family cooked 
and ate independently, but all showed the greatest respect 
to the aged grandparents, and consulted them about their 
affairs. Father Vilaclara appears to have ultimately con- 
verted the whole family, beginning with the boys, whom he 


took under his charge, dressed and fed them, and taught 
them to speak Visaya. 

Gold-washing and gold-mining is practised by the 
Subanos between Dapitan and Misamis, where there is 
a vast extension of gold-bearing sand and earth. Near 
Pigtao auriferous iron pyrites occurs. The native name 
for this ore is Inga. 

Horses are very abundant in the district of Misamis, and 
in common use for riding and as pack carriers. 

The Subanos have the reputation of being war-like, yet 
until lately they were entirely dominated by the Moros 
wherever they came in contact. Since 1893 the Spaniards 
have isolated them from the Ilanao Moros by establishing 
a chain of forts, and making a Trocha, or military road, 
across the narrow neck of land from Tucuran on the Bahia 
Illana to Balatacan on Bahia Panquil. The width of the 
isthmus here is about sixteen miles, and the forts are called 
Alfonso XIII, Infanta Isabel, Sta. Paz, and Sta. Eulalia, 
and Maria Cristina. 

The Subanos appear to be much more refractory to 
civilisation and Christianity than theMonteses, the Manobos 
or the Mandayas. This no doubt comes from the strong 
influence that vile nests of pirates and slave-traders around 
Lake Lanao has for centuries exercised over them, but in 
time the Trocha, if kept as it should be, in the interests of 
civilisation, will destroy that. 

The Jesuit missionaries were actively at work round 
about the Bay of Dapitan in the extreme north of the 
Subano territory, and to some extent round about Zam- 
boanga in the extreme south, until the war between Spain 
and America broke out. 

In the Dapitan district there were at the end of 1896 
nearly 1 5,000 Christians residing in the towns and villages 
under the spiritual, and temporal guidance of the Jesuits. 
During that year 208 heathen were baptized in the Dapitan 
district, but only 21 in the Zamboanga district. 

It is safe to assume that in the Dapitan district alone 
there are 10,000 Christian Subanos. 

The number of heathen Subanos, amongst whom there 
are a few semi-Mahometans, may be about 90,000. From 
these figures it is quite evident that the missionary enter- 
prise should be extended, but in order to do this the 
insolence of the Moros must be chastised. 

( 36i ) 



These terrible pirates who have for centuries laid waste 
the coasts of the Philippines and the adjacent islands, with 
fire and sword, carrying off tens of thousands of Christians 
or heathen into slavery, have only within the last few years 
had their power definitely broken by the naval and military 
forces of Spain and by the labours of the Jesuit missionaries, 
amongst the heathen tribes of the island. 

It is scarcely half a century since they annually attacked 
the Visayas Islands and even Southern Luzon, and they 
have been, up to quite lately, the great obstacle to the 
civilisation of the Southern Philippines. In Culion, Cuyos 
and other islands the churches are built within a stone fort, 
in which the population took refuge when the Moros 
appeared. The old Spanish sailing men-of-war could not 
cope with these sea rovers, who in their light prahus, salisi- 
panes, or vintas, kept in shallow water or amongst reefs 
where these vessels could not reach them. Of course, if 
the pirates were surprised when crossing open water, they 
ran great risks, since their artillery was always very 
deficient, but they sailed in great numbers, and if it fell 
calm they would cluster round a solitary man-of-war and 
take her by boarding. 

In consequence, a special force was raised in the 
Philippines to protect the coasts against these pests. It 
was called " La Marina Sutil," or the Light Navy. This 
force consisted of large flat-bottomed launches propelled hy 
oars and sails. They were half-decked forward, and carried 
a long brass gun, on a slide, and some swivels on the 
quarters. These boats were coppered and fitted with a 
cabin at the after part. They carried forty or fifty men, 
all natives, and squadrons of them were stationed at the 


principal southern ports from whence they patrolled the 
coasts. Most of the officers were natives or mestizos ; some 
of them survive to this day. These vessels rendered good 
service, and to some extent checked the incursions of the 
pirates, but they had not the speed to follow up the fast- 
rowing vintas of the Moros, which could always escape 
from them unless caught in narrow waters. In 1824, 
D. Alonso Morgado was appointed Captain of the Marina 
Sutil, and severely chastised the Moros. 

Some of these rowing gun-boats are still to' be seen 
rotting on the beach at the southern naval stations. But 
the introduction of steam gun-boats in i860 gradually did 
away with the Marina Sutil, and sounded the knell of 
piracy in the Philippines. The Moros received terrible 
chastisement at the hands of these steam gun-boats, one of 
which, with a crew of only forty men, has been known to 
destroy a whole fleet of pirates, and now their power on the 
sea has become only a dread tradition of the past. 

Even with all the advantages of steam propulsion, their 
suppression has been a matter of the utmost difficulty, for 
the Moros are not only possessed of the greatest personal 
valour, but are extremely skilful in taking advantage of 
every circumstance that can favour their defence. 

Their towns are mostly built in the water, like the City 
of Brunei, the houses having bamboo bridges to connect 
them with the shore, which can be removed when desirable. 
They select a site well protected by reefs or islands, or 
only to be approached by long and tortuous channels 
through mangrove swamps enfiladed by guns cunningly 
concealed from view ; a very death-trap to an attack by 

On rising ground and flanking their settlements they 
built their Cottas or forts. The walls of these strongholds 
are a double stockade of great trunks of trees, the space 
between them being filled with rock, stones, or earth 
rammed in. Some of these walls are 24 feet thick and as 
much as 30 feet high, defended by brass and iron guns, and 
by numerous lantacas. Such places can stand a deal of 
battering, and are not easily taken by assault, for the Moros 
mount the ramparts and make a brave defence, firing grape 
from their guns and lantacas, and as the assailants approach, 
hurling their spears on them to a surprising distance, with 
accurate aim, and manfully standing up to them in the 

[ To face p. 363. 



Should the assault slacken they never fail to rush out, 
helmet on head, clad in coats of mail, and with sword and 
buckler engage the foe in a desperate hand-to-hand struggle 
where quarter is neither asked nor given. 

The annals of Moro-Spanish war include many well- 
contested combats, where, to use the language of Froissart, 
" many heavy blows were given and received," where the 
most desperate exertions of Spain's bravest officers, backed 
up by their war-like and hardy troops, not seldom failed to 
carry the forts held by the indomitable and fanatic Moros. 
Such Homeric combats were those between that dreaded 
Sultan of Mindanao, Cachit Corralat and Don Sebastian 
Hurtado de Corcuera, and Captain Atienzas' bold attack 
on the hosts of the confederated Moros of Lake Lanao. 
Nor were the Spanish missionaries less active than the 
soldiers on the field of battle, or in the most deperate 
assaults. Crucifix in hand. Father San Agustin and 
Father Ducos calmly walked through many a hail of 
bullets and many a flight of spears leading and en- 
couraging their half-savage converts in their resistance to 
these cruel oppressors. 

Not to be out-done by either soldier or priest, Captain 
Malcampo, of the Spanish Navy, drove his vessel, the 
Ccmstancia, right up to the Cotta of Pangalungan till her 
bowsprit touched the ramparts, then, sword in hand, leading 
a company of boarders, and using the bowsprit as a bridge, 
he carried the fort by assault, and put the garrison to the 

The thirsty soil of Mindanao has drunk freely of Spanish 
blood, and Pampango, Tagal, and Visaya have all worthily 
borne their part in this long drawn-out crusade of the Cross 
against the Crescent. 

But not alone the Moro sword and spear has delayed 
for so long the conquest of Mindanao. Deadly fevers lurk 
in the lowlands, the swamps and the creeks of that rich and 
fertile island. 

The Moros appear impervious to the malaria. At all 
events they live and thrive in, or in close proximity to, 
mangrove swamp and flooded jungle. The Tagal or the 
Visaya is not immune, and some even resist an attack of 
the terrible perniciosa less than a white man. I shall never 
in my life forget the awful sights I witnessed in i Z'^l and 
1892 when some native regiments returned to Manila from 
the war in Mindanao. Any one who saw Shaftcr's army 


disembark on their return from Cuba will understand me. 
Those who could march were mere walking corpses, but 
the shrunken forms, the livid tint and the glassy eyes of 
those who could not stand (and there were hundreds of 
them), brought the horrors of mismanaged war to the on- 
looker like one of Vereschagin's realistic masterpieces. 

But as the slaughter of the Dervishes at Omdurman 
teaches, not even the most dauntless bravery can prevail 
against modern weapons in the hands of tolerably dis- 
ciplined troops. The quick-firing gun, the howitzer with 
shrapnell shell, the machine-gun and the magazine-rifle 
must inevitably bring about the subjugation of every low- 
land population not supplied with these dread engines of 
civilisation, and only the hardy dwellers in Nature's loftiest 
fastnesses, the Himalayas or the Andes, may hope to retain 
their independence in the future. 

It is a striking instance of the irony of fate that, just as 
modern weapons have turned the scale in favour of the 
Spaniards in this long struggle, and brought the Moros 
within measurable distance of subjection, when only one 
more blow required to be struck, Spain's Oriental Empire 
should suddenly vanish in the smoke of Dewey's guns, 
and her flag disappear for ever from battlements where 
(except for the short interval of British occupation, 1762-3) 
it has proudly waved through storm and sunshine for 
three hundred and twenty-eight years. 

Such, however, is the case, and it now falls to the United 
States to complete the task of centuries, to stretch out a 
protecting hand over the Christian natives of Mindanao, 
and to suppress the last remains of a slave-raiding system, 
as ruthless, as sanguinary and as devastating as the annals 
of the world can show. 

The Moros of Mindanao are divided into five groups 
or tribes ; I llanos, Sanguiles, Lutangas, Calibuganes, and 

(18) The Moros Illanos, who are the most important 
and the most dangerous community, are described fully 
later on. They inhabit the country between the Bay of 
Iligan and lUana Bay, also round Lake Lanao, the Rio 
Grande and Lake Liguan. 

(19) The Moros Sanguiles live on the south coast from 
the Bay of Sarangani to the River Kulut. 

(20) The Moros Lutangas occupy the Island of Olutanga 
and parts of the adjacents coasts, all round the Bay of 


Dumanguilas and Maligay, and the eastern coast of the 
Bay of Sibuguay. 

(21) The Moros Calibuganes occupy the western coast 
of the Bay of Sibuguay, they are also dotted along the 
outer coast of the Peninsula as far as the Bay of Sindangan. 
They communicate by land across the mountains. 

(22) The Moros Yacanes occupy the western part of 
the Island of Basilan, and the islands of the Tapul group. 

(23) The Moros Samales are not inhabitants of Min- 
danao, but occupy and dominate the Islands of Jolo, 
Tawi-tawi and most of the smaller islands of those groups. 

Physically, the Moro is a man built for the fatigues of 
war, whether by sea or land. 

His sinewy frame combines strength and agility, and the 
immense development of the thorax gives him marvellous 
powers of endurance at the oar or on the march. 

Trained to arms from his earliest youth, he excels in 
the management of the lance, the buckler and the sword. 
These weapons are his inseparable companions : the typical 
Moro is never unarmed. He fights equally well on foot, 
on horseback, in his fleet war canoe, or in the water, for he 
swims like a fish and dives like a penguin. 

Absolutely indifferent to bloodshed or suffering, he will 
take the life of a slave or a stranger merely to try the 
keenness of a new weapon. He will set one of his sons, a 
mere boy, to kill some defenceless man, merely to get his 
hand in at slaughter.* If for any reason he becomes 
disgusted with his luck, or tired of life, he will shave off his 
eyebrows, dress himself entirely in red, and taking the oath 
before his Pandit, run amok in some Christian settlement, 
killing man, woman and child, till he is shot down by the 
enraged townsmen. 

Wanton destruction is his delight. After plundering 
and burning some sea-coast town in Visayas or Luzon, they 
would take the trouble to cut down the fruit trees, destroy 
the crops and everything else that they could not carry 

Yet, as they made annual raids, it would have appeared 
to be good policy to leave the dwellings, the fruit trees, and 
the crops, in order to tempt the natives to re-occupy the 
town and accumulate material for subsequent plundering. 

Commonly, very ignorant of his own religion, he is none 

* See ' In Court and Kampong,' by Hugh Clifford. 


the less a fanatic in its defence, and nourishes a traditional 
and fervent hatred against the Christian, whether European 
or native. 

Looking upon work as a disgrace, his scheme of life is 
simple ; it consists in making slaves of less war-like men, to 
work for him, and taking their best looking girls for his 
concubines. His victims for centuries, when not engaged 
on a piratical cruise, have been the'hill-tribes of the island, 
the Subanos, the Tagacaolos, the Vilanes, the Manguangas 
and others. 

Originally immigrants from Borneo, from Celebes or 
Ternate, with some Arab admixture, the Moros have for 
centuries filled their harems with the women of the hill- 
tribes, and with Tagal and Visayas and even Spanish 
women, taken in their piratical excursions. They are now 
a very mixed race, but retain all their w^ar-like charac- 

Cut off from the sea by the Spanish Naval forces, they 
turned with greater energy than ever to the plundering and 
enslaving of their neighbours, the hill-men. These poor 
creatures, living in small groups, could offer but little 
resistance, and fell an easy prey. But now the devoted 
labours of the Jesuit missionaries began to bear fruit. 
They converted the hill-men, and gathered them together 
in larger communities, better able to protect themselves, 
and although the Moros sometimes burnt whole towns and 
slew all who resisted, carrying off the w^omen and children 
into slavery, yet, on the other hand, it often happened that, 
getting notice of their approach, the Jesuits assembled the 
fighting men of several towns, and, being provided with a 
few fire-arms by the Government, they fell upon the Moros 
and utterly routed them, driving them back to their own 
territory with great loss. Of late years the Moros have 
found their slave-raids involve more danger than they care 
to face, and even the powerful confederation of Lake Lanao 
was, till the Spanish American war, hemmed in by chains 
of forts and by Christian towns. 

But they have by no means entirely renounced their 
slave-raiding, and in order to give a specific instance of 
their behaviour in recent years, I will mention that on the 
31st. of December, 1893, a party of 370 of them, under the 
Datto Ali, son to Datto Nua, accompanied by seven other 
Dattos, all well armed, and forty of them carrj-ing muskets 
or rifles, and plenty of ammunition, made an unprovoked 


and treacherous attack on Lepanto, a Christian village in 
the Montes country, near the confluence of the Kulaman 
River with the Pulangui, between the Locosocan and 
Salagalpon cataracts. This is the extreme southern settle- 
ment of the Jesuits, and the nearest missionary resided at 
Linabo, whilst the nearest garrison was at Bugcaon, some 
four leagues distant. 

The inhabitants, not being provided with fire-arms, 
sought safety in flight, but the IMoros captured fourteen of 
them. They profaned the church, hacked to pieces the 
image of Our Saviour, and cut up a painting of Our Lady 
of the Rosary, smashed the altar, and with the debris, 
lighted a bonfire in the middle of the church, which, strange 
to say, however, did not take fire. 

They stole the cattle and horses, looted the village, and 
marched off with their spoil and the fourteen captives. 

When, however, they reached the ford on the River 
Mulita, five of the Christians refused to proceed into 
slavery. These were the Datto Mausalaya, another man 
named Masumbalan, and three women. They were all put 
to death by the Moros and barbarously mutilated. The 
flesh was cut from their bones, and it is said that the Moros 
consumed some of it, and so terrified the other captives 
that they marched forward into life-long slavery. 

Had the converts in Lepanto been supplied with a few 
fire-arms, this disaster would not have happened. 

The Mindanao Moros commonly wear a bright coloured 
handkerchief as a head-cloth or turban, a split shirt of 
Chinese pattern, wide trousers, and gaudy sashes. 

The young men shave their heads, but after marriage 
they let their hair grow long. 

The dattos, mandarines, and pandits usually cultivate 
a moustache, others pluck out all the hair on the face. The 
poorer women commonly dress in white and wear a jacket 
and a skirt coming down well below the knee. The richer 
ones wear silks of the brightest colours. 

A white turban or head-cloth is a sign of mourning. 

The illustration shows a group of Moros of the East 
coast. They are unarmed, unlike those of Lake Lanao. 

The Moro noble takes great pride in his long descent, 
and in the distinction gained in war by his ancestors. 
During the long hours of their friendly meetings called 
Bichdras, they relate to each other tales of their ancestors' 


Their feudal system has been more or less copied by 
Subanos, Manobos. Monteses and other hill-races. The 
datto or mandarin is the feudal chief amongst all these, but 
the Moros have gone a step further, and have instituted 
rajahs and sultans, although with only a shadowy authority ; 
for every important matter must come before the council 
of dattos for approval. 

They use titles similar to those of the Malays of Borneo 
and Johore. Tuang, the head-man of a village ; Cuano, a 
Justice of the Peace; Lamudia, Nacuda and Timuay, ist, 
2nd, and 3rd class judges; Gangalia, a constable ; Baguadato, 
a principal, or Cabeza ; Maradiadina, eldest son of a 
principal. A datto is known by the richness of his apparel 
and by using gold buttons, and especially by always 
carrying a handkerchief in his hand. He is usually 
followed by a slave carrying his siri-box. 

Like the Malays, they call the heir of a rajah the Rajah- 
muda ; the nephew of a sultan uses the epithet Paduca ; the 
son of a sultan calls himself Majarasin, the pure or mighty. 

Orang-Kaya, corresponds to a magnate ; Cachil, to a 
prince of the blood. The war-minister of a sultan is called 
the Datto Realao. 

A principal priest is called a Sarif or sheriff; and an 
ordinary priest a Pandita, or learned man. 

The learning of these worthies is of the most rudi- 
mentary description, and consists in being able to read the 
Koran in Arabic, and to recite certain prayers which they 
often do not understand. 

They have some wretched sheds for places of worship 
which they call Langa. During the fast of Sanibayang, 
which lasts for seven days, they are supposed to abstain 
from all nourishment. However, at midnight, when they 
think their god may be napping, they indulge in a hurried 
meal on the quiet. At the end of their week of abstinence 
they undergo a purification by bathing, and indemnify 
themselves for their fasts by several sumptuous banquets. 
They are forbidden to eat swine's flesh, or drink spirituous 
liquors, but they are not at all strict in their religion, and 
the savoury smell of roast pork has been known to over- 
come their scruples. 

They are very fond of smoking tobacco, and of chewing 
buyo ; some indulge in opium smoking. 

Their amusements are gambling, cock-fighting, and 
combats of buffaloes. Their slave-girls perform various 


libidinous dances to the sound of the agun, or brass gong, 
and the calintangang, a kind of harmonium of strips of 
metal struck by a small drum-stick. 

The dance called the Paujalay is usually performed at a 
marriage of any importance, and the young dancers, clad 
in diaphanous garments, strive to present their charms in 
the most alluring postures, for the entertainment of the 
dattos and their guests. 

They have also a war-dance called the Moro-moro, 
which is performed by their most skilful and agile swords- 
men, buckler on arm and cainpilan in hand to the sound of 
martial music. It simulates a combat, and the dancers 
spring sideways, backwards or forwards, and cut, thrust, 
guard, or feint with surprising dexterity. 

The Moros are polygamists in general, although the 
influence of the Christian women taken as captives and 
sometimes married to their captors, has, in many cases, 
succeeded in preventing their husbands from taking a 
second wife. The cleverness and aptitude for business of 
Christian Visayas, and Tagal women captives, has some- 
times raised them to the highest position in rank and 
wealth amongst the Moros ; and i^w of them would have 
returned to their former homes, even if an occasion had 
offered. The custom of seizing girls for slaves and con- 
cubines which has prevailed amongst the Moros for 
centuries, has of course had the effect of encouraging 
sensuality, and the morals of Moro society may be compared 
to those of a rabbit-warren. 

The Moros do not always treat their slaves with cruelty, 
they rather strive to attach them to their new home by 
giving them a female captive or a slave-girl they have 
tired of, as a wife, assisting them to build a house, and 
making their lot as easy as is compatible with getting some 
work out of them. 

But perhaps the greatest allurement to one of these 
slaves is when his master takes him with him on a slave- 
raid, and gives him the opportunity of securing some 
plunder, and perhaps a slave for himself 

Once let him arrive at this stage, and his master need 
have no fear of his absconding. 

The Spaniards have for years refused to send back any 
slaves who claim their protection, yet it has been remarked 
by Dr. Montano, and by missionaries and Spanish military 
officers, that slaves have been employed fishing or tilling 

2 B 


the ground near the Spanish outposts, and only rarely 
would one step within the lines to obtain his liberty. 

If caught running away from their masters, the dattos, 
they are sometimes put to death, or mutilated in a most 
cruel manner. 

The famous Datto Utto, of the Rio Grande, is said to 
have stripped a runaway slave naked and to have tied him 
to a tree, leaving him to be stung to death by the mosquitos 
or devoured piecemeal by ants. 

This same Datto Utto, towards the end of 1889, made 
himself so objectionable to the Datto Abdul, one of his 
neighbours, that the latter determined to place himself 
and his people under Spanish protection. His village 
consisted of eighty houses and was situated on the banks 
of Rio Grande. 

Datto Abdul gave proofs of engineering skill, for he 
constructed eighty rafts of bamboos, and placing a house 
upon each with all its belongings, inhabitants and cattle, 
he floated his whole village fifteen miles down the river 
and landed at Tumbao, establishing himself under the 
protection of the fort. 

The Datto Ayunan, who resides in the same neighbour- 
hood, also came over to the Spaniards, and learned to 
understand and speak Spanish very fairly. He had at 
least three thousand followers, and in the fighting on the 
Rio Grande in \%'^6-^'j he took the field, supported the 
Spanish forces against the other dattos, and rendered 
important services. 

Several other dattos and chiefs have submitted to the 
Spaniards ; for instance, the Sultan of Bolinson, who has 
:settled at Lintago, near the barracks of Maria Christina. 
In the district of Davao more than five thousand Moros are 
living peacefully under Spanish rule. 

The famous Datto Utto, who gave so much trouble, lost 
followers and prestige, and now where the Moro King 
of Tamontaca held his court and reigned in power and 
splendour on the Rio Grande, a Jesuit Orphan Asylum, 
and Industrial School flourished [till the war caused it to 
be abandoned], bringing up hundreds of children of both 
sexes, mostly liberated slaves of the Moros, to honest 
handicrafts or agricultural labour. 

Amongst the Moros, the administration of justice is in 
the hands of the dattos or of their nominees. Offences 
are punished by death, corporal chastisement, or by fines. 


However, the customs of the country admit of an 
offended person taking the law into his own hand. Thus 
he who surprises his wife in the act of adultery may cut off 
one of her ears, shave her head, and degrade her to be the 
slave of his concubines. 

If he catches the co-respondent he may kill him (if 
he can). 

A calumny not justified, is fined 15 dollars; a slight 
wound costs the aggressor 5 dollars ; a serious wound, 
1 5 dollars, and the weapon that did the mischief ; a murder 
can be atoned by giving three to six slaves. 

Adultery incurs a fine of 60 dollars, and two slaves ; or 
death, if the fine is not paid. 

He who insults a datto is condemned to death, unless 
he can pay 15 taels of gold, but he becomes a slave for life. 
The datto acting as judge takes as his fee one-eighth of the 
fine he imposes. 

A slave is considered to be worth from 1 5 to 30 dollars 
according to his or her capabilities or appearance. 

The dattos impose an annual tax on all their subjects 
whether Moros or heathen. It is called the Pagdatto, and 
consists of a piece of cloth called a Jabol, a bolo, and 
twenty gantas of paddy (equal to 10 gantas of rice) from 
each married couple. A ganta equals two-thirds of a 
gallon, so that the tax in rice would only be 6 • 6 gallons, 
a little over | bushel. 

Their language is a degraded Arabic with words from 
Malay, Chinese, Visaya, Tagal, and some idioms of the 

Very few of them can read or write. 

Their year is divided into 13 lunar months, and the 
:lays of the week are as follows : — 

Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday. 
Sapto. Ahat. Isnin. Sarasa. 

Friday. Saturday. Sunday. 
Araboja. Cammis. Diammat. 

Their era is the Hejira, like other Mahometans. 

Their marriage customs are peculiar. When one of 
them takes a fancy to a damsel, he sends his friend, of the 
highest rank, to the house of the girl's father, to solicit her 
hand. The father consults the girl, and if she is favourable 
he makes answer that the young man may come for her. 
The would-be bridegroom then proceeds to the mosque and 

2 B 2 


calls the Iman, who goes through a form of prayers with 
him, after which they proceed in company to the maiden's 
house, followed by a slave bearing presents, and from the 
street call out for leave to enter. The father appears at a 
window and invites them in, but when about to enter, the 
male relations of the damsel simulate an attack on the 
visitor, which he beats off, and throws them the presents he 
has brought with him. 

He then enters with the Iman and finds the lady of his 
desires reclining upon cushions, and presents his respects 
to her. The priest then causes her to rise and, taking hold 
of her head he twirls her round twice to the right, then 
taking the hand of the man he places it on the forehead 
of the girl, who immediately covers her face. The priest 
then retires, leaving them alone. The bridegroom attempts 
to kiss and embrace the bride, who defends herself with 
tooth and nail. She shrieks and runs, and the bridegroom 
chases her round and round the room. 

Presently the father appears, and assures the bride- 
groom that he may take for granted the virginity of his 
daughter. The bridegroom then leaves the house to make 
preparations for the wedding-feast, which begins that night, 
and finishes on the third night, when the bride takes off 
all the garments she has worn as a maid and dresses in 
handsome robes provided by the bridegroom. At the end 
of the feast, the emissary who first solicited her hand for 
his friend conducts her to the house of the bridegroom, 
accompanied by the guests singing verses allusive to the 
occasion, and cracking jokes more or less indecent. 

Contrary to the custom in other countries, it is easier to 
get divorced than to get married, for this is the privilege of 
the man, who can repudiate his wife at any time. 

They celebrate the baptism of their children, and the 
circumcision of their boys, with feasts and entertainments. 
They fire off cannon and lantacas on the death of a datto, 
and with all sorts of instruments make a hideous discord in 
front of the house of death. 

Professional wallers are employed, and the pandits go 
through many days of long-winded prayer, for which they 
receive most ample fees. 

They have regular cemeteries, and, after the burial, 
place on the grave the head of a cock with a hot cinder 
on the top of it. I am quite unable to explain what 
meaning is attached to this custom, but they are soaked in 


[To/acc />. 373. 


all sorts of superstitions, and thoroughly believe in amulets 
or talismen, as do the Tagals in their Anting-Anting. 

Owing to the multitude of slaves they possess, they 
make considerable plantations of rice, maize, coffee, and 
cacao. They sell the surplus of this produce to Chinamen 
or Visayas settled in the coast towns, as also wax, gum, 
resin, jungle-produce, tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl shell, 
balate and cinnamon. It is estimated that they sell produce 
to the value of a million dollars a year. They also employ 
their slaves in washing the sands for gold, and, according 
to Nieto, in mining for silver and other metal. 

I have not seen this latter statement confirmed by any 
other author. 

Their industries are the forging of swords, cris, and 
lance-heads, casting and boring their lantacas. 

To bore these long guns they sink them in a pit 
ramming in the earth so as to keep the piece in a truly 
vertical position. They then bore by hand, two or four 
men walking round and turning the bit with cross-bars. 
Some of these lantacas are worthy to be considered perfect 
works of art, and are highly decorated. I have seen several 
double-barrelled. {See Illustration.) 

The Moro women employ their slaves in spinning and 
weaving. They make excellent stuffs of cotton and of 
abaca, dyeing them various colours with extracts of the 
woods grown in the country. 

Their houses are large and spacious, and they live 
in a patriarchal manner, master and mistress, concubines, 
children, and slaves with their children, all jumbled 
together. They possess plenty of horses, cattle, buffaloes, 
goats and poultry. 

They use Spanish or Mexican silver coins, but most of 
their transactions are by barter. 

To wind up this description of the Moros of Mindanao, 
it must be said of them that they are always ready to fight 
for the liberty of enslaving other people, and that nothing 
but force can restrain them from doing so. That they will 
not work themselves, and that as long as their sultans, 
dattos, and pandits have a hold on them, they will keep 
no engagements, respect no treaties, and continue to be in 
the future, as they have always been in the past, a terror 
and a curse to all their neighbours. 



Tagahmias (24). 

These people live in the very centre of Mindanao on the 
high peaks of the cordillera. If a straight line be drawn 
on the map from Nasipit, on the Bay of Butuan, to Glan, on 
the Gulf of Sarangani, it will intersect their habitat which 
may extend from about 7^ 30' to 8" N. lat. I can learn 
nothing about their manners and customs. They are 
reputed to be ferocious. 

The Chinese in Mindanao. 

The Chinese in Mindanao are almost entirely settled in 
the coast towns, and are occupied in trade. They do not 
engage in agriculture, but keep stores and sell to the 
civilised natives and to the hill-men. 

They understand that they need protection, and are 
equally ready to make a present to the judge, to subscribe 
for a gilded altar for the church, or to render service to the 
governor, in order to be on good terms with the court, the 
priest, and the military. 

Very few Chinese women come over, therefore the men 
have native wives or concubines, and are begetting Chinese 
half-castes on an extensive scale. 

They are not averse to a little slave-dealing, and will 
casually buy a boy or girl from slave-hunters, or will order 
such a slave as they require from the slave-hunters, who 
then proceed to execute the order, which probably involves 
the sacrifice of several lives. 

Thus they will order a smart boy, or a pretty girl, of 
fifteen or sixteen, and so forth. 

Father Barrado, writing from Cotta-Bato, June 3rd, 1890, 


relates that a boy of eight years of age was purchased by a 
Chinaman for thirty dollars. 

As soon as his master had brought him to the house, he 
fastened the door, and being assisted by four other China- 
men, tied the boy's hands and feet, and gagged him. 

The four assistants then laid him out at full length on 
the ground, face downwards, and held him firmly, whilst 
his master took a red-hot marking-iron from the fire, and 
branded him on both thighs, just as if he was marking a 
horse or a cow. 

Luckily, the boy escaped from the house, and found 
refuge with Father Barrado, who took charge of him, and 
administered a severe reprimand to the brutal Chinaman. 

The Chinamen abominably cheat all those who are 
unable to protect themselves. Their business is based 
upon false weights and measures, and on adulteration. In 
the end, they spoil every business they enter upon, just as 
they have done the tea trade in their own country, and the 
tobacco and indigo trade in the Philippines. 

They require to be closely looked after, and should be 
made to pay special taxes, which they can well afford. 

Some of the Chinese become converts, not that their 
mean and sordid souls are in any degree susceptible to the 
influence of the Christian religion, but in order to obtain 
material advantages. 

They hope to be favoured in business, and to be able to 
get a Christian wife, which otherwise might not be easy ; for 
although a Visayas woman does not disdain a Chinaman, 
she would not care to marry a heathen. 

In any case, the Chinaman most likely remains a 
heathen at heart, and if he returns to China he becomes a 




Relapse into savagery — Moros the great danger — Visayas the main- 
stay — Confederation of Lake Lanao — Recall of the Missionaries — 
Murder and pillage in Davao — Eastern Mindanao — Western 
Mindanao — The three courses — Orphanage of Tamontaca — 
Fugitive slaves — Polygamy an impediment to conversion — 
Labours of the Jesuits — American Roman Catholics should send 
them help. 

The present condition of the island is most lamentable. 
Nothing could be more dreadful ; robbery, outrage and 
murder are rampant. Every evil passion is let loose, and 
the labour of years has been lost. Mindanao, which pro- 
mised so well, has relapsed into savagery, as the direct 
consequence of the Spanish-American war, and the cession 
of the Archipelago to the United States. 

It should be understood that Spain, far from drawing 
any profit from Mindanao, has, on the contrary, expended 
annually considerable sums, derived from the revenues of 
Luzon and Visayas, in maintaining a squadron of gunboats 
to police the seas, and keep down piracy, in building and 
garrisoning forts to suppress the slave-trade, and in assisting 
the missionaries to attract the heathen, by providing them 
with seeds, implements of husbandry, and with clothing, 
also in giving them fire-arms and ammunition to protect 
themselves from the Moros. 

Annuities were paid to friendly Moro dattos as rewards 
for services rendered, or as compensation for the cession of 
some of their rights. 

The Moros have always been the great danger to the 
peace of the island, as the Visayas have always been the 
mainstay of Spanish authority. 

Had it not been for the war with America, the Moros 
would have been, by this time, completely subdued. 

Even as it was, half the island was practically free from 

Seal of the Mora flower 

Lake IjAnao 

accarJina lo Jvido 


iTo Jaci p. 377. 


danger from them. If you draw a line on the map from 
Cagayan de Misamis to the head of the Bay of Sarangani, 
it will roughly divide the island into halves. The Moros 
who lived to the eastward of this line were pacific, and 
some thousands of them had been baptized, and had given 
up polygamy and slave-trading. 

Had they risen in arms — which was not at all likely — 
they could have been put down by the Visayas militia 
under the local authorities. 

To the west of this line, until quite lately, the Spanish 
garrisons dotted along the banks of the Rio Grande from 
Polloc and Cotta-bato to Piquit and Pinto, dominated the 
Moro dattos of that region, and nearly joined hands with 
the forts and garrisons on the rivers running into the Bay 
of Macajalar. 

The only remaining seat of the Moro power was the 
country around Lake Lanao, where the dattos had formed 
the Illana confederation to resist the advances of the 

This lake has never been surveyed, and no two maps 
agree on its size, shape or position. It is, however, known 
to be very different from the other large lakes in Mindanao, 
which are shallow, whilst this, on the contrary, is deep ; in 
some places, three or four fathoms will be found close in 
shore. At Lugud and Tugana the banks are steep. 

There are five or six islands in it ; the largest is called 
Nuza. It is high and flat-topped, situated near the middle 
of the lake, and on it are five hundred houses. 

The length of the lake may be about 14 miles, and its 
greatest breadth about the same. 

There is a road all round it, reported to be in good 
condition for vehicles, except at Taraca, where the ground 
is soft. This road may be about fifty miles long, and is 
said to have houses on both sides of it nearly all the way. 
The accompanying sketch, from D. Jose Nietos' map, shows 
forty-three towns clustered round the lake, but in reality it 
is only one vast town, and the names are those of districts 
or parishes, each under the rule of a datto. The Sultan 
lives at Taraca. 

The land about the lake is very fertile, and is cultivated 
by the slaves. 

The produce is of excellent quality, and the Moros not 
only supply themselves, but export annually about 1000 
tons of rice, and 900 tons of coffee. 


The River Agus, which drains the lake, is not navi- 

Although it has a great body of water, the impetuosity 
of the current, rushing amongst rocks, forms dangerous 

The surface of the lake must be considerably above the 

The approaches to the northern end of the lake on 
both sides of the river were defended by many cottas, or 
forts. Most of those were taken and destroyed by the 
Spanish forces in 1894-96, but they are now probably 
being rebuilt. 

Half-way between the lake and the Bay of Iligan stands 
Fort Weyler, which had a strong garrison of infantry, 
cavalry, artillery and engineers, and was impregnable to 
any Moro attack. To the south of the lake, on the shores 
of Illana Bay, stand Forts Corcuera and Baras, whilst to 
the westward, between Illana Bay and Panguil Bay, lie 
four forts across the narrow isthmus called Alfonso XIII., 
Infanta Isabel, Santas Paz, and Eulalia and Maria Cristina. 

These, with the trocha, or military road of Tucuran, 
cut off the Illano Moros from communication with their 
brethren of Sibuguey, or with their former victims, the 

Further to the northward. Fort Almonte kept watch 
over the quondam pirates of the Liangan River. 

These forts and posts were garrisoned by nearly 3000 
regular troops, all natives, except the artillery {see List of 
Posts in Mindanao, p. 386), and in addition a field force of 
several thousand men, also of the regular army, was en- 
camped at Ulama, Pantar, and other places to the north 
of the lake, and three small steam-vessels had been trans- 
ported overland in sections, and launched upon the lake. 

Thus everything was ready for the final blow, for the 
Moros were completely hemmed in by Spanish garrisons 
or Jesuit reducciones ; but the breaking out of the Tagal 
insurrection, in 1896, obliged General Blanco to withdraw, 
not only the field army, but to reduce the garrisons in 
order to hold Manila and Cavite until the Peninsular troops 
could arrive. 

Later on, the war between the United States and Spain, 
and the immediate destruction of the Spanish naval forces 
by the American squadron, caused the Spanish authorities 
to sink the flotilla in the lake, to abandon all the posts on 


the north coast of Mindanao, the trocha of Tucuran, and all 
the forts on the Rio Grande, and to concentrate their whole 
force at Zamboanga, leaving the recently-converted heathen 
and the missionaries to defend themselves against the Moros 
as best they could. 

The missionaries of the district of Cotta-bato have 
taken refuge in Zamboanga, fearing to fall into the hands 
of the Moros, who would exact a heavy ransom for their 
delivery. As for the hundreds of liberated slave children, 
both girls and boys, who were gathered together under the 
protection of the missionaries at the asylum of Tamontaca, 
they are doubtless once more in the hands of the cruel 
Moros of Lake Lanao ; some, perhaps, have been sold by 
these wretches to the heathen tribes for twenty or thirty 
dollars each, to be offered up as sacrifices to Tag-busan, 
the god of war of the Manobos, or to Dewata, the san- 
guinary house-god of the Guiangas, 

The missionaries of the north of Mindanao were recalled 
by the Father Superior to Manila ; but in some of the 
towns the native converts and Visayas have detained them 
by force, and keep a watch on them to prevent their escape. 
They treat them well, and allow them to exercise their 

As there are no Moros in that part of the island, the 
missionaries are not in danger, for they are much beloved 
by their converts, whose only desire is to keep them 
amongst them. 

The district of Davao has been, like other localities, 
the scene of murder and pillage since the withdrawal of 
the Spanish authorities. At midnight of Februaiy 6th, the 
bad characters and outlaws of the chief town, under the 
leadership of Domingo Fernandez, a native of Zamboanga, 
and formerly inteq^reter and writer in the office of the 
Governor of Davao, rose in arms, and attacked the house of 
Don Bonifacio Quidato, sub-lieutenant of the local militia. 
They cut his throat, and bayoneted his wife as she lay in 
her bed. They then attacked all the well-to-do people of 
the place, committing many barbarous acts, and plundering 
their houses. 

Most of the Spanish residents escaped from the town 
in a lorcha, and, after a terrible voyage of sixteen days, 
suffering from hunger, and undergoing many severe 
privations, arrived in Zamboanga more dead than alive. 
The veteran missionary, Father Urios, and three other 


Spaniards, could not escape, and remained in the power of 
the bandits. 

This is only one instance of what is going on all over 
the island. In the words of one who knows the country 
well, Mindanao has become a seething hell, and is in a 
condition more dreadful than ever before in historic times. 

But amongst these various tribes, Christian or heathen, 
there is said to be one subject, and one only, upon which 
they all agree. They have combined to resist by force the 
American invasion. If it is attempted to conquer them by 
force of arms, it will be a difficult, a tedious, and a costly 
operation — a campaign far more sickly than that now pro- 
ceeding in the arable lands around Manila, where the 
ground is hard, the country very level, and where field-guns 
can be taken anywhere during the dry season. It is my 
belief that, if skilfully handled, half the island — the eastern 
half — could be pacified without war, although, no doubt, 
gangs of bandits would have to be destroyed ; but this 
could be done by the Visayas and the converts, organised 
as a militia, and paid whilst on active service. 

But this pacification requires the assistance of the 
missionaries. They are not likely to give that assistance 
unless terms are made with them, and one of those terms 
will surely be that they shall be allowed to continue their 
beneficent work unhindered and unvexed. 

So the United States Government is confronted with a 
dilemma. Either they must shoot down the new Christians, 
to introduce and enforce freedom of worship which the 
converts do not want, and cannot understand, or they must 
negotiate with the Jesuits for them to use their influence to 
pacify the island, and thus subject themselves to the abuse 
and the outcry such a proceeding will bring upon them 
from the divines and missionaries of Protestant sects, and 
from their political opponents. 

As for the western half of the island, a part may be 
pacified with the help of the missionaries, but military 
operations on a considerable scale will be required there 
sooner or later against the Moros of Lake Lanao. 

This would be a holy war, a war of humanity, and I 
would say to the Americans : Look back on the deeds of 
your forefathers, on the days when your infant navy covered 
itself with imperishable glory, when it curbed the insolence 
of the Bashaw of Tripoli, the Bey of Tunis, and the Dey of 
Algiers, teaching all Europe how to deal with Mediterranean 


pirates. Inspire yourselves with the Spirit of Decatur and 
his hero-comrades whose gallant deeds at Tripoli earned 
Nelson's praise as being " the most bold and daring act of 
the age," and do not hesitate to break up this last com- 
munity of ex-pirates and murderous slave-hunters. 

The Moros of Lake Lanao could be simultaneously 
attacked from north and south. In 1894, the Spaniards 
attacked by the north, and transported all their artillery 
and stores and their small steamers built in sections, by 
paths on the eastern side of the River Agus. Some of the 
Moros remained neutral in that campaign. Such were the 
Dattos of Lumbayangin and Guimba. Their cottas were 
spared. The distance in a straight line from the mouth of 
the Agus near Iligan to the lake is fifteen miles. 

The path winds a good deal, and the country is hilly, 
wooded on the heights, and intersected by streams. There 
is a path on the west bank of the Agus, the country there 
is more open, and a large part of it is under cultivation. A 
good outfit of mountain-guns would be required on this 
northern expedition. 

The other attack could be made from the south, the 
forces landing at Fort Baras, or at Lalabuan. From either 
of these places there is what in the Philippines is called a 
road to Ganasi at the southern end of the lake. The 
distance in a straight line is about twenty miles. The two 
roads join at about half way, just before coming to the 
cotta of Kurandangan in the Sultanate of Pualas. 

This road is reported to have no steep gradients, no 
boggy parts, and no unfordable streams. The country is 
fairly open, as there is no thick forest, but only scrub and 
cogon, or elephant grass. From a description given by a 
Tagal who traversed this road, it appears to be practicable 
for field artillery. The combined attack, north and south, 
could be supported by an advance from the eastward of 
irregular forces of the Monteses from the reducciones of 
the Tagoloan, Sawaga and Malupati Rivers, if they were 
supplied with arms and ammunition for this purpose. 

It seems to me that we have here the usual three 
courses ; the fourth, to do nothing, and allow Moro and 
Christian to fight it out, would be unworthy of the United 
States, or of any civilized government. 

1. Put a stop to slave-hunting and murdering by a 
military expedition against the Moro Dattos. 

2. Maintain garrisons to keep the peace and protect the 


missionaries and their converts and trust to their efforts to 
gradually convert the Moros. 

3. Arm all the Christian towns round about the Moros 
and organise thei men as local militia, so that they can 
protect themselves against Moro aggression. 

All these courses are expensive, the second less expensive 
than the first, the third less expensive than the second. 

However, if either the second or third course is adopted, 
it is very probable that before long the first course would 
become imperative, for the Moros are faithless and treacher- 
ous in the extreme, and no treaty unsupported by bayonets 
has the least chance of being respected. 

To adopt the second or third course, then, only amounts 
to putting off the evil day. 

The missionaries can be of the greatest service in 
pacifiying the Moros whenever the power of the dattos is 
broken and when slavery can be put an end to. The object 
of the expedition I have spoken of should not be to exter- 
minate the Moros, but merely to break the power of the 
dattos and pandits, and to free their followers and slaves 
from their yoke. 

It is generally taken for granted that a Moro cannot be 
converted, but this is not the case in Mindanao. Father 
Jaoquin Sancho, S.J., informs me that when the political 
power of the dattos has been destroyed, their followers 
have been found ready to listen to the teachings of the 
missionaries and beginning by sending their children to 
school, then perhaps sanctioning the marriage of their 
daughters with Christians, they have finally cast in their 
lot with the Roman Catholic Church, not in scores, nor 
hundreds, but by thousands. He says that his colleagues 
baptized in one year after 1892, in the district of Davao 
alone, more than three thousand Mahometan Moros. He 
adds that their religious receptivity is much greater than 
that of the heathen tribes, that once baptized they remain 
fervent Christians, whilst the Mandayas, Manobos, Monteses 
and other heathen are only too apt, with or without reason, 
to slip away to the forests and mountains and resume 
their nomadic life, their heathen orgies, and human 

I have already spoken of the success of the mission- 
aries on the Rio Grande and of their industrial and 
agricultural orphanage at Tamontacca, where they were 
bringing up hundreds of children of both sexes, mostly 


liberated slaves of the Moros, to be useful members of 
society. This noble institution occupied the very spot 
where the former Moro Sultan of Tamontacca held his 

Two or three more institutions like this, established at 
points a few miles distant from Lake Lanao, and protected 
from aggression on the part of the Moro, would gradually 
undermine the power of the Dattos by affording an asylum 
to all fugitive slaves attempting to escape from cruelties of 
their masters. 

For years past the Spaniards have protected all slaves 
who have fled to them from their masters. The Datto Utto 
applied to General Weyler to restore to him forty-eight 
slaves who had taken refuge at a Spanish fort on the Rio 
Grande, but Weyler refused, reminding the datto that he 
had signed an engagement to keep no slaves, but only free 
labourers, who had the right to fix their residence where 
they pleased. 

I assume that no slaves who seek the shelter of the 
Stars and Stripes will ever be sent back again into 

As a guide to the strength of the expedition which will 
sooner or later have to be sent against the Moros of Lake 
Lanao, I may say that the total war strength of the Moros 
of Mindanao was estimated in 1894 at 19,000 fighting-men, 
35 guns, 1896 Lantacas and 2167 muskets or rifles. {See 
list, p. 387). 

They have probably since then obtained a large supply 
of rifles and ammunition. This traffic in arms should be at 
once stopped. 

Swords and spears they have in abundance. 

But of these 19,000 men many have submitted to the 
Spanish rule, or have become allies of the Spaniards, like 
the Datto Ayunan, the Datto Abdul, the Sultan of Bolinson 
and many others. 

Probably 10,000 men would be the very utmost that the 
Moros of Lake Lanao could bring on the field, and only a 
part of these would have fire-arms, which they could have 
little skill in handling. 

They would on no account give battle in the open, but 
would fight in the bush, and desperately defend their 
cottas. They would not concentrate their forces, for want 
of transport for their food supply ; besides, the nature of 
the country would prevent this. 


They could not stop a flotilla from being launched on 
the lake and from capturing the islands as a base of 

The flotilla would be operating on inside lines of 
communication. It could threaten one side of the lake, 
and in less than two hours be landing troops on the 
opposite side. 

In fact, with a moderate force, their subjugation would 
not be so difficult as has often been supposed. 

It should be made clear to the Sacopes and to the 
slaves that the war is waged against the Sultans and 
Dattos, that the people would have their lives and property 
and the free exercise of their religion guaranteed to them, 
and that the adults should be exempt from taxation and 
conscription for the rest of their lives or for a term of years. 
Then the resistance would soon slacken, and the sultans 
and dattos might be captured. Those who would not 
conform to the new condition of things might be allowed 
to emigrate to Borneo or elsewhere, but their subjects and 
slaves should by no means be allowed to go with them, 
for they will soon become useful agriculturists and good 
Christians, and Mindanao cannot spare them. 

The question of slavery, more especially of slave- 
concubines, will require delicate handling, but by adopting 
a conciliatory but firm policy, this curse may gradually be 
got rid of without causing disturbance or bloodshed. Cranks 
and faddists should not be allowed to handle this question, 
but it should be placed in the hands of some one well 
versed in human nature, and a true friend of freedom. 

The wise policy of the British authorities in Zanzibar 
and Pemba is well worthy of imitation. 

As happens in Africa, the greatest impediment to the 
conversion of the heathen polygamist is the obligation to 
renounce all his wives but one. This is a sore trial, more 
especially when they have paid a good price for them, or if 
they are good cooks. 

Father Urios having persuaded a Manobo, who wished 
to be baptized, to do this, the man said to him : " Of my 
two wives I have decided to keep the elder, but I make a 
great sacrifice in separating from the other, for I had so 
much trouble to obtain her. Her father would only give 
her to me in exchange for fifteen slaves. As I did not 
possess them, I was obliged to take the field against the 
timid tribes in an unknown country, and to capture these 


fifteen slaves. I was obliged to fight often, and to kill more 
than thirty men." 

The illustration represents a scene from the labours of 
Father Gisbert amongst the Bagobos, He is exhorting a 
blood-stained old datto and his wives and followers to 
abandon their human sacrifices, exhibiting to them the 
image of the crucified Redeemer, whose followers he urges 
them to become. 

As regards the maintenance of the missions, I do not 
for one moment doubt that the liberality of the Roman 
Catholics of the United States is quite equal to the needs 
of the pioneers of civilisation, who have laboured with such 
remarkable success. 

Altogether the Jesuits administered the spiritual, and 
some of the temporal affairs of 200,000 Christians in 

They educated the young, taught them handicrafts, 
attended to the sick, consoled the afflicted, reconciled those 
at variance, explored the country, encouraged agriculture, 
built churches, laid out roads, and assisted the Administra- 
tion. Finally, when bands of slave-hunting, murdering 
Moros swept down like wolves on their flocks, they placed 
themselves at the head of their ill-armed parishioners and 
led them into battle against a ferocious enemy who gives 
no quarter, with the calmness of men who, long before, had 
devoted their lives to the Master's cause, to whom nothing 
in this world is of any consequence except the advancement 
of the Faith and the performance of duty. 

They received very meagre monetary assistance from 
the Spanish Government, and had to depend greatly upon 
the pious offerings of the devout in Barcelona and in 
Madrid. It is to be feared that these subscriptions will 
now fall off as Spain has lost the islands ; if so, it is all the 
more incumbent upon the Roman Catholics of America to 
find the means of continuing the good work. 

I feel sure that this will be so — Christian charity will 
not fail, and the missions will be maintained. 

For their devotion and zeal, I beg to offer the Jesuit 
missionaries my profound respect and my earnest wishes 
for their welfare under the Stars and Stripes. 

To my mind, they realise very closely the ideal of what 
a Christian missionary should be. Although a Protestant 
born and bred, I see in that no reason to close my eyes to 
their obvious merit, nor to seek to be-little the great good 


they have done in Mindanao. Far from doing so, I wish 
to state my conviction that the easiest, the best, and the 
most humane way of pacif}'ing Mindanao is by utih'sing the 
powerful influence of the Jesuit missionaries with their 
flocks, and this before it is too late, before the populations 
have had time to completely forget the Christian teaching, 
and to entirely relapse into barbarism. 

List of Posts in Mindanao Garrisoned by Detachments of 
THE Native Army with Spanish Officers in 1894. 




\st District. 

San Ramon 




Santa Maria 

. , 




Margos-sa-tubig . 




ind District. 

Fort Weyler, Mumungan 





,, . . . 




>i • 




»» • 




Disciplinary Battn, 

Iligan . 



Tercio Civil. 








>> • 



Disciplinary Battn. 

Tangok, Alfonso XIII. 




Balatacan, Infanta Isabel 




Trocha de Tucuran, Sta. 

Pax and Sta. Eulalia 




Maria Cristina . 


Sundangan . 




Parang- parang 












Disciplinary Eattn. 

. , 




Matabang . 





Baras . 




»i • 





Glan .... 








Balut .... 





Tumanao . 

\ Sergt./ 



Carried for 

ward . . 




[ To Jluc p. 3S7. 



List of Posts in Mindanao — continued. 




Brought forward . . 




5M District. 


Cottabato . 

••1 3 



>> ... 

•• \, ' ^ 



Libungan . 

I \ 

• I Sergt./ 



Tamontaca . 











Kudaranga , 



Reina Regente 




Pikit .... 






Pinto .... 






/ . \ 


jl Sergt. J 













This number is exclusive of the garrisons of Zamoanga and Davao. 
Basilan .... 2 officers, 50 men. 

Estimate of the Moro Forces in Mindanao in the Year 1894. 






Tucuran ..... 

Parang-parang .... 

Malabang ..... 

Baras ...... 

Lake Lanao and surrounding district 















The fighting-men of the River Pulangui, and the Rio Grande comprised 
■within the 5th District are not included in this list, as many of them have 
submitted to the Spaniards, and there appears little to fear from them. Only 
those who are quite independent and war-like, and who may be considered 
dangerous have been set down. 

2 C 2 


Population of Mindanao in 1894. 
As given by Josi Nieto Aguilar. 


Area in 






* Zamboanga 
t Misamis (Dapitan and"! 
Camiguin Is.) ./ 
X Surigao . 

§ Davao 




























269,300 692,876 

* The territory of Sibuguey is almost unexplored. 

\ The principal industry of Christians or Moros, is washing the sands and alluvial soils 
for gold, which is found in abundance. Agriculture is progressing. 

I The principal industry is washing the sands and mining for gold. 

9 From Jesuit records the Christian population of Davao was 12,000 in 1896. This number 
iincluded over 3000 converted Moros. There were also some 2000 Moros residing there. The 
Jesuits residing on the spot must know best. 

II Nieto gives the total as 200,000. I have divided them as above. 


Some of the Combats, Massacres and Rebellions, Disputes 
AND Calamities of the Philippine Islands. 

1 52 1. Magellan and several of his followers killed in action by the 
natives of Mactan, near Cebu ; Juan Serrano and many 
other Spaniards treacherously killed by Hamabar, King of 

1525. Salazar fights the Portuguese off Mindanao, and suffers great 
losses in ships and men. 

1568. Legaspi's expedition attacked in Cebu by a Portuguese fleet, 
which was repulsed. 

1570. Legaspi founds the city of Cebu, with the assistance of the 


1 57 1. Legaspi founds the city of Manila, with the assistance of the 


1572. Juan Salcedo fights the Datto of Zambales, and delivers his 

subjects from oppression. 

1574. Siege of Manila by the Chinese pirate Li-ma-hon with 95 small 
vessels and 2000 men. The Spaniards and natives repulse 
the attack. The pirates retire to Pangasinan, and are 
attacked and destroyed by Juan Salcedo. 

1577. War against Mindanao and J0I6, parts of which are occupied. 
Disputes between the missionaries and the military officers 
who desire to enrich themselves by enslaving the natives, 
which the former stoutly oppose, desiring to convert them, 
and grant them exemption from taxes according to the 
*' Leyes de Indias." They considered the cupidity of the 
soldiers as the chief obstacle to the conversion of the heathen. 
The Crown decided in favour of the natives, but they did not 
derive all the benefits they were entitled to, as the humane 
laws were not respected by the governors. 
The Franciscans arrived in Manila. 

1580. Expedition sent by Gonzalo Ronquillo to Borneo to assist King 


1 58 1. Expedition sent by the same to Cagayan to expel a Japanese 

corsair who had established himself there. The expedition 
succeeded, but with heavy loss. 

Expedition against the Igorrotes to get possession of the 
gold-mines, but without success. 

The Jesuits arrive in Manila. 

1582. Expedition against the Molucas, under Sebastian Ronquillo. 


An epidemic destroyed two-thirds of the expedition, which 
returned without accomplishing anything. 

Great disputes between the encomenderos and the friars in 
consequence of the ill-treatment of the natives by the former. 
Dissensions between the Bishop of Manila and the friars who 
refused to submit to his diocesan visit. 
Manila burnt down. 

1584. Second expedition against the Molucas, with no better luck than 
the first. 

Rebellion of the Pampangos and Manila men, assisted 
by some Mahometans from Borneo. Combat between the 
English pirate, Thomas Schadesh, and Spanish vessels. 

Combat between the English adventurer Thomas Cavendish 
(afterwards Sir Thomas), and Spanish vessels. 

1587. The Dominicans arrive in Manila. 

1589. Rebellion in Cagayan and other provinces. 

1593. Third expedition against the Molucas under Gomez Perez Das- 
marinas. He had with him in his galley 80 Spaniards and 
250 Chinese galley-slaves. In consequence of contrary winds, 
his vessel put into a port near Batangas for shelter. In the 
silence of the night, when the Spaniards were asleep, the 
galley-slaves arose and killed them all except a Franciscan 
friar and a secretary. Dasmarinas built the castle of Santiago, 
and fortified Manila with stone walls, cast a large number of 
guns, and established the college of Sta. Potenciana. 

1596. The galleon which left Manila for Acapulco with rich mer- 

chandise, was obliged to enter a Japanese port by stress of 
weather, and was seized by the Japanese authorities. The 
crew were barbarously put to death, 

1597. Expedition of Luis Perez Dasmarinas against Cambodia, which 

gained no advantage. 

1598. The Audiencia re-established in Manila, and the bishopric 

raised to an archbishopric. 

Expedition against Mindanao and Jold, the people from 
which were committing great devastations in Visayas, taking 
hundreds of captives. 

Much fighting, and many killed on both sides, without any 
definite result. 

1599. Destructive earthquake in Manila and neighbourhood. 

1600. Great sea combat between four Spanish ships, commanded by 

Judge Morga, and two Dutch pirates. One of the Dutchmen 
was taken, but the other escaped. 

Another destructive earthquake on January 7th, and one 
less violent, but long, in November. 
1603. Conspiracy of Eng-Cang and the Chinese against the Spaniards. 
The Chinese entrench themselves near Manila ; Luis Perez 
Dasmarinas marches against them with 130 Spaniards. 
They were all killed and decapitated by the Chinese, who 
then besieged Manila, and attempted to take it by assault. 
Being repulsed by the Spaniards, all of whom, including the 
friars, took up arms, they retired to their entrenchments. 
They were ultimately defeated, and 23,ckx» of them were 
massacred. Only 100 were left alive, and these were sent to 
the galleys as slaves. 


1606. The Recollets arrive in Manila. 

Fourth expedition against the Molucas. Pedro de Acuna, 
having received a reinforcement of 800 men — Mexicans and 
Peruvians — attacked and took Ternate, Tidore, Marotoy and 
Herrao, with all their artillery and provisions. He left 700 
men in garrison there, and returned to Manila, dying a few 
days after his arrival. The Augustinians furnished a galleon 
for this expedition. It was commanded by the Rev. Father 
Antonio Flores. 

1607. Revolt of the Japanese living in and near Manila, and heavy 

losses on both sides. 

1609. Arrival of Juan de Silva with five companies of Mexican and 

Peruvian infantry. Attack on Manila by a Dutch squadron 
of five vessels. They were beaten off with the loss of three of 
their ships. 

1610. Unsuccessful expedition against Java. This was to have been 

a combined attack on the Dutch by Portuguese and Spaniards, 
but the Spanish squadron did not arrive in time to join their 
allies, who were beaten by the Dutch fleet in the Straits of 

Terrific earthquake in Manila and the eastern provinces. 

1616. Violent eruption of the Mayon volcano. 

1622. Revolt of the natives in Bohol, Leyte and Cagayan, which were 
easily suppressed. 

1624. The Dutch landed on Corregidor Island, but were beaten off. 

1627. August. Great earthquake. 

1628. Destructive earthquake in Camarines. 

1638. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera mikes an attack on the Moros 

of Mindanao, and conquers the Sultanate of Buhayen and 
island of Basilan. He also defeats the Joloans. 

1639. Insurrection of Chinese in the province of Laguna and in 

Manila. Out of 30,000, 7000 ultimately surrendered. All 
the rest were massacred by the Tagals. 

1640. The Dutch attacked the Spanish garrisons in Mindanao and J0I6. 

The governor-general, fearing they might attack Manila, with- 
drew the garrisons from the above places to strengthen his 
own defences, thus leaving the Moros masters of both islands. 

1641. Eruption of the Taal volcano. Violent earthquake in Ilocos. 

1645. The Dutch attacked Cavite and other ports, but were repulsed. 

Rebellion of the Moros in J0I6, and of the natives of Cebu 
and other provinces, who were oppressed by forced labour in 
building vessels, and other services. 

In these years there were great disputes between the 
Spaniards of the capital and the friars. 

Great earthquake in Manila, 30th November, called St. 
Andrew's earthquake. 

1646. Long series of strong earthquakes, which began in March with 

violent shocks, and lasted for sixty days. 
1648. Great earthquakes in Manila. 
1653. Great devastations by the Moros of Mindanao, which were 

severely punished. 

Rebellion in Pampanga and Pangasinan against being 

forced to cut timber gratuitously for the navy. Suppressed 

after a serious resistance. 


1658. Destructive earthquake in Manila and Cavite. 

1662. The Chinese pirate, Cong-seng, demands tribute from the 
Governor of the Philippines. A decree is issued ordering 
all Chinamen to leave the Philippines. The Chinese en- 
trench themselves in the Parian, and resist. Thousands 
were killed, and 2000 who marched into Pampanga were all 
massacred by the natives. 

Great troubles occurred between the governor, Diego de 
Salcedo, and the archbishop. 

1665. 19th June, violent and destructive earthquake in Manila. 

1669. During the government of Manuel de Leon, further troubles 
occurred between the archbishop and the Audiencia. The 
archbishop was banished, and sent by force to Pangasinan. 
But a new governor, Gabriel de Cruzalegui, arrived, and 
restored the archbishop, who excommunicated the dean and 

1675. Destructive earthquake in South Luzon and Mindoro. 

1683. Great earthquake in Manila. 

1689. Archbishop Pardo having died, was succeeded by P. Camacho, 
and now great disorders arose from his insisting on making 
the diocesan visit, which the friars refused to receive, and 
would only be visited by their own Provincial. Again Judge 
Sierra required the Augustinians and Dominicans to present 
the titles of the estates they possessed in virtue of a special 
commission he had brought from Madrid, which they refused 
to obey, and the end of the dispute was that Sierra was sent 
back to Mexico, and another commissioner, a friend of the 
friars, was appointed, to whom they unofficially exhibited the 

17 16. Destructive eruption of the Taal volcano, and violent earthquake 

in Manila. 

17 1 7. Fernando Bustillo Bustamente became governor, and re-estab- 

Ushed garrisons in Zamboanga and Paragua. He caused 
various persons who had embezzled the funds of the colony 
to restore them, imprisoning a corrupt judge. He was 
assassinated by the criminals he had punished, and nothing 
came of the inquiry into his death. 

1735. Earthquake in Baler, and tidal wave. 

At this time, the audacity of the Moro pirates was in- 
credible. They ravaged the Visayas and southern Luzon, 
and carried away the inhabitants by thousands for slaves. 
The natives began to desert the coast, and take to the in- 
terior. Pedro Manuel de Arandia, obeying repeated orders, 
decreed the expulsion of the Chinese. 

1744. Another rising in Bohol, due to the tyranny of a Jesuit priest 
named Morales. The chief of this rising was a native named 
Dagohoy, who put the Jesuit to death, and maintained the 
independence of Bohol, paying no tribute for thirty-five years. 
When the Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines, Re- 
collets were sent to Bohol, and the natives submitted on 
receiving a free pardon. 

1749. Eruption of the Taal volcano, and earthquake in Manila. The 
eruption lasted for twenty days. 

1754. Violent eruption of the Taal volcano, which began on 15th May, 


and lasted till the end of November, This was accompanied 
by earthquakes, an inundation, terrifying electrical discharges, 
and destructive storms. The ashes darkened the country for 
miles round, even as far as Manila. When the eruption 
ceased, the stench was dreadful, and the sea and lake threw 
up quantities of dead fish and alligators. A malignant fever 
burst out, which carried off vast numbers of the population 
round about the volcano. 

1762. A British squadron, with troops from India, arrived in the bay 

22nd September, and landed the forces near the powder- 
magazine of S. Antonio Abad. On the 24th, the city was 
bombarded. The Spaniards sent out 2000 Pampangos to 
attack the British, but they were repulsed with great slaughter, 
and ran away to their own country. 

The civil population of Manila were decidedly in favour 
of resisting to the last drop of the soldiers' blood ; but the 
soldiers were not at all anxious for this. Confusion arose in 
the city, and whilst recriminations were in progress, the 
British took the city by assault, meeting only a half-hearted 

The natives immediately began plundering, and were 
turned out of the city by General Draper. The Chinese 
also joined in the robbery, and a few were hanged in conse- 
quence. The city was pillaged. The British regiments are 
said to have behaved well, but the sepoys ravished the 
women, and killed many natives. 

Cavite was about to be surrendered, but as soon as the 
native troops there knew what was going on, they began at 
once to plunder the town and arsenal. 

1763. A British expedition sailing in small craft took possession of 

Malolos on January 19th, 1763. The Augustin and Franciscan 
friars took arms to defend Bulacan, where two of them were 
killed in action. 

It was said that the Chinese were conspiring to exterminate 
the Spaniards. Simon de Anda, the chief of the war-party 
amongst the Spaniards, issued an order that all the Chinese 
in the Philippines should be hanged, and this order was in a 
great measure carried out. This was the fourth time the 
Spaniards and natives exterminated the Chinese in the 

Peace having been made in Europe, the British evacuated 
Manila in March, 1774. 

In order to satisfy their vanity, and account for the easy 
victory of the British, the Spaniards made various accusa- 
tions of treachery against a brave Frenchman named Falles, 
and a Mexican, Santiago de Orendain. Both those men 
gallantly led columns of Pampangos against the British lines 
in the sortie before mentioned. Although the Pampangos, 
full of presumption, boldly advanced against the British and 
sepoys, they were no match for disciplined troops led by 
British officers, and were hurled back at the point of the 
bayonet. The inevitable defeat and rout was made a pretext 
for the infamous charges against their leaders. It may be 
asked. Was there no Spaniard brave enough to lead the 


sorties, that a Frenchman and a Mexican were obliged to 

take command ? 

The Spaniards in this campaign showed themselves more 
at home in making proclamations, accusations, and intriguing 
against each other, than in fighting. However, the friars are 
exempt from this reproach, for Augustinians, Dominicans and 
Franciscans, fought and died, and shamed the soldiers. 

No less than ten Augustinians fell on the field of battle, 
nineteen were made prisoners, and twelve were banished. 
The British are said by the Augustinians to have sacked and 
destroyed fifteen of their conventos, or priests' houses, six 
houses of their haciendas, and to have sold everything 
belonging to them in Manila. The Augustinians gave their 
church bells to be cast into cannon for the defence of the 

Spaniards and natives, however, showed great unanimity 
and enthusiasm in massacring or hanging the unwarlike 
Chinamen, and in pillaging their goods. Nearly all the Chinese 
in the islands, except those in the parts held by the British, 
were killed. 

During the Anglo-Spanish war there were revolts of the 
natives in Pangasinan and in Ilocos, then a very large 
province (it is now divided into four), but both these risings 
were suppressed, The same happened with a revolt in 
Cagayan. Disturbances also occurred in many other 

Simon de Anda became Governor-General, and carried 
out the expulsion of the Jesuits from the PhiHppines. Great 
troubles again occurred between the Archbishop and the 
friars over the diocesan visit. 

1766. 20th July, violent eruption of the Mayon volcano. 

23rd October, terrible typhoon in Albay, causing enormous 
destruction of life and property. 

1777. Jose Basco y Vargas, a naval officer, came out as Governor- 
General, and found the country overrun with banditti. He 
made a war of extermination against them, and then initiated 
a vigorous campaign against the Moros. He repaired the 
forts, built numbers of war vessels, and cut up the pirates 
in many encounters. Basco governed for nearly eleven 

1784. During the government of Felix Marquina, a naval officer, the 
Compaiiia de FiHpinas was founded to commence a trade 
between Spain and the Philippines. Marquina was succeeded 
by Rafael Marid de Aguilar, an army officer, who organized 
the land and naval forces, and made fierce war on the Moros. 
He governed the islands for fourteen years. 

1787. Violent and destructive earthquake in Panay. 

1796. Disastrous earthquake in Manila. 

1800. Desti-uctive eruption of the Mayon volcano. 

1807. Rebellion in Ilocos. 

When the parish priest of Betal, an Augustinian, was 
preaching to his flock, exhorting them to obedience to their 
sovereign, a woman stood up in the church and spoke against 
him, saying that they should not believe him, that his remarks 


were all humbug, that with the pretence of God, the Gospel, 
and the King, the priest merely deceived them, so that the 
Spaniards might skin them and suck their blood, for the 
priests were Spaniards like the rest. However, the townsmen 
declared for the King, and took the field under the leadership 
of the priest. 

1809. The first English commercial house estabhshed in Manila. 

i8il. Rebellion in llocos to change the religion, nominating a new 
god called Lungao. The leaders of this rebellion entered 
into negotiations with the Igorrotes and other wild tribes to 
exterminate the Spaniards, but the conspiracy was discovered 
and frustrated. 

1S14. Rebellion in llocos and other provinces. 

Prisoners released in some towns in llocos. This rebellion 
was in consequence of General Gandards proclaiming the 
equality of races, which the Indians interpreted by refusing 
to pay taxes. 

1st February, violent earthquake in south Luzon and 
destructive eruption of the Mayon volcano. Astonishing 
electrical discharges. 

A discharge of ashes caused five hours' absolute darkness, 
through which fell showers of red hot stones which completely 
burnt the towns of Camalig, Cagsana, and Budiao with 
half of the towns of Albay and Guinchatau, and part of 

The darkness caused by the black ashes reached over the 
whole of Luzon, and even to the coast of China. So loud 
was the thunder that it was heard in distant parts of the 

Great epidemic of cholera in Manila. 

1820. Massacre of French, English, and Americans in Manila by 
the natives who plundered their dwellings, after which they 
proceeded with the fifth massacre of the Chinese. They 
asserted that the Europeans had poisoned the wells and 
produced the cholera. The massacre was due to the 
villainous behaviour of a Philippine Spaniard named Varela, 
who was Alcalde of Tondo, equivalent to Governor of Manila, 
and to the criminal weakness and cowardice of Folgueras 
the acting governor-general, who abstained from interference 
until the foreigners had been killed, and only sent out troops 
when forced by the remonstrances of the friars and other 

The archbishop and the friars behaved nobly, for they 
marched out in procession to the streets of Binondo, and 
did their best to stop the massacre, whilst Folgueras, only 
attentive to his own safety, remained with the fortifications. 

1822. Juan Antonio Martinez took over the government in October. 
Folgueras having reported unfavourably of the officers of the 
Philippine army, Martinez brought with him a number of 
officers of the Peninsular army to replace those who were 

This caused a mutiny of the Spanish officers of the native 
army, and they murdered Folgueras in his bed. He thus 
expiated his cowardice in 1820. The mutiny was, however, 


suppressed, and Novales and twenty sergeants were shot. 
Novalcs' followers had proclaimed him Emperor of the 
Philippines. The constitution was abolished by Martinez, 
without causing any rising. 
1824. Destructive earthquake in Manila. 

Alonzo Morgado appointed by Martinez to be captain of 
the Marina Sutil, commenced an unrelenting persecution of 
the piratical Moros, causing them enormous losses. 

1828. Another military insurrection, headed by two brothers, officers 

in the Philippine army. 

From this date Peninsular troops were permanently main- 
tained in Manila, which had never been done before. 

1829. Father Bernardo Lago, an indefatigable missionary of the 

Augustinian Order, with his assistants baptised in the 
provinces of Abra and Benguet more than 5300 heathen 
Tinguianes and Igorrotes, and settled them in towns. 
1834. Foreign vessels allowed to enter Manila by paying double dues. 
1836-7. Great disturbances amongst the natives in consequence of the 
ex-claustration of the friars in Spain. The natives divided 
into two parties. One wished to turn out the friars and all 
Spaniards, the others to turn out all Spaniards except the 
friars, who were to remain and take charge of the govern- 

The disturbances were ultimately smoothed over. 
1841. Marcelino de Orda being Governor- General, a sanguinary 
insurrection burst out in Tayabas, under the leadership of a 
native, Apolinario de la Cruz. He murdered the Alcalde of 
the province, and persuaded his fanatical adherents that he 
would make the earth open and swallow up the Spanish 
forces when they attacked. 

His following was composed of 3000 men, women, and 
children. They were attacked by four hundred soldiers and 
as many cuadrilleros and coast-guards, and suftered a 
crushing defeat, and a third of them were slain. 

Apolinario de la Cruz was apprehended, and immediately 
put to death. 

Apolinario called himself the " King of the Tagals," and 
told his followers that a Tagal virgin would come down from 
Heaven to wed him, that with a handful of rice he could 
maintain all who followed him, and that the Spanish bullets 
could not hurt them, and many other absurd things. His 
followers declared that he had signified his intention, in case 
of being victorious, to tie all the friars and other Spaniards 
to trees, and to have them shot by the women with arrows. 

There lay in garrison at Manila at this time a regiment 
composed of Tagals of Tayabas, and they also mutinied, and 
were shot down by the other troops. 
1844. Royal order prohibiting the admission of foreigners to the 
interior of the country. 

Narciso de Claveria became Governor-General, and 
organised a police force called the Public Safety for Manila, 
and similar corps for the provinces. Up to this time the 
Alcaldes Mayores of provinces had been allowed to trade, 
and, in fact, were almost the only traders in their provinces, 


buying up the whole crop. This forced trade is quite a 
Malay custom, and is practised in Borneo and the Malay 
States under the name of Serra-dagang. 

The Alcaldes Mayores used to pay the crown one third, or 
half, or all their salary for this privilege, and took in return 
all they could squeeze out of their provinces without causing 
an insurrection, or without causing the friars to complain of 
them to the Government, for the parish priests were ever the 
protectors of the natives against the civil authority. This 
privilege of trading was now abolished as being unworthy of 
the position of governor of a province. 
1 85 1. Expedition by the Governor-General Antonio de Urbiztondo 
against Jold. The force consisted of four regiments, with 
artillery, and a battalion of the inhabitants of Cebii, under 
the command of a Recollet friar, Father Ibafiez. These 
latter behaved in the bravest manner, in fact they had to ; 
for their wives, at the instance of the priest, had sworn 
never to receive them again if they turned their backs on the 

The undaunted Father Ibanez led them to the assault, and 
lost his life in the moment of victory. Eight cottas (forts), 
with their artillery and ammunition, were captured by this 
expedition, and a great number of Moros were killed. 

After this the J0I6 pirates abated their insolent attacks. 
Claveria made an expedition against the piratical Moros and 
seized their island of Balanguingin, killing 400 Moros, and 
taking 300 prisoners, also rescuing 200 captives. He also 
captured 120 guns and lantacas, and 150 piratical vessels. 
This exemplary chastisement tranquillised the Moros for 
some time. 

1853. 13th June. Loud subterranean noises in Albay and eruption 

of the Mayon volcano. Fall of ashes and red-hot stones 
which rolled down the mountain and killed thirty-three 

1854. Insurrection in Nueva Ecija under Cuesta, a Spanish mestizo 

educated in Spain, where Queen Isabela had taken notice of 

He arrived in Manila with the appointment of Comman- 
dant of Carabineros in Nueva Ecija, and immediately began 
to plot. The Augustine friars harangued his followers and 
persuaded them to disperse, and Cuesta was captured and 
executed, with several other conspirators ; others were 
banished to distant islands. 

In this year Manuel Crespo became Governor-General, 
and a military officer, named Zapatero, endeavoured to 
strangle him in his own office. 

1855. Strong shocks of earthquake in all Luzon. Eruption of the 

Mayon volcano. 

1856. In the latter part of this year a submarine volcanic explosion 

took place at the Didica shoal, eight miles north-east of the 
island of Camiguin in the Babuyanes, to the north of Luzon. 
It remains an active volcano, and has raised a cone nearly 
to the height of the volcano of Camiguin, which is 2414 feet 


1857. The old decrees against foreigners renewed. 

Fernando de Norzagaray became governor-general, and 
found the country over-run by bandits, against whom he 
employed severe measures. He greatly impr<;ved Manila. 

The French in Cochin-China, finding more resistance than 
they expected, appealed to Norzagaray for help. He lent 
them money, ships, and about a thousand native troops, who 
behaved with great bravery during the campaign. 
i860. Ramon Maria Solano succeeded to the Government. 

In this year two steam sloops and nine steam gunboats 
were added to the naval forces, and now the Moros could 
only put to sea running great risks of destruction. 

These nine gunboats were the greatest blessings the 
Philippines had received for many years. 

1861. Jose de Lemery y Ibarrola, Governor-General. Mendez-Nunez, 

with the steam sloops and gunboats, inflicted terrible chastise- 
ment on the piratical Moros. 

1862. Rafael de Echague y Bermingham became Governor- General, 

Second visitation of cholera in the islands, but not so 
severe as in 1820. 

1863. Terrible earthquake in Manila and the surrounding country, 

causing thousands of victims, destroying the cathedral, the 
palace of the governor-general, the custom houses, the 
principal churches (except St. Augustine), the public and 
private buildings, in fact, reducing the city to a ruin. 

At this time the steam gunboats continually hostilised the 
Moros of J0I6, and caused them great losses. 

1865. Juan de Lara y Irigoyen became Governor-General, and took 

measures to subdue the bandits, who were committing great 
depredations and murders. Hostilities continued in Jold, as 
the Moros had recommenced their piratical cruises. 

1866. Frequent earthquakes in Manila and Benguet. 

At this time the Treasury was in the greatest difficulty, and 
could not meet the current payments. A large quantity of 
tobacco was sold to meet the difficulty. 

1867. Jose de la Gandara y Navarro became Governor-General. To 

him is due the credit of creating that excellent institution the 
Guardia Civil, which has extirpated the banditti who infested 
the islands for so many years. 

An expedition was sent against the Tgorrotes, but without 
effecting anything of consequence. t 

1868. June 4th. Intense earthquake in the island of Leyte. 

1869. Carlos Maria de la Ton-e became Governor-General, and was 

not ashamed to publish a proclamation offering the bandits 
a free pardon if they presented themselves within three 
months. Hundreds and thousands of men now joined the 
bandits for three months murder and pillage, with a free 
pardon at the end of it. This idiotic and cowardly pro- 
clamation was most prejudicial to the interests of the country. 
Finally a special corps, called La Torre's Guides, was organised 
to pursue the bandits. 
187 1. Rafael Izquierdo y Guttierez became Governor-General, and 
raised the excellent corps called La Veterana to act as the 
police of the capital. 


December 8th, eruption of the Mayon volcano, and dis- 
charge of ashes and lava. Two persons smothered, and one 

i6th February. Commencement of the series of earth- 
quakes which preceded the frightful volcanic eruption in the 
island of Camiguin on 30th April. Full details of this terrible 
event are preserved. A volcanic outburst took place on the 
above date at 344. metres from the town of Cabarman, and 
near the sea. Great volumes of intlammable gases were 
ejected from deep cracks in the neighbouring hills, which 
presently took tire, and soared in flames of incredible height, 
setting tire to the forests. The wretched inhabitants who 
had remained in their houses found themselves surrounded 
by smoke, steam, water, ashes, and red hot stones, whilst 
their island seemed on fire, and they had sent away all their 
seaworthy craft with the women and children. 

At first the volcanic vent was only two metres high, but it 
continually increased. 

After the eruption, the earthquakes decreased, and on 
7th May entirely ceased. 

The volcano gradually raised itself by the material thrown 
out to a height of 418 metres. 

1872. Military revolt in Cavite, in which the native clergy were mixed 

up. A secret society had been working at this plot for 
several years, and was very widely extended. It inundated 
the towns of the Archipelago with calumnious and libellous 
leaflets in the native languages. The conspiracy coincided 
with the return of the Jesuits in accordance with a Royal 
Order, and their substitution for the Recollets missionaries 
in many parishes in Mindanao. In turn^ the Recollets, 
removed from Mindanao, were given benefices in Luzon 
which, for one hundred years, had been in the hands of the 
native clergy, who were, in consequence, very dissatisfied, 
and groat hatred was aroused against the Recollets. The 
mutiny was suppressed by the Spaniards and the Visayas 
troops, who bayoneted the Tagals without mercy, even when 
they had laid down their arms. 

Besides many who were shot for complicity in this revolt, 
three native priests — D. Mariano Gomez, D. Jacinto Zamora, 
and D. Jose Burgos — were garrotted in Bagumbayan on the 
28th February. Much discussion arose about the guilt or 
innocence of these men, and it is a matter on which friars 
and native clergy are never likely to agree. 

Later on, a rising took place in Zamboanga penal estab- 
lishment, but this was put down by the warlike inhabitants 
of that town, who are always ready to take up arms in their 
own defence, and are very loyal to Spain. 

Loud subterranean noises in Albay. Eruption of the 
Mayon volcano, which lasted for four days. 

1873. Juan de Alaminos y Vivar became governor-general. 

The ports of Legaspi, Tacloban and Leyte, were opened to 
foreign commerce. 

November 14, 1873, violent earthquake in Manila. Erup- 
tion of the Mayon volcano, from 15th June to 23rd July. 


1874. Manuel Blanco Valderrama, being acting governor-general, 
fighting took place in Baldbac, where the Spanish garrison 
was surprised by the Moros. Josd Malcampo y Monge, a 
rear-admiral, took over the government of the islands, and, 
during his administration, the news of the proclamation of 
Alfonso XII. as King of Spain was received, and gave great 
satisfaction in Manila, which had never taken to the Re- 
publican Government in Spain. 

Malcampo led a strong expedition, consisting of 9000 
men, against the Moros, and took Jol<5 by assault, after 
bombarding the Cottas by the ships' guns. At the end of 
his time, the regiment of Peninsular Artillery had become 
demoralised, and its discipline very lax. Finally, the soldiers 
refused to obey their officers, and broke out of barracks. 

Two of them were shot dead by the officer of the guard at 
the barrack-gate. Captain BruU, but the affair was hushed 
up, and no one was punished. Discipline was quite lost. 
3877. Great devastation by locusts in province of Batangas. Domingo 
Moriones y Murillo arrived, and took over the government on 
28th February. His lirst act was to shoot a number of the 
Spanish mutineers, put others in prison, and send back fifty 
to Spain in the same vessel with Malcampo. This incident 
is related in greater detail in Chapter III. The Treasury 
was in the greatest poverty, and the poor natives of Cagayan 
obliged to cultivate tobacco and deliver it to the government 
officials, had not been paid for it for two or three years, and 
were actually starving. Moriones did what he could for 
them, and strongly insisted on the abolition of the "estanco." 

To this worthy governor, Manila and the Philippines owe 
much. He insisted on the lei,'acy of Carriedo being employed 
for the object it was left for, instead of remaining in the 
hands of corrupt officials. 

He also made good regulations against rogues and 
ii879. Nov. 8th. Violent typhoon passed over Manila, doing much 

July 1st. Commencement of earthquakes in Surigao 
(Mindanao), which lasted over two months. 
1S80. Fernando Primo de Rivera became Governor-General, 15th 

On July 14th, a violent earthquake took place, doing 
enormous damage in the city of Manila and the central 
provinces of Luzon. The seismic disturbance lasted till the 
25th July. The inhabitants of Manila were panic-stricken, 
and took refuge in the native nipa houses. 

General Primo de Rivera made an expedition against the 
Igorrotes, and the vile treatment the soldiers meted out to 
the Igorrote women has delayed for years the conversion of 
those tribes. 

1881. Eruption of the Mayon volcano, which began on July 6th, and 

lasted till the middle of 1882. 

At times there were loud subterranean noises, after which 
the flow of lava usually increased. 

1882. Dreadful epidemic of cholera which, in less than three months, 


carried off 30,000 victims in the city and province of Manila 
In the height of the epidemic the deaths reached a thousand 
a day. The victims were mostly natives, but many Spaniards 
died of the disease. Only one Englishman died, and this 
was from his own imprudence. A typhoon passed over 
Manila on October 20th, and caused great damage on shore 
and afloat. Twelve large ships and a steamer were driven 
on shore, or very seriously damaged. 

On November 5th, another typhoon, not quite so violent 
as the first, took place. After this, the cholera almost 
entirely stopped. On December 31st, another typhoon 
1883. Joaquin Jovellar y Soler, captain-general in the army, and the 
pacificator of Cuba, assumed the government 7th April, 
and was received with great show of satisfaction by the 

The old tribute of the natives was replaced by the tax on 
the Cedulas-personales. 

During his time there were threats of insurrection, and 
additional Peninsular troops were sent out. He resigned 
from ill-health ist April, 1885. 

October 28th. Typhoon passed over Manila. 

1 88 5. Emilio Terrero y Perinat assumed the government of the islands 

on April 4th. 

He conducted successful expeditions against the Moros of 
Mindanao and J0I6. 

In the month of May, during the great heat, the River 
Pasig was covered with green scum from the lake. The 
water was charged with gas, the fish and cray-fish died, 
and the stench was overpowering, even at a couple of miles 
distance from the river. 

A huge waterspout was formed in the bay, and passed 

November. Death of King Alfonso XII., and mourning 
ceremonies in all the islands. 

October 2nd. Eruption of the Taal volcano. 

1886. 5th March. Separation of the executive and judicial powers. 

Appointment of eighteen civil governors instead of alcaldes 
— mayores of provinces. Ver}- great inconvenience occurred 
through the delay in sending out the Judges of First Instance, 
and the duties were, in some cases, temporarily performed 
by ignorant persons devoid of any legal training. 

1 1 P.M., 2nd April, an enormous flaming meteor traversed 
the sky, travelling from E. to W., and when about the zenith 
it split into two with a loud explosion, the pieces diverging at 
an angle of perhaps 45° ; they fell, apparently, at a great 
distance, producing a violent concussion like a sharp shock 
of earthquake. 

24th April. Attack by bandits on the village of Montalban. 
Two of them were killed by the Guardia Civil. 

8th July. Eruption of the Mayon volcano in Albay. It 
continued to discharge ashes and lava, bursting out into 
greater violence at times till the middle of March, 1887. 

March 19th. Don German Gamazo, Minister for the 

2 D 


Colonies, lays before the Queen-Regent, for her approbation, 
the project of the General Exhibition of the Philippines, to 
be held in Madrid in 1887. In it he says : — 

" By this we shall bring about that the great sums of 
money which arc sent from the metropolis to purchase in 
foreign countries cotton, sugar, cacao, tobacco, and other 
products, will go to our possessions in Oceania, where foj-eigti 
mcrc/ia/its buy than tip, witJi evident damage to the material 
interests of the country.^'' 

When it is considered that the freight from Manila to 
Barcelona in the subsidised Spanish Royal Mail steamers 
was considerably higher than that charged in the same 
steamers to Liverpool, that enormous duties were charged in 
Spain on sugar and hemp, which enter British ports duty 
free, and that British capital was advanced to the cultivators 
to raise these very crops, the idiotic absurdity and con- 
temptible hypocrisy of such a statement may be faintly 
realised by the reader. 

In May the mud of the Pasig became permeated with 
bubbles of gas, and floated to the surface. On May 23rd, 
the writer witnessed several violent explosions of fetid gas 
smelling like sulphuretted hydrogen from the mud of the 
Pasig at Santa Ana. 

June 7th. Triple murder committed at Canacao by a 
Tagal from jealousy. 

20th May. Three days' holiday and public rejoicings ordered 
in honour of the birth of the King of Spain (Alfonso XIII.). 
1887. January 3rd. Troops embarked in Manila for the expedition 
against the Moros of Mindanao under General Terrero. 

March 5th. The United States warship Brooklyn arrived 
in Manila. 

July 14th. The Penal Code put in force in the Philippines. 

December 3rd. The Civil Code put in force in the 
1S88. March ist. A petition is presented to the Acting Civil Governor 
of Manila by the Gobernadorcillo and Principales of Santa 
Cruz, praying for the expulsion of the religious orders and 
of the Archbishop, the secularization of all benefices, and 
the confiscation of the estates of the Augustinians and 
Dominicans. Sec Chapter VI. 

December 15th. Violent eruption of Mayon volcano with 
subterranean noises, storms, thunder and lightning. Don 
Valeriano Weyler, Marques de Tenerife, became governor- 
1890. Agrarian disturbances occurred at Calamba and Santa Rosa 
between the tenants on the Dominicans' estates and the lay 
brother in charge. During this year there was a great in- 
crease of secret societies. A woman admitted as a mason. 
A woman's lodge established. See Chapter IX. 

February 21st. Violent eruption of the Mayon. 

February 24th. Several explosions occurred at the summit, 
discharging showers of white-hot bombs. About 100 metres 
of the top toppled over. Many of the inhabitants of the 
neighbouring towns fled to a distance. 


1891. Don Emilio Despujols, Conde de Caspe, became governor- 
general. See Chapter III. 

1893. Doroteo Cortes banished to the Province of La Union, other 

malcontents banished to different localities. 

October 3rd. Eruption of the Mayon and explosion ot 
volcanic bombs. Loud subterranean noises and deafening 

A vast column of smoke ascended to the sky, from which 
proceeded violet-coloured lightning. 

The eruption lasted till the end of October. 

1894. May. The Datto Julcainim, with seventy armed Moros from 

Sulu, landed in Basilan Island to recover tribute from the 
natives, but was sent back by a Spanish gunboat. 

1896. August 30th. Tagal insurrection broke out near Manila and in 

Cavite Province. See Chapter X. 

1897. June 25th. Violent and disastrous eruptions of the Mayon. 

Complete destruction of the villages San Antonio, San Isidro, 
Santo Nino, San Roque, Santa Misericordia, and great 
damage to other places by the incandescent lava. A dreadful 
tempest destroyed houses and plantations in places where 
the lava did not reach. About 300 people were either killed 
outright or died of their wounds. Fifty wounded persons 

1898. March 24th. Revolt of the famous Visayas or 74th Regiment 

at Cavite. 

March 25th. Massacre of the Calle Camba. 

April 24th. Meeting at Singapore between Aguinaldo and 
the United States' Consul, Mr. Spencer Pratt. 

April 26th. Aguinaldo proceeds to Hong Kong. 

May 1st. Naval battle of Cavite. Destruction of the 
Spanish squadron and capture of Cavite Arsenal by the 

May 19th. Aguinaldo and seventeen followers land at 
Cavite from the United States' vessel Hugh McCiillough, 
and are furnished with arms by Admiral Dewey. 

May 24th. Aguinaldo proclaims a Dictatorial Govern- 

June 23rd. He issues a manifesto claiming for the Philip- 
pines a place, if a modest one, amongst the nations. 

August 6th. He sends a message to foreign powers claim- 
ing recognition. 

August 13th. The American troops enter Manila, the 
Spaniards making only a show of resistance. 

August 14th. The capitulation signed. General Merritt 
issues his proclamation establishing a military government. 

August 15th. General McArthur appointed military com- 
mandant of the Walled City and Provost-Marshal-General 
of the city and suburbs. 

September 29th. General Aguinaldo makes a speech at 
Malolos to the Philippine Congress, the keynote of which 
was independence : " The Philippines for the Filipinos." 

October 2nd. The Peace Commission holds its pre- 
liminary meeting in Paris. 

November 13th. The insurgents invest Ilo-ilo. Fighting 

2 D 2 


proceeding in other parts of Visayas between Spaniards and 

December loth. The Peace Commission signs the Treaty. 
Don Felipe Agoncillo, representative of the Philippine 
Government, hands in a formal protest, of which no notice 
is taken. 

December 24th. The Spaniards evacuate Ilo-ilo. 

December 26th. The insurgents occupy the city. The 
Spaniards evacuate all the southern island stations except 
Zamboanga. The Philippine Congress at Malolos adjourns. 

December 29th. New Philippine cabinet formed ; all the 
members pledged to independence. 

President of Congress and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Senor Mabini ; Secretary for War, Sefior Luna ; Interior, 
Senor Araneta ; Agriculture and Commerce, Senor Buen- 
camino ; Public Works, Senor Canon. 
1899. January 5th. The Washington officials announce that they 
"expect a peaceful adjustment." [Blessed are they who 
expect nothing.] 

President McKinley instructs General Otis to extend 
military government with all dispatch to the whole ceded 

January 8th. Protest of Aguinaldo against the Americans. 

January 12th. General Otis telegraphs to the War De- 
partment that conditions are apparently improving. 

Other dispatches represent the situation as daily growing 
more acute. 

January i6th. A telegram was received at W'ashington 
from General Otis, of so reassuring a character regarding the 
position at Manila and Ilo-ilo, that the government officials 
accept without question the correctness of his statement, that 
the critical stage of the trouble there is now past and that 
he controls the situation. 

A commission nominated by President McKinley, consisting 
of Dr. Schurman, President of Cornell University ; Professor 
Worcester of Michigan University, and Mr. Denby. 

Januar}- 21st. The Philippine constitution is proclaimed 
at Malolos. 

February 4th. Fighting between Filipinos and Americans 
began at Santa Mesa 8.45 P.M., and continued through the 

February 5 th. Fighting continued all day and ended in 
the repulse of the Filipinos with hea\-y loss. 

General Otis wires : " The situation is most satisfacton-, and 
apprehension need not be felt." 

Februar)' 6th. The U.S. Senate ratifies the Peace Treaty 
with Spain by 57 to 27. 

Senator Gorman in the course of the debate expressed his 
belief that the battle at Manila was only the beginning. If 
the treaty was ratified war would follow, lasting for years, and 
costing many lives, and millions upon millions of money. 

[Senator Gorman makes a better prophet than General 
Merritt or Mr. Foreman.] 

February 8th. General Otis wires : " The situation is 


rapidly improving. The insurgent army is disintegrating, 
Aguinaldo's influence has been destroyed." 

February loth. The Americans attack and capture 
Calocan. President McKinley signs the Treaty. 

February nth. Ilo-ilo captured by General Miller without 
loss, but a considerable part of the town was burned. 

February i8th. The American flag hoisted at Bacolod in 
Negros Island, opposite Ilo-ilo. 

February 22nd. Tagals attempt to burn Manila, setting 
fire simultaneously to the Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, and Tondo. 
Sharp fighting at Tondo. Many natives were burned while 
penned in by the cordon of guards. 

February 23rd. The Americans burned all that remained 
of Tondo. General Otis issued an order requiring the 
inhabitants to remain in their homes after 7 P.M. 

March 13. Oscar F. Williams does not expect to live to 
see the end of the war. This is the man who on July 2nd, 
1898, "hoped for an influx that year of 10,000 ambitious 
Americans," who he said could all live well and become en- 
riched. See Chapter XVIII. 

Since the American occupation three hundred drinking 
saloons have been opened in Manila. 

March 19th. Urgent instructions sent from Washington 
to Generals Otis and Lawton to hasten the end. 

March 24th. Engagement at Marilao — the Filipinos are 

New York Times says the situation is both surprising and 
painful to the American people. 

March 31st. The Americans occupy Malolos which the 
Filipinos had set on fire, after some skirmishing. 

April 1st. Troops resting at Malolos. 

The ironclad Monadnock was lired on by Filipinos artillery 
at Paraiiaque (three miles from Manila), and replied silencing 
the guns on shore. 

April 20th. A column of General Lawton's force, 140 
strong, surrounded and captured by the Filipinos near 

April 23rd. Fighting at Quingua, Col, Stotsenburg 
killed. This was a severe engagement, 

April 26th, Americans capture Calumpit, Washington 
" profoundly relieved." 

April 27th. Fighting near Apalit. 

April 30th. General Otis believes that the Filipinos are 
tired of the war. 

May 1st. Anniversary of the Battle of Cavite. 

May 2nd, Conference between Filipino envoys and 
General Otis with the American Civil Commissioners. 

General Lawton captures Baliuag. 

May 1 2th, The Nebraska Regiment petitions General 
McArthur to relieve them from duty, being exhausted by 
the campaign. Since February 4th, the regiment has lost 
225 killed and wounded, and 59 since the tight at Malolos, 

May 1 8th. Filipino peace delegates enter General Lawton's 
lines at San Isidro. 


1899. May 20th. Admiral Dewey leaves Manila in the Olympia. 

May 22nd. The U.S. Civil Commission received Agui- 
naldo's Peace Commissioners, and explained to them President 
McKinlcy's scheme of Government. 

May 29th. Aguinaldo reported dead. 

May 30th. The authorities at Washington admit that 
more troops are needed for Manihi. 

June 1st. Mr. Spencer Pratt obtains an interim injunction 
in the Supreme Court, Singapore, against the sale of Mr. 
Foreman's book. " The Philippine Islands." 

June 5th. Skirmishing in the Laguna district. An attempt 
by the Americans to surround Pio del Pilar fails. 

June 13th. A Filipino battery at Las Pinas, between 
Manila and Cavite, consisting of an old smooth bore gun and 
two one-pounders open fire on the American lines. A battery 
of the 1st Artillery, the ironclad Monadnock, and the gunboat 
Helena directed their fire upon this antiquated battery, and 
kept it up all the morning. 

A correspondent remarks, " This was the first real artillery 
duel of the war." 

This developed into one of the hardest fights in the war, 
the Filipinos made a determined stand at the Zapote bridge. 

Reports arrive that General Antonio Luna had been killed 
by some of General Aguinaldo's guards. 

June 1 6th, The Filipinos attack the Americans at San 
Fernando and are repulsed with heavy loss. 

Mr. Whitelaw Reid, addressing the Miami University of 
Ohio, denounces the President's policy, or want of policy, in 
the Philippines. 

June 19th. American troops under General Wheaton 
march through Cavite Province. 

June 2ist. General Miles describes the situation at Manila 
as " very serious." 

June 26th. Twelve per cent, of the American forces sick. 
Little can now be attempted as the rainy season is now on, 

June 27th. General Otis reports that the Filipinos have 
no civil government. 

June 28th. It is stated that General Otis will have 40,000 
men available for active operations after the rainy season. 

July I2th, General Otis asks for 2500 horses for the 
organisation of a brigade of cavalry after the rainy season. 

The entire staff of correspondents of the American news- 
papers protest against the methods of General Otis in exer- 
cising too strict a censorship over telegrams and letters. 
They say, " We believe that, owing to the official despatches 
sent from Manilla and published in Washington, the people 
of the United States have received a false impression of the 
situation in the Phihppines, and that these despatches present 
an ultra-optimistic view which is not shared by general 
officers in the field." 

July 20th. The rainfall at Manila since 1st June has 
been 41 inches and the country is flooded. 

July 23rd. Mr. Elihu Root nominated to succeed Mr, Alger 
as Secretary- for War. 


July 27th. General Hall's division captures Calamba on 
the lake. 

August 1st. Mr. Root sworn in as Secretary for War. He 
contemplates increasing General Otis' available force to 
40,000 men. 

August 15th. General McArthur's force captures Angeles. 

August 17th. Orders issued at Washington to form ten 
additional regiments to serve in the Philippines. General 
Otis to have 62,000 men under his command. 

August 23rd. General Otis apphes the Chinese Exclusion 
law to the Philippines. 

August 24th. The Moros sign an agreement acknow- 
ledging the sovereignty of the United States over the entire 
Philippine Islands. 

The Moros of Western Mindanao are asking for per7nission 
to drive out the insurgents. 

August 28th. President McKinley makes a speech to the 
loth Pennsylvanian Regiment lately arrived from Manila. 
See Chapter XII. 

September ist. Fighting in Negros, American successes. 

September 14th. U.S. cruiser Charleston engages a gun 
mounted by the Filipinos at Olongapd, Subic Bay, and fired 
sixty-nine shells from her 8-inch guns without silencing the 
gun, notwithstanding that the Filipinos used black powder. 

September iSth. Some of the U.S. Civil Commission had 
already started to return ; remainder leave. 

September 23rd. A U.S. squadron, consisting of the 
Monterey, Charlestoti, Concord and Zafiro, bombarded the 
one-gun battery of the Filipinos at 01ongap6 for six hours, 
and then landed 250 men who captured and destroyed the 
gun which was 16-centimetre calibre. 

General Otis, in an interview, is reported to have stated 
that " Things are going very satisfactorily." 

September 28th. General McArthur captures Porac. 

September 30th. General Aguinaldo releases fourteen 
American prisoners. They looked well and hearty, and it 
was evident that they had been well treated. 

October 8th. General Schwan advanced against Noveleta 
and encountered a heavy resistance, but ultimately took the 
town and next day occupied Rosario. 

October i8th. War now said to be beginning in its most 
serious phase. The American troops, men and officers, said 
to be thoroughly discouraged by the futility of the operations 
ordered by General Otis. They feel that their lives are being 
sacrificed without anything being accomplished. 

October 28th. 17,000 sick and tired soldiers have been 
sent home and replaced by 27,000 fresh men. 34,000 arc 
on the way or under orders. Total will be 65,000 men and 
forty ships of war. 

October 31st. General Otis reports to the War Depart- 
ment that the continuance of the rainy season still harasses 
the prosecution of the campaign. 

Count Almenas, speaking in the Spanish Senate, said that 
through the ignorance of the Peace Commission the Batanes 


1899. Islands, Cagayan Sulu, and Sibutu were not included in the 
scope of the treaty. 

November 7th, General Wheaton, with an American force 
lands at San Fabian [Panjjasinan] and marches towards 
Dagupan, driving the Filipinos before him. 

November i3lh. Tarlac captured by the Americans under 
Colonel Bell. Telegrams from Manila state, "A careful 
review of the situation made on the spot justifies the predic- 
tion that all organised hostile operations on a definite plan 
are at an end." 

November 14th. The U.S. cruiser Charleston lost on the 
Guinapak rocks to the north of Luzon, and the crew land on 
Camiguin Island. 

November 28th. The province of Zamboanga [Mindanao] 
said to have surrendered unconditionally to the commander 
of the gunboat Castine. 

December 20th. General Lawton shot by the insurgents 
at San Mateo whilst personally directing the crossing of the 
river by two battalions of the 29th U.S. infantr}\ 

1900, January 20th. The Filipinos capture a pack train of twenty 

ponies in the Laguna Province. American losses, two killed, 
five wounded, nine missing. 

Februaiy 15th. American newspapers report many cases 
of insanity amongst the U.S. soldiers. 

February 20th. General Otis signifies to the War Depart- 
ment his desire for leave of absence from Manila to recruit 
his health. 

March 30th. The bubonic plague, extending in Luzon, 
and appears in other islands of the Archipelago. Cases 
suspected to be leprosy reported amongst the U.S. troops. 

Independent reports represent the situation in the Philip- 
pines as most unsatisfactory. The islands are practically in 
a state of anarchy. 

April 6th. The War Department issues an order recalling 
General Otis, because his work has been accomplished, and 
appoints General McArthur in his place. 

May 1st. Judge Canty, of Minnesota, makes a report 
upon the condition of the Philippines. 

He says : "All the native tribes, except a small band of 
Macabebes and the Sulu Mahometans, are against us, and 
hate the Americans worse than the Spaniards. . . . The 
American soldiers are undergoing terrible hardships, and 
are a prey to deadly tropical diseases."' 

June 2nd. General McArthur asks for more troops, and at 
least three regiments are to be sent. 

June 14th. Rear- Admiral Raney cables for another 
battalion of marines. 

June 15th. Macaboulos, a Filipino chieftain, surrenders 
at Tarlac with 8 officers and 120 rifiemen. 

June 17th. A regiment of infantr)' and a batter}' of 
artillery embark at Manila for China. 

June 19th. It is reported that, in all, 5000 men are to be 
sent from Manila to China. 

June 20th. But to-day, the idea prevails in Washington 


1900. that, under present conditions, every soldier in the Philip- 
pines is needed there. 

July 27. Negotiations are being carried on between Spain 
and the United States for the cession by the former to the 
latter of the Sibutu and Cagayan Islands on payment of a 
sum of $100,000. 

August 4th. The Filipinos kill or capture a lieutenant of 
Engineers and fifteen soldiers. 

August 8th. Miss Margaret Astor Chanler, who was 
engaged in Red Cross work in Manila, declares that the 
hospitals are inadequate. This is contirmed by the Wash- 
ington correspondent of the World. He says 3700 men are 
now in hospital, and large numbers are unable to find 
accommodation. Thousands who are down with fever and 
other diseases are without doctors or medical supplies. 
Eight per cent, of the entire force is incapacitated. 

August 15th. The Filipinos reported to be gaining 

The cost of the war said to be nearly ^40,000,000, 2394 
deaths, 3073 wounded. There are said to be still 70,000 
American troops in the Phihppines. The "goodwill" of the 
war cost ^4,000,000. 

August 19th. Censored news despatches from Manila 
show that the Filipinos are increasing their activity, and 
scorn the offers of amnesty. 

September ist. The Civil Commission in the Philippines, 
presided over by Judge Taft, assumes the direction of the 
Government. Judge Taft reports that the insurrection is 
virtually ended, and that a modus vivendi is established 
with the ecclesiastical authorities ! 

September 3rd. General McArthur cables that an out- 
break has occurred in Bohol, and that in an engagement 
near Carmen the Americans lost i killed and 6 wounded, and 
the Filipinos 120 killed. 

September 6th. The estimated cost of the Philippines to 
America is estimated at three-quarters of a million dollars 
per day. 

September 12th. The first public legislative session of the 
Civil Commission was held. Two million dollars (Mexican) 
were voted for the construction of roads and bridges, $5000 
for the expenses of a preliminary survey of a railroad between 
Dagupan and Benguet, and $5400 towards the expenses of 
the educational system. 

September 17th. General McArthur cables that Captain 
Mc(2uiston, who had become temporarily insane, shot a 
number of men of his company. The others, in self-defence, 
shot and killed the captain. 

September 20th. The Civil Commission reports that large 
numbers of the people in the Philippines are longing for 
peace, and are willing to accept the government of the 
United States. 

General McArthur cables reports of fighting in the Ilocos 
Provinces, from whence General Young telegraphs for rein- 
forcements, also in Bulacan, and in Tayabas. 


1900. A desperate engagement is fought in the Laguna Province, 

where the Americans made an attack upon the Filipino 
positions, and were repulsed with heavy loss, including 
Captain Mitchell and Lieutenant Cooper. 

The Filipinos arc constantly harassing and attacking the 
American outposts and garrisons around Manila, and have 
caused fourteen casualties amongst the troops. 



Customs Dues on Exports, 1896-97. 


Hemp or cordage . 
Indigo . 

Tintarron liquid indigo 

Cocoa-nuts or copra 
Tobacco in cigars or cigarettes 
Tobacco in leaf from the provinces of Cagayan 
Isabela, and Nueva Vizcaya in Luzon . 

„ from Visayas and Mindanao 

„ from any other province 

Estimated receipts from above tax in the 
financial year 1896-97 . . . $1,292,550 

Tax per loo kilos 

Gross Weight. 

S cts. 

















Extra Import Tax on Consumable Articles 

{This is in addition to the Customs dues.) 

o . . /In barrels or demijohns . per litre 
^P^"^^\ln bottles or flasks 

Beer ...... ,, 

Vegetables or fruits, dried or green . per kilog. 
Wheat flour . . . .per 100 kilog. 

Common salt .... „ 

Petroleum and mineral oils . „ 

S cts. 

o" 10 



I -GO 


Estimated receipts from above tax in the 

financial year 1896-97 .... $301,000 





























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Manila-Dagupan Railway. 

First Section — Manila to San Fernando. 

First sub-section, Manila to Polo. 
Second „ Polo to Guiguinto. 
Third „ Guiguinto to Calumpit. 

Fourth „ Calumpit to San Fernando. 

Second Section — San Fernafido to Tarlac. 

First sub-section, San Fernando to Angeles. 
Second „ Angeles to Bamban. 
Third „ Bamban to Capas. 

Fourth „ Capas to Tarlac. 

Third Section — Tarlac to Dagupan. 

First sub-section, Tarlac to Panique. 
Second „ Panique to Moncada. 
Third „ Moncada to Bayambang. 

Fourth „ Bayambang to San Carlos. 

Fifth ,, San Carlos to Dagupan. 


An Estimate of the Population of the Philippines 
IN 1890. 

Peninsular Spaniards, including the garrisons, friars, 

officials and private persons ..... 14,000 

Spaniards born in the islands 8,000 

Spanish mestizos . ....... 75,000 

Foreigners of white races ...... 2,000 

Foreign mestizos ........ 7,000 

Chinese ......... 125,000 

Chinese mestizos ........ 500,000 

Moros of Mindanao, J0I6, Tawi-tawi, Basilan, BaMbac, 

and other islands ....... 600,000 

Heathen in all the archipelago — Igorrotes, Manobos, 

Subanos, Montcses, Ibilaos, Aetas, Ifugaos, etc., etc. 800,000 

Christian natives . ....... 5,869,000 

Total ...... 8,000,000 

The above is taken from a pamphlet called ' Filipinas' Funda- 
mental Problem,' by a Spaniard long resident in those islands, 
published in Madrid, 1891, by D. Luis Aguado. The pamphlet itself 
is a violent attack on Rizal and those who sympathised with him, and 
holds out as the only remedy against insurrection the encouragement 
of Spanish immigration on an extensive scale. 


Estimate of Philippine Income 

Direct Taxes — 

Property tax, $140,280 ; industrial and commercial tax, 
$1,400,700; cedulas personales, * $5,600,000; capitation 
tax on Chinese, $510,190; acknowledgment of vassalage 
from outlaws and heathen, $20,000 ; tax of 10 per cent, on 
railway fares, $32,000 ; various surtaxes, $63,000 ; tax of 
10 per cent, on the pay of employes paid by local funds, 
$80,000 ; tax of lo per cent, on the pay of employes paid 
by the State, $650,000 ....... 8,496,170